MicroRNA regulation of the major drug-metabolizing enzymes and related transcription factors.
ABSTRACT: Identifying novel mechanisms contributing to patient variability of drug response is a major goal of personalized medicine. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression by microRNA (miRNA) impacts a broad range of cellular processes, but knowledge of its regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) is more limited. This review provides an introduction to miRNA and their functionality and summarizes known miRNA regulation of DME families, including the cytochrome P450s, UDP-glucuronoslytransferases, glutathione-S-transferases, sulfotransferases and aldo-keto reductases, and the transcription factors known to be involved in DME regulation.
Project description:Inflammation and infection downregulate the activity and expression of cytochrome P450s (P450s) and other drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) involved in hepatic drug clearance. Schistosoma mansoni infection was reported to cause a downregulation of hepatic P450-dependent activities in mouse liver, but little is known about the specific enzymes affected or whether phase II DMEs are also affected. Here we describe the effect of murine schistosomiasis on the expression of hepatic P450s, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (Cpr), phase II drug metabolizing enzymes, and nuclear receptors at 30 and 45 days postinfection (dpi). Although the hepatic expression of some of these genes was altered at 30 dpi, we observed substantial changes in the expression of the majority of P450 mRNAs and proteins measured, Cpr protein, as well as many of the UDP-glucuronosyltransferases and sulfotransferases at 45 dpi. S. mansoni infection also altered nuclear receptor expression, inducing mRNA levels at 30 dpi and depressing levels at 45 dpi. S. mansoni evoked a T helper 2 (Th2) inflammatory response at 45 dpi, as indicated by the induction of hepatic Th2 cytokine mRNAs [interleukins 4, 5, and 13], whereas the hepatic proinflammatory response was relatively weak. Thus, chronic schistosomiasis markedly and selectively alters the expression of multiple DMEs, which may be associated with Th2 cytokine release. This would represent a novel mechanism of DME regulation in disease states. These findings have important implications for drug testing in infected mice, whereas the relevance to humans with schistosomiasis needs to be determined.
Project description:Mutations in genes encoding key players in oncogenic signaling pathways trigger specific downstream gene expression profiles in the respective tumor cell populations. While regulation of genes related to cell growth, survival, and death has been extensively studied, much less is known on the regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) by oncogenic signaling. Here, a comprehensive review of the available literature is presented summarizing the impact of the most relevant genetic alterations in human and rodent liver tumors on the expression of DMEs with a focus on phases I and II of xenobiotic metabolism. Comparably few data are available with respect to DME regulation by p53-dependent signaling, telomerase expression or altered chromatin remodeling. By contrast, DME regulation by constitutive activation of oncogenic signaling via the RAS/RAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade or via the canonical WNT/?-catenin signaling pathway has been analyzed in greater depth, demonstrating mostly positive-regulatory effects of WNT/?-catenin signaling and negative-regulatory effects of MAPK signaling. Mechanistic studies have revealed molecular interactions between oncogenic signaling and nuclear xeno-sensing receptors which underlie the observed alterations in DME expression in liver tumors. Observations of altered DME expression and inducibility in liver tumors with a specific gene expression profile may impact pharmacological treatment options.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) exhibit dramatic inter- and intra-individual variability in expression and activity. However, the mechanisms determining this variability have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological significance of DNA methylation in the regulation of DME genes by genome-wide integrative analysis. RESULTS: DNA methylation and mRNA expression profiles of human tissues and hepatoma cells were examined by microarrays. The data were combined with GEO datasets of liver tissues, and integrative analysis was performed on selected DME genes. Detailed DNA methylation statuses at individual CpG sites were evaluated by DNA methylation mapping. From analysis of 20 liver tissues, highly variable DNA methylation was observed in 37 DME genes, 7 of which showed significant inverse correlations between DNA methylation and mRNA expression. In hepatoma cells, treatment with a demethylating agent resulted in upregulation of 5 DME genes, which could be explained by DNA methylation status. Interestingly, some DMEs were suggested to act as tumor-suppressor or housekeeper based on their unique DNA methylation features. Moreover, tissue-specific and age-dependent expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A splicing variants was associated with DNA methylation status of individual first exons. CONCLUSIONS: Some DME genes were regulated by DNA methylation, potentially resulting in inter- and intra-individual differences in drug metabolism. Analysis of DNA methylation landscape facilitated elucidation of the role of DNA methylation in the regulation of DME genes, such as mediator of inter-individual variability, guide for correct alternative splicing, and potential tumor-suppressor or housekeeper.
Project description:The transcriptional regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters (here collectively referred to as DMEs) in the developing proximal tubule (PT) is not well understood. As in the liver, DME regulation in the PT may be mediated through nuclear receptors, which are thought to "sense" deviations from homeostasis by being activated by ligands, some of which are handled by DMEs, including drug transporters. Systems analysis of transcriptomic data during kidney development predicted a set of upstream transcription factors, including hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? (Hnf4a) and Hnf1a, as well as Nr3c1 (Gr), Nfe2l2 (Nrf2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (Ppar?), and Tp53. Motif analysis of cis-regulatory enhancers further suggested that Hnf4a and Hnf1a are the main transcriptional regulators of DMEs in the PT. Available expression data from tissue-specific Hnf4a knockout tissues revealed that distinct subsets of DMEs were regulated by Hnf4a in a tissue-specific manner. Chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with massively parallel DNA sequencing was performed to characterize the PT-specific binding sites of Hnf4a in rat kidneys at three developmental stages (prenatal, immature, adult), which further supported a major role for Hnf4a in regulating PT gene expression, including DMEs. In ex vivo kidney organ culture, an antagonist of Hnf4a (but not a similar inactive compound) led to predicted changes in DME expression, including among others Fmo1, Cyp2d2, Cyp2d4, Nqo2, as well as organic cation transporters and organic anion transporters Slc22a1 (Oct1), Slc22a2 (Oct2), Slc22a6 (Oat1), Slc22a8 (Oat3), and Slc47a1 (Mate1). Conversely, overexpression of Hnf1a and Hnf4a in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts, sometimes considered a surrogate for mesenchymal stem cells, induced expression of several of these proximal tubule DMEs, as well as epithelial markers and a PT-enriched brush border marker Ggt1. These cells had organic anion transporter function. Taken together, the data strongly supports a critical role for HNF4a and Hnf1a in the tissue-specific regulation of drug handling and differentiation toward a PT-like cellular identity. We discuss our data in the context of the "remote sensing and signaling hypothesis" (Ahn and Nigam, 2009; Wu et al., 2011).
Project description:Pharmacological activities of drugs are impaired during inflammation because of reduced expression of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme genes (DMEs) and their regulatory nuclear receptors (NRs): pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), and retinoid X receptor (RXR?). We have shown that a component of Gram-positive bacteria, lipoteichoic acid (LTA) induces proinflammatory cytokines and reduces gene expression of hepatic DMEs and NRs. LTA is a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) ligand, which initiates signaling by recruitment of Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP) to the cytoplasmic TIR domain of TLR2. To determine the role of TIRAP in TLR2-mediated regulation of DME genes, TLR2(+/+), TLR2(-/-), TIRAP(+/+), and TIRAP(-/-) mice were given LTA injections. RNA levels of the DMEs (Cyp3a11, Cyp2b10, and sulfoaminotransferase), xenobiotic NRs (PXR and CAR), and nuclear protein levels of the central NR RXR? were reduced ? 50 to 60% in LTA-treated TLR2(+/+) but not in TLR2(-/-) mice. Induction of hepatic cytokines (interleukin-1?, tumor necrosis factor-?, and interleukin-6), c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, and nuclear factor-?? was blocked in TLR2(-/-) mice. As expected, expression of hepatic DMEs and NRs was reduced by LTA in TIRAP(+/+) but not in TIRAP(-/-) mice. Of interest, cytokine RNA levels were induced in the livers of both the TIRAP(+/+) and TIRAP(-/-) mice, whereas LTA-mediated induction of serum cytokines was attenuated in TIRAP(-/-) mice. LTA-mediated down-regulation of DME genes was attenuated in hepatocytes from TLR2(-/-) or TIRAP(-/-) mice and in small interfering RNA-treated hepatocytes. Thus, the effect of TLR2 on DME genes in hepatocytes was mediated by TIRAP, whereas TIRAP was not involved in mediating the effects of TLR2 on cytokine expression in the liver.
Project description:Impairment of drug disposition in the liver during inflammation has been attributed to downregulation of gene expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and drug transporters. Inflammatory responses in the liver are primarily mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We have recently shown that activation of TLR2 or TLR4 by lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), respectively, leads to the downregulation of gene expression of DMEs/transporters. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this downregulation is not fully understood. The xenobiotic nuclear receptors, pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), regulate the expression of DMEs/transporter genes. Downregulation of DMEs/transporters by LTA or LPS was associated with reduced expression of PXR and CAR genes. To determine the role of CAR, we injected CAR(+/+) and CAR(-/-) mice with LTA or LPS, which significantly downregulated (~40%-60%) RNA levels of the DMEs, cytochrome P450 (Cyp)3a11, Cyp2a4, Cyp2b10, uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1a1, amine N-sulfotransferase, and the transporter, multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, in CAR(+/+) mice. Suppression of most of these genes was attenuated in LTA-treated CAR(-/-) mice. In contrast, LPS-mediated downregulation of these genes was not attenuated in CAR(-/-) mice. Induction of these genes by mouse CAR activator 1,4-bis-[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene was sustained in LTA- but not in LPS-treated mice. Similar observations were obtained in humanized CAR mice. We have replicated these results in primary hepatocytes as well. Thus, LPS can downregulate DME/transporter genes in the absence of CAR, whereas the effect of LTA on these genes is attenuated in the absence of CAR, indicating the potential involvement of CAR in LTA-mediated downregulation of DME/transporter genes.
Project description:The transcriptional regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters (here collectively referred to as DMEs) in the developing proximal tubule is not well understood. As in the liver, DME regulation in the PT may be mediated through nuclear receptors which are thought to “sense” deviations from homeostasis by being activated by ligands, some of which are handled by DMEs, including drug transporters. Systems analysis of transcriptomic data during kidney development predicted a set of upstream transcription factors, including Hnf4a and Hnf1a, as well as Nr3c1 (Gr), Nfe2l2 (Nrf2), Ppara, and Tp53. Motif analysis of cis-regulatory further suggested that Hnf4a and Hnf1a are the main transcriptional regulators in the PT. Available expression data from tissue-specific Hnf4a KO tissues revealed that distinct subsets of DMEs were regulated by Hnf4a in a tissue-specific manner. ChIP-seq was performed to characterize the PT-specific binding sites of Hnf4a in rat kidneys at three developmental stages (prenatal, immature, adult), which further supported a major role for Hnf4a in regulating PT gene expression, including DMEs. In ex vivo kidney organ culture, an antagonist of Hnf4a (but not a similar inactive compound) led to predicted changes in DME expression, including among others Fmo1, Cyp2d2, Cyp2d4, Nqo2, as well as organic cation transporters and organic anion transporters Slc22a1(Oct1), Slc22a2 (Oct2), Slc22a6 (Oat1), Slc22a8(Oat3), and Slc47a1(Mate1). Conversely, overexpression of Hnf1a and Hnf4a in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), sometimes considered a surrogate for mesenchymal stem cells, induced expression of several of these proximal tubule DMEs, as well as epithelial markers and a PT-specific brush border marker Ggt1. These cells had organic anion transporter function. Taken together, the data strongly supports a critical role for HNF4a and Hnf1a in the tissue-specific regulation of drug handling and differentiation toward a PT cellular identity. Hnf4a binding was examined in rat kidneys at three timepoints (E20, P13 and Adult) and p300 binding was examined in adult rat kidney cortex tissue using ChIP-seq. Four corresponding input DNA samples were used as controls for peak calling.
Project description:DNA methylation plays important roles in genome protection and the regulation of gene expression and it is associated with plants' responses to environments. DNA demethylases are very important proteins in DNA methylation regulation. In this study, we performed genome-wide and deep analysis of putative demethylases (DMEs) in pear. Seven DME genes were found in the pear genome and were defined as PbDME1?7 based on their domain organization. Results were supported by the gene structural characteristics and phylogenetic analysis. The gene structure of the DME genes were relatively complex and the DME7 proteins didn't contain the Perm_CXXC domain. The DME genes experienced a whole genome duplication event (WGD) that occurred in the ancestor genome of pear and apple before their divergence based on the Ks values. Expression results showed that high salinity stress could influence the expression level of DMEs and salt-responsive genes in Pyrus betulaefolia. Furthermore, the methylation levels of salt-responsive genes changed under salt stress treatment. Results suggested important roles of PbDME genes in response to salt stress and are useful for better understanding the complex functions of this DME genes, which will facilitate epigenetic studies in pear trees salt tolerance.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes (SCHHs) are the most common in vitro hepatocyte model used for studying hepatic drug disposition and hepatotoxicity. Targeted quantification of key DME and transporter protein expression is useful for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation of drug and xenobiotic clearance and developing corresponding PBPK models. However, established methods for comprehensive quantification of drug metabolizing enzyme (DMEs) and transporter expression in SCHHs are lacking. In this study, a targeted quantitative proteomic isotope dilution nanoLC-MS/MS method developed in our laboratory was adapted to quantify a panel of phase I & II DMEs and transporter proteins in SCHHs under basal and induced conditions. METHODS:SCHHs were treated with known inducers of DMEs (Rifampin: PXR activator, CITCO: CAR activator) and transporters (CDCA: FXR activator) or with vehicle control (DMSO) for 72?h. Membrane protein was isolated from the SCHHs using a membrane extraction kit and 30??g membrane protein was digested with trypsin. The resulting peptides were analyzed by isotope dilution nanoLC-MS/MS to quantify the DMEs and transporters. RESULTS:Using the method, we could quantify fourteen phase I and ten phase II DMEs, and twelve uptake/efflux transporters, under basal and induced conditions in the SCHHs. Analysis showed donor to donor variation in basal protein levels of CYP450s, UGTs and transporters, and that basal protein expression of CYP450s and UGTs was higher than that of transporters. In addition, induction of key proteins in response to rifampin, CITCO and CDCA was observed. DISCUSSION:We have successfully quantified protein abundance of multiple phase I and II DMEs and uptake and efflux transporters in SCHHs using a method previously developed in our laboratory. Our method is sufficiently sensitive to quantify inter-donor differences in protein concentrations at the basal level as well as changes in protein expression in response to endogenous and exogenous stimuli.
Project description:Herbal medicines and natural products used for maintenance of health or treatment of diseases have many biological effects, including altering the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of other medications. Daikenchuto (TU-100), an aqueous extract of ginger, ginseng, and Japanese green pepper fruit, is a commonly prescribed Kampo (Japanese herbal medicine) for postoperative ileus or bloating. The effects of TU-100 on drug metabolism have not been investigated. In this study, we analyzed the effect of TU-100 on expression of key drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and drug transporters (DTs) in murine liver and gastrointestinal tract using a dietary model. Liver, jejunum, and proximal colon were analyzed for phase I and II DMEs and DT mRNA expression by reverse transcription (RT) first by nonquantitative and followed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and protein expression. Liver, jejunum, and proximal colon expressed some identical but also unique DMEs and DTs. TU-100 increased the greatest changes in cytochrome (Cyp) 2b10 and Cyp3a11 and Mdr1a. Basal and TU-100 stimulated levels of DME and DT expression were gender-dependent, dose-dependent and reversible after cessation of TU-100 supplementation, except for some changes in the intestine. Quantitative Western blot analysis of protein extracts confirmed the quantitative PCR results.