Genome Mining of Streptomyces sp. YIM 130001 Isolated From Lichen Affords New Thiopeptide Antibiotic.
ABSTRACT: Streptomyces bacteria are recognized as an important source for antibiotics with broad applications in human medicine and animal health. Here, we report the isolation of a new lichen-associating Streptomyces sp. YIM 130001 from the tropical rainforest in Xishuangbanna (Yunnan, China), which displayed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis. The draft genome sequence of this isolate strain revealed 18 putative biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) for secondary metabolites, which is an unusually low number compared to a typical streptomycete. Inactivation of a lantibiotic dehydrogenase-encoding gene from the BGC presumed to govern biosynthesis of a thiopeptide resulted in the loss of bioactivity. Using comparative HPLC analysis, two peaks in the chromatogram were identified in the extract from the wild-type strain, which were missing in the extract from the mutant. The compounds corresponding to the identified peaks were purified, and structure of one compound was elucidated using NMR. The compound, designated geninthiocin B, showed high similarity to several 35-membered macrocyclic thiopeptides geninthiocin, Val-geninthiocin and berninamycin A. Bioinformatics analysis of the geninthiocin B BGC revealed its close homology to that of berninamycins.
Project description:Thiopeptides are members of the ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide family of natural products. Most characterized thiopeptides display nanomolar potency toward Gram-positive bacteria by blocking protein translation with several being produced at the industrial scale for veterinary and livestock applications. Employing our custom bioinformatics program, RODEO, we expand the thiopeptide family of natural products by a factor of four. This effort revealed many new thiopeptide biosynthetic gene clusters with products predicted to be distinct from characterized thiopeptides and identified gene clusters for previously characterized molecules of unknown biosynthetic origin. To further validate our data set of predicted thiopeptide biosynthetic gene clusters, we isolated and characterized a structurally unique thiopeptide featuring a central piperidine and rare thioamide moiety. Termed saalfelduracin, this thiopeptide displayed potent antibiotic activity toward several drug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. A combination of whole-genome sequencing, comparative genomics, and heterologous expression experiments confirmed that the thioamide moiety of saalfelduracin is installed post-translationally by the joint action of two proteins, TfuA and YcaO. These results reconcile the previously unknown origin of the thioamide in two long-known thiopeptides, thiopeptin and Sch 18640. Armed with these new insights into thiopeptide chemical-genomic space, we provide a roadmap for the discovery of additional members of this natural product family.
Project description:Lactazole A is a cryptic thiopeptide from Streptomyces lactacystinaeus, encoded by a compact 9.8?kb biosynthetic gene cluster. Here, we establish a platform for in vitro biosynthesis of lactazole A, referred to as the FIT-Laz system, via a combination of the flexible in vitro translation (FIT) system with recombinantly produced lactazole biosynthetic enzymes. Systematic dissection of lactazole biosynthesis reveals remarkable substrate tolerance of the biosynthetic enzymes and leads to the development of the minimal lactazole scaffold, a construct requiring only 6 post-translational modifications for macrocyclization. Efficient assembly of such minimal thiopeptides with FIT-Laz opens access to diverse lactazole analogs with 10 consecutive mutations, 14- to 62-membered macrocycles, and 18 amino acid-long tail regions, as well as to hybrid thiopeptides containing non-proteinogenic amino acids. This work suggests that the minimal lactazole scaffold is amenable to extensive bioengineering and opens possibilities to explore untapped chemical space of thiopeptides.
Project description:Nosiheptide (NOS), belonging to the e series of thiopeptide antibiotics that exhibit potent activity against various bacterial pathogens, bears a unique indole side ring system and regiospecific hydroxyl groups on the characteristic macrocyclic core. Here, cloning, sequencing, and characterization of the nos gene cluster from Streptomyces actuosus ATCC 25421 as a model for this series of thiopeptides has unveiled new insights into their biosynthesis. Bioinformatics-based sequence analysis and in vivo investigation into the gene functions show that NOS biosynthesis shares a common strategy with recently characterized b or c series thiopeptides for forming the characteristic macrocyclic core, which features a ribosomally synthesized precursor peptide with conserved posttranslational modifications. However, it apparently proceeds via a different route for tailoring the thiopeptide framework, allowing the final product to exhibit the distinct structural characteristics of e series thiopeptides, such as the indole side ring system. Chemical complementation supports the notion that the S-adenosylmethionine-dependent protein NosL may play a central role in converting tryptophan to the key 3-methylindole moiety by an unusual carbon side chain rearrangement, most likely via a radical-initiated mechanism. Characterization of the indole side ring-opened analogue of NOS from the nosN mutant strain is consistent with the proposed methyltransferase activity of its encoded protein, shedding light into the timing of the individual steps for indole side ring biosynthesis. These results also suggest the feasibility of engineering novel thiopeptides for drug discovery by manipulating the NOS biosynthetic machinery.
Project description:Thiopeptides, with potent activity against various drug-resistant pathogens, contain a characteristic macrocyclic core consisting of multiple thiazoles, dehydroamino acids, and a 6-membered nitrogen heterocycle. Their biosynthetic pathways remain elusive, in spite of great efforts by in vivo feeding experiments. Here, cloning, sequencing, and characterization of the thiostrepton and siomycin A gene clusters unveiled a biosynthetic paradigm for the thiopeptide specific core formation, featuring ribosomally synthesized precursor peptides and conserved posttranslational modifications. The paradigm generality for thiopeptide biosynthesis was supported by genome mining and ultimate confirmation of the thiocillin I production in Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579, a strain that was previously unknown as a thiopeptide producer. These findings set the stage to accelerate the discovery of thiopeptides by prediction at the genetic level and to generate structural diversity by applying combinatorial biosynthesis methods.
Project description:Thiopeptides are a growing class of sulfur-rich, highly modified heterocyclic peptides that are mainly active against Gram-positive bacteria including various drug-resistant pathogens. Recent studies also reveal that many thiopeptides inhibit the proliferation of human cancer cells, further expanding their application potentials for clinical use. Thiopeptide biosynthesis shares a common paradigm, featuring a ribosomally synthesized precursor peptide and conserved posttranslational modifications, to afford a characteristic core system, but differs in tailoring to furnish individual members. Identification of new thiopeptide gene clusters, by taking advantage of increasing information of DNA sequences from bacteria, may facilitate new thiopeptide discovery and enrichment of the unique biosynthetic elements to produce novel drug leads by applying the principle of combinatorial biosynthesis. In this study, we have developed a web-based tool ThioFinder to rapidly identify thiopeptide biosynthetic gene cluster from DNA sequence using a profile Hidden Markov Model approach. Fifty-four new putative thiopeptide biosynthetic gene clusters were found in the sequenced bacterial genomes of previously unknown producing microorganisms. ThioFinder is fully supported by an open-access database ThioBase, which contains the sufficient information of the 99 known thiopeptides regarding the chemical structure, biological activity, producing organism, and biosynthetic gene (cluster) along with the associated genome if available. The ThioFinder website offers researchers a unique resource and great flexibility for sequence analysis of thiopeptide biosynthetic gene clusters. ThioFinder is freely available at http://db-mml.sjtu.edu.cn/ThioFinder/.
Project description:Thiopeptide antibiotics are an important class of natural products resulting from posttranslational modifications of ribosomally synthesized peptides. Cyclothiazomycin is a typical thiopeptide antibiotic that has a unique bridged macrocyclic structure derived from an 18-amino-acid structural peptide. Here we reported cloning, sequencing, and heterologous expression of the cyclothiazomycin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces hygroscopicus 10-22. Remarkably, successful heterologous expression of a 22.7-kb gene cluster in Streptomyces lividans 1326 suggested that there is a minimum set of 15 open reading frames that includes all of the functional genes required for cyclothiazomycin production. Six genes of these genes, cltBCDEFG flanking the structural gene cltA, were predicted to encode the enzymes required for the main framework of cyclothiazomycin, and two enzymes encoded by a putative operon, cltMN, were hypothesized to participate in the tailoring step to generate the tertiary thioether, leading to the final cyclization of the bridged macrocyclic structure. This rigorous bioinformatics analysis based on heterologous expression of cyclothiazomycin resulted in an ideal biosynthetic model for us to understand the biosynthesis of thiopeptides.
Project description:Thiopeptides are small (12- to 17-amino-acid), heavily modified peptides of bacterial origin. This antibiotic family, with more than 100 known members, is characterized by the presence of sulfur-containing heterocyclic rings and dehydrated residues within a macrocyclic peptide structure. Thiopeptides, including micrococcin P1, have garnered significant attention in recent years for their potent antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and even protozoa. Micrococcin P1 is known to target the ribosome; however, like those of other thiopeptides, its biosynthesis and mechanisms of self-immunity are poorly characterized. We have discovered an isolate of Staphylococcus epidermidis harboring the genes for thiopeptide production and self-protection on a 24-kb plasmid. Here we report the characterization of this plasmid, identify the antimicrobial peptide that it encodes, and provide evidence of a target replacement-mediated mechanism of self-immunity.
Project description:GE2270 is a thiopeptide antibiotic generated by extensive posttranslational modifications of a ribosomally generated precursor peptide. Thiopeptides are especially active against Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In this study the GE2270 biosynthetic gene cluster (pbt) from Planobispora rosea ATCC 53733 was successfully expressed in the heterologous host strain Streptomyces coelicolor M1146. Notably, exconjugants containing the pbt gene cluster could only be obtained after deletion of the major part of the ribosomal genes flanking the gene cluster. This is a striking example that genes belonging to primary metabolism can prevent the successful conjugative transfer of DNA from phylogenetic distant species and thus complicate heterologous expression of secondary metabolite gene clusters. GE2270 production in the heterologous producer strain increased after introduction of the constitutive ermE* promoter upstream of the GE2270 resistance gene tuf from P. rosea. Insertion of the inducible tcp830 promoter resulted in inducible GE2270 production. When the regulatory gene pbtR was deleted, the resulting strain ceased to produce GE2270, suggesting an essential role of PbtR as a putative transcriptional activator of GE2270 expression.
Project description:Thiopeptide antibiotics are emerging clinical candidates that exhibit potent antibacterial activity against a variety of intracellular pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Many thiopeptides directly inhibit bacterial growth by disrupting protein synthesis. However, recent work has shown that one thiopeptide, thiostrepton (TSR), can also induce autophagy in infected macrophages, which has the potential to be exploited for host-directed therapies against intracellular pathogens, such as Mtb. To better define the therapeutic potential of this class of antibiotics, we studied the host-directed effects of a suite of natural thiopeptides that spans five structurally diverse thiopeptide classes, as well as several analogs. We discovered that thiopeptides as a class induce selective autophagic removal of mitochondria, known as mitophagy. This activity is independent of other biological activities, such as proteasome inhibition or antibiotic activity. We also find that many thiopeptides exhibit potent activity against intracellular Mtb in macrophage infection models. However, the thiopeptide-induced mitophagy occurs outside of pathogen-containing autophagosomes and does not appear to contribute to thiopeptide control of intracellular Mtb. These results expand basic understanding of thiopeptide biology and provide key guidance for the development of new thiopeptide antibiotics and host-directed therapeutics.
Project description:Thiopeptins are highly decorated thiopeptide antibiotics similar in structure to thiostrepton A and harbor two unusual features. All thiopeptins contain a thioamide, a rare moiety among natural products, and a subset of thiopeptins present with a piperidine in the core macrocycle rather than the more oxidated dehydropiperidine or pyridine rings typically observed in the thiopeptides. Here, we report the identification of the thiopeptin biosynthetic gene ( tpn) cluster in Streptomyces tateyamensis and the gene product, TpnL, which shows sequence similarity to (deaza)flavin-dependent oxidoreductases. Heterologous expression of TpnL in the thiostrepton A producer Streptomyces laurentii led to the production of a piperidine-containing analogue. Binding studies revealed that TpnL preferentially binds the deazaflavin cofactor coenzyme F420, and in vitro reconstitution of TpnL activity confirmed that this enzyme is an F420H2-dependent dehydropiperidine reductase. The identification of TpnL and its activity establishes the basis for the piperidine-containing series a thiopeptides, one of the five main structural groups of this diverse family of antibiotics.