ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:To date, a value set for the EQ-5D-5L based on the health state preferences of the general Taiwanese population has not been available. This study aimed to develop a Taiwanese value set for EQ-5D-5L to facilitate health technology assessment for medical products and services. METHODS:An international standardized protocol for EQ-5D-5L valuation studies developed by the EuroQol group was adopted. Adult members of the general public were recruited from six geographic regions in Taiwan. In computer-based face-to-face interviews, each participant completed 10 composite time trade-off (C-TTO) tasks and 7 discrete choice experiment (DCE) tasks. The C-TTO and DCE data were modeled alone or in combination (using hybrid models) with additive models containing 20 dummy variables as main effects. The model performance was assessed both quantitatively and qualitatively (mainly logical consistency and prediction patterns). RESULTS:Of 1,073 recruited participants, 1,000 completed the study. Approximately 13% of observed utility values were -1 in the C-TTO tasks. The hybrid model, using all available data that assumed C-TTO response values left-censored at -1 and with main effects coefficients with logical consistency (monotonicity), was considered as the most appropriate model. The predicted utility ranged from -1.0259 to 1. CONCLUSIONS:An EQ-5D-5L value set was developed for Taiwan using an established study protocol and a representative sample of the general population. This may facilitate health economic evaluations and decision making on resource allocation under Taiwan's national health insurance program in the future.
Project description:Value sets for the EQ-5D-5L are required to facilitate its use in estimating quality-adjusted life years. An international protocol has been developed to guide the collection of stated preference data for this purpose and has been used to generate EQ-5D-5L valuation data for England. The aim of this paper is report the innovative methods used for modelling those data to obtain a value set. Nine hundred and ninety-six members of the English general public completed time trade-off (TTO) and discrete choice experiment (DCE) tasks. We estimate models, with and without interactions, using DCE data only, TTO data only, and TTO/DCE data combined. TTO data are interpreted as both left and right censored. Heteroskedasticity and preference heterogeneity between individuals are accounted for. We use Bayesian methods in the econometric analysis. The final model is chosen based on the deviance information criterion (DIC). Censoring and taking account of heteroskedasticity have important effects on parameter estimation. For DCE data only, TTO data only, and DCE/TTO data combined, models with parameters for all dimensions and levels perform best, as judged by the DIC. Taking account of heterogeneity improves fit, and the multinomial model reports the lowest DIC. This paper presents approaches that suit observed characteristics of EQ-5D-5L valuation data and recognise respondents' preference heterogeneity. The methods described are potentially relevant to other value set studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:An international valuation protocol exists for obtaining societal values for each of the 3125 health states of the five-level EuroQol-five dimensions (EQ-5D-5L) questionnaire. A feedback module (FM) that can be related to theoretical models used in behavioral economics was recently included in this protocol. OBJECTIVES:Our objective was to assess the impact of using an FM to estimate an EQ-5D-5L value set in Hong Kong. METHODS:EQ-5D-5L health states were elicited using a composite time trade-off (C-TTO) and a discrete-choice (DC) experiment. Use of the FM according to participant characteristics and the impact of the FM on the number of inconsistent C-TTO responses were assessed. We employed a main-effects hybrid model that combined data from both elicitation techniques. RESULTS:In total, 1014 individuals completed the survey. The sample was representative of the general Chinese Hong Kong population in terms of sex, educational attainment, marital status, and most age groups but not for employment status. The use of the FM reduced the number of C-TTO inconsistencies. Participant characteristics differed significantly between those who used and did not use the FM. The model without a constant resulted in logical consistent coefficients and was therefore selected as the model to produce the value set. The predicted EQ-5D-5L values ranged from -0.864 to 1. CONCLUSIONS:The use of an FM to allow participants to exclude C-TTO responses reduced the number of inconsistent responses and improved the quality of the data when estimating an EQ-5D-5L value set in Hong Kong.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Our objective was to develop a value set based on Irish utility values for the EuroQol 5-Dimension, 5-Level instrument (EQ-5D-5L). METHODS:The research design and data collection followed a protocol developed by the EuroQol Group. The EuroQol Valuation Technology (EQ-VT) software was administered using computer-assisted personal interviews to a representative sample of adults resident in Ireland between 2015 and 2016. Utility values were elicited using two stated-preference techniques: time trade-off (TTO) and discrete-choice experiment (DCE). Each respondent completed a valuation exercise in which the EQ-VT system randomly selected one block of ten TTO questions from ten blocks relating to a possible 86 health states. One block of seven DCE pairs from 28 blocks of a possible 196 pairs of health states were randomly selected to accompany this. The relationship between utility values and health states was analysed using a hybrid regression model that combined data from the TTO and DCE techniques and expressed these as a function of the health state presented to the individual. This model estimated coefficients for 20 dummy variables that characterised each health state in the EQ-5D-5L framework, with the lowest level of severity providing the reference category in each domain. The relationship between weighted and unweighted TTO and DCE analyses of main effects was analysed separately. RESULTS:Comparison of weighted and unweighted models revealed no substantive differences in results with respect to either DCE or TTO models. The unweighted hybrid model produced estimated effects, the ordering of which was intuitively consistent within each domain: lower levels of health were associated with lower utility values. Differences were evident between domains with respect to valuations; the disutility associated with conditions related to anxiety/depression and pain/discomfort was higher than for other domains. The decrement in utility associated with movement from the highest to the lowest level of health was 0.344 for mobility, 0.287 for self-care, 0.187 for usual activities, 0.510 for pain/discomfort and 0.646 for anxiety/depression. DISCUSSION:The results present the first value set based on the EQ-5D-5L framework for a representative sample of residents in Ireland. The set reveals a higher decrement in utility associated with anxiety/depression than with other domains of health. Caution is warranted in comparisons with other value sets. That said, those in England, the Netherlands, Uruguay and China reveal that, whereas Irish values are broadly consistent with respect to mobility, self-care and usual activities, residents of Ireland attach a higher decrement to pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression than do other populations.
Project description:PURPOSE:The objective of this study was to develop an EQ-5D-5L value set based on the health preferences of the general adult population of Vietnam. METHODS:The EQ-VT protocol version 2.1 was applied. Multi-stage stratified cluster sampling was employed to recruit a nationally representative sample. Both composite time trade-off (C-TTO) and discrete choice experiment (DCE) methods were used. Several modelling approaches were considered including hybrid; tobit; panel and heteroscedastic models. First, models using C-TTO or DCE data were tested separately. Then possibility of combining the C-TTO and DCE data was examined. Hybrid models were tested if it was sensible to combine both types of data. The best-performing model was selected based on both the consistency of the results produced and the degree to which models used all the available data. RESULTS:Data from 1200 respondents representing the general Vietnamese adult population were included in the analyses. Only the DCE Logit model and the regular Hybrid model that uses all available data produced consistent results. As the priority was to use all available data if possible, the hybrid model was selected to generate the Vietnamese value set. Mobility had the largest effect on health state values, followed by pain/discomfort, usual activities, anxiety/depression and self-care. The Vietnam values ranged from?-?0.5115 to 1. CONCLUSION:This is the first value set for EQ-5D-5L based on social preferences obtained from a nationally representative sample in Vietnam. The value set will likely play a key role in economic evaluations and health technology assessments in Vietnam.
Project description:The EQ-5D is one of the most used generic health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) instruments worldwide. To make the EQ-5D suitable for use in economic evaluations, a societal-based value set is needed. Indonesia does not have such a value set.The aim of this study was to derive an EQ-5D-5L value set from the Indonesian general population.A representative sample aged 17 years and over was recruited from the Indonesian general population. A multi-stage stratified quota method with respect to residence, gender, age, level of education, religion and ethnicity was utilized. Two elicitation techniques, the composite time trade-off (C-TTO) and discrete choice experiments (DCE) were applied. Interviews were undertaken by trained interviewers using computer-assisted face-to-face interviews with the EuroQol Valuation Technology (EQ-VT) platform. To estimate the value set, a hybrid regression model combining C-TTO and DCE data was used.A total of 1054 respondents who completed the interview formed the sample for the analysis. Their characteristics were similar to those of the Indonesian population. Most self-reported health problems were observed in the pain/discomfort dimension (39.66%) and least in the self-care dimension (1.89%). In the value set, the maximum value was 1.000 for full health (health state '11111') followed by the health state '11112' with value 0.921. The minimum value was -0.865 for the worst state ('55555'). Preference values were most affected by mobility and least by pain/discomfort.We now have a representative EQ-5D-5L value set for Indonesia. We expect our results will promote and facilitate health economic evaluations and HRQOL research in Indonesia.
Project description:Inconsistency in the time trade-off (TTO) task in EQ-5D-5L occurs when a respondent gives a higher value to a logically worse health state, the occurrence of inconsistency compromises the quality of the data. It is not yet clear which factors are associated with individual level inconsistency. Relating inconsistency to the characteristics of the respondent, interviewer, and the interview process could be helpful in understanding the causes of inconsistency. The objective of this paper is to discover the factors associated with individual level inconsistencies.Twenty interviewers interviewed 1,296 respondents and each respondent valued 10 health states using the EQ-VT platform in 5 cities in China. At the respondent level, inconsistency was identified in terms of severity and quantity and related to the respondent's background characteristics, the time and iterations spent on the wheelchair example task, and the formal TTO tasks, using multilevel multinomial regression analyses. Interviewers' impact on inconsistencies was analyzed using single level multinomial regression analyses.In the full dataset, slight inconsistency was more related to the interview process (Time spent on TTO task: RRR = 1.246 with 95%CI: 1.076,1.441; time spent on Wheelchair example: RRR = 0.815 with 95%CI:0.699,0.952) while severe inconsistency was more related to respondent's gender (Gender: RRR = 2.347 with 95%CI:1.429,3.855). One Interviewer (Interviewer 7: RRR = 7.335 with 95%CI:1.908,28.195) and interviewer's experience (Sequence: RRR = 0.511 with 95%CI:0.385,0.678) in general showed strong influence over inconsistency in the TTO task.In conclusion, logical inconsistency in the valuation of EQ-5D-5L health states is associated not only with respondents' characteristics but also with interviewers' performance and the interview process. The role of interviewers and the importance of interviewer training may be more crucial than hitherto believed. This finding could be generalizable to other interviewer-administered health-state valuation study.
Project description:Objectives. To evaluate the impact of adding a respiratory dimension (a bolt-on dimension) to the EQ-5D-5L health state valuations. Methods. Based on extensive regression and principal component analyses, 2 respiratory bolt-on candidates were formulated: R1, limitations in physical activities due to shortness of breath, and R2, breathing problems. Valuation interviews for the selected bolt-ons were performed with a representative sample from the Dutch general public using the standardized interview protocol and software of the EuroQol group. Hybrid models based on the combined time-tradeoff (TTO) and discrete choice experiment (DCE) data were estimated to assess whether the 5 levels of the respiratory bolt-on led to significant changes in utility values. Results. For each bolt-on candidate, slightly more than 200 valuation interviews were conducted. Mean TTO values and DCE choice probabilities for health states with a level 4 or 5 for the respiratory dimension were significantly lower compared with the same health states in the Dutch EQ-5D-5L valuation study without the respiratory dimension. Results of hybrid models showed that for the bolt-on "limitations in physical activities," the utility decrements were significant for level 3 (-0.055), level 4 (-0.087), and level 5 (-0.135). For "breathing problems," the utility decrements for the same levels were greater (-0.086, -0.219, and -0.327, respectively). Conclusions. The addition of each of the 2 respiratory bolt-ons to the EQ-5D-5L had a significant effect on the valuation of health states with severe levels for the bolt-on. The bolt-on dimension "breathing problems" showed the greatest utility decrements and therefore seems the most appropriate respiratory bolt-on dimension.
Project description:PURPOSE:Measuring quality of life in acute asthmatics is challenging, especially when asthma attacks can occur sporadically. Several questionnaires can be used to measure quality of life in this patient group; however, psychometric testing is limited on questionnaires that can be used to estimate Quality Adjusted Life years. The objective of this study is to assess the construct validity (convergent and discriminative validity) and responsiveness of the EuroQol-5-Dimensions 5-Level (EQ-5D-5L), Asthma Quality of Life Utility Index-5 Dimensions (AQL-5D) and Time Trade-Off (TTO) in acute asthma patients. METHODS:Data from a prospective cohort study were used to test the validity and responsiveness of the EQ-5D-5L, AQL-5D and TTO in asthma patients who were recruited from UK accident & emergency departments or hospital wards. The spearman's rank correlation coefficient, the Kruskal-Wallis test statistic and the standardized response mean were used to test for convergent validity, discriminative validity and responsiveness, respectively. RESULTS:One hundred and twenty-one participants were included in the available case analysis. The EQ-5D-5L and AQL-5D showed moderate to strong correlations for convergent validity at baseline, week 4 and week 8. The AQL-5D and TTO showed moderate correlations at week 4 and week 8. No statistical significance was observed for discriminative validity at baseline. Both the EQ-5D-5L and the AQL-5D also showed that they were sensitive to change for the recovery responses. CONCLUSIONS:The EQ-5D-5L and AQL-5D showed stronger construct validity and responsiveness compared to the TTO. Therefore, both the EQ-5D-5L and AQL-5D should be considered for use in future economic evaluations.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The importance of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is increasing and many healthcare authorities recommend the use of measures that account for both mortality and morbidity. This study will determine, for the first time in Romania, value sets for EuroQoL-five-dimensions-3-level (EQ-5D-3L) and EQ-5D-5L questionnaires and their population norms (study 1). It will also compare the HRQoL (measured with EQ-5D-5L) of Roma communities in Romania with that of the general population (study 2). METHODS AND ANALYSIS:Cross-sectional studies of face-to-face interviews conducted in representative samples of the Romanian general population and Romanian Roma communities. 1614 non-institutionalised adults older than 18 years will be interviewed using a computer-assisted interview for study 1. Participants will complete EQ-5D-3L and 5L, 13 composite time trade-off tasks (cTTO), 7 discrete choice experiment questions (DCE) and sociodemographic questions. For study 2, 606 non-institutionalised self-identified Roma people older than 18 years will be interviewed using a pencil-and-paper interview. Participants will complete EQ-5D-5L and the same sociodemographic questions as for study 1. The 3L value set will be estimated using econometric models and the cTTO data. cTTO and DCE data will be used for the 5L value set. Population norms will be reported by age and gender. The ORs for reporting different levels of problems and the most common health states in the population will be estimated. For study 2, t-tests and analysis of variance will be used to explore differences between groups in HRQoL and for each EQ-5D. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Ethics approval was given by the National Bioethics Committee of Medicines and Medical Devices Romania and Newcastle University's Research Ethics Committee. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals, presented at scientific conferences and on the project's website. The EQ-5D-5L anonymised datasets will be deposited in a centralised repository. Two public workshops with local authorities, physicians and patients' associations will be held.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) can be used to obtain latent scale values for the EQ-5D-Y, but these require anchoring at 0?=?dead to meet the conventions of quality-adjusted life year (QALY) estimation. The primary aim of this study is to compare four preference elicitation methods for obtaining anchors for latent scale EQ-5D-Y values. METHODS:Four methods were tested: visual analogue scale (VAS), DCE (with a duration attribute), lag-time time trade-off (TTO) and the location-of-dead (LOD) approach. In computer-assisted personal interviews, UK general public respondents valued EQ-5D-3L health states from an adult perspective and EQ-5D-Y health states from a 10-year-old child perspective. Respondents completed valuation tasks using all four methods, under both perspectives. RESULTS:349 interviews were conducted. Overall, respondents gave lower values under the adult perspective compared to the child perspective, with some variation across methods. The mean TTO value for the worst health state (33333) was about equal to dead in the child perspective and worse than dead in the adult perspective. The mean VAS rescaled value for 33333 was also higher in the child perspective. The DCE produced positive child perspective values and negative adult perspective values, though the models were not consistent. The LOD median rescaled value for 33333 was negative under both perspectives and higher in the child perspective. DISCUSSION:There was broad agreement across methods. Potential criteria for selecting a preferred anchoring method are presented. We conclude by discussing the decision-making circumstances under which utilities and QALY estimates for children and adults need to be commensurate to achieve allocative efficiency.