Treatment with P28GST, a schistosome-derived enzyme, after acute colitis induction in mice: Decrease of intestinal inflammation associated with a down regulation of Th1/Th17 responses.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:P28GST, a 28Kd glutathione S-transferase enzymatic protein derived from a schistosome helminth prevents experimental colitis when administered subcutaneously in the presence of adjuvant by decreasing pro-inflammatory Th1/Th17 response. Given the antioxidant properties of P28GST, we evaluated its anti-inflammatory potential when administered locally after colitis induction in the absence of adjuvant. METHODS:Colitis was induced in BALB/c mice by rectal administration of TNBS, followed by two intraperitoneal injections of P28GST at day 1 and day 2. Mice were sacrificed 48h after TNBS administration and evaluated for macroscopic and histological scores, myeloperoxidase (MPO) quantification and cytokine messenger RNA expression in the colonic tissues. RESULTS:Both clinical and histological scores significantly decreased in mice treated with P28GST at 5 or 50?g/kg when compared to vehicle- treated mice. A significant reduction of MPO was detected in colonic tissues from P28GST-treated mice, similarly to mice treated with methylprednisolone as the reference treatment. Pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-1?, and IL-6, mRNA as well as serum levels were down-regulated in mice colonic tissues treated with P28GST at 5 or 50?g/kg. In addition, a significant decrease of mRNA expression levels of T-bet, and ROR-?, respective markers of Th1 and Th17 cells was observed. Whereas no significant effect was detected on Gata3 mRNA, a marker of Th2 cells, the Arg/iNOS mRNA levels significantly increased in P28GST-treated mice, suggesting the induction of M2 macrophages. CONCLUSIONS:These findings provide evidence that P28GST injected locally after colitis induction induces a potent decrease of colitis inflammation in mice, associated to downregulation of Th1/Th17 response, and induction of anti-inflammatory alternatively activated macrophages.
Project description:Crohn's disease (CD) is characterized by the activation of Th1 and Th17 cells and deficiency of regulatory T cells (Tregs), leading to intestine tissue injury and destruction. As a novel cytokine of the interleukin (IL)-1 family, the role and underlying mechanisms of IL-33 in CD remain poorly understood. Here, we assess the effects and mechanisms of IL-33 on the trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced experimental colitis that mimics human CD. We found that IL-33 levels were increased in the TNBS-treated mice, whereas recombinant IL-33 (rIL-33) administration substantially ameliorated TNBS-mediated colonic tissue injury and clinical symptoms of colitis. The protective effect of rIL-33 was partly associated with the markedly increased induction of Th2-type cytokines. Importantly, rIL-33 treatment resulted in prominently upregulated Foxp3 expression in the TNBS-treated mice, and depletion of Tregs significantly abrogated the impact of IL-33 on reducing the development of colitis. Notably, the level of CD103? dendritic cells (DCs), which promotes development of Tregs, is also increased in mesenteric lymph node and lamina propria of rIL-33-treated mice. The impact of rIL-33 on CD103? DC induction was the result of indirectly upregulating intestine epithelial cells that produce thymic stromal lymphopoietin and retinoic acid but do not directly act on DCs. In conclusion, our data provide clear evidence that IL-33 plays a protective role in TNBS-induced colitis, which is closely related to a Th1-to-Th2/Treg switch. Thus, IL-33 is a promising candidate for the development of new treatments for CD.
Project description:There is an epidemiological inverse relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and Crohn's disease (CD). However, whether H. pylori plays a protective role against CD remains unclear. Since 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis is thought to resemble CD, we investigated whether H. pylori can attenuate TNBS-induced colitis in mice. Here we show that H. pylori can attenuate the severity of TNBS-induced colitis. In addition, H. pylori not only down-regulates Th17 and Th1 cytokine expression, but can up-regulate Th2 cytokine expression and increase the Th2:Th17 ratio of CD4+ T in the colonic mucosa of TNBS-induced colitis. Our results indicate that H. pylori attenuates TNBS-induced colitis mainly through increasing Th2 cells in murine colonic mucosa. Our finding offers a novel view on the role of H. pylori in regulating gastrointestinal immunity, and may open a new avenue for development of therapeutic strategies in CD by making use of asymptomatic H. pylori colonization.
Project description:During colitis, activation of two inflammatory T cell subsets, Th17 and Th1 cells, promotes ongoing intestinal inflammatory responses. n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid- (PUFA-) derived eicosanoids, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), promote Th17 cell-mediated inflammation, while n-3 PUFA antagonize both Th17 and Th1 cells and suppress PGE2 levels. We utilized two genetic mouse models, which differentially antagonize PGE2 levels, to examine the effect on Th17 cells and disease outcomes in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- (TNBS-) induced colitis. Fat-1 mice contain the ?3 desaturase gene from C. elegans and synthesize n-3 PUFA de novo, thereby reducing the biosynthesis of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids. In contrast, Fads1 Null mice contain a disrupted ?5 desaturase gene and produce lower levels of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids. Compared to Wt littermates, Fat-1 and Fads1 Null mice exhibited a similar colitic phenotype characterized by reduced colonic mucosal inflammatory eicosanoid levels and mRNA expression of Th17 cell markers (IL-17A, ROR??, and IL-23), decreased percentages of Th17 cells and, improved colon injury scores (P ? 0.05). Thus, during colitis, similar outcomes were obtained in two genetically distinct models, both of which antagonize PGE2 levels via different mechanisms. Our data highlight the critical impact of n-6 PUFA-derived eicosanoids in the promotion of Th17 cell-mediated colonic inflammation.
Project description:Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that obesity-associated inflammation increases disease activity during colitis, attributed in part to the effects of Th17 cells. Using a model of concurrent obesity and colitis, we monitored changes in critical immune cell subsets and inflammatory biomarker expression in three key tissues: visceral adipose tissue, colon (local inflammatory site) and spleen (systemic inflammatory site), and we hypothesized that n-3 PUFA would reduce the percentage of inflammatory immune cell subsets and suppress inflammatory gene expression, thereby improving the disease phenotype. Obesity was induced in C57BL/6 mice by feeding a high fat (HF) diet (59.2% kcal) alone or an isocaloric HF diet supplemented with fish oil (HF-FO) for 12 weeks. Colitis was induced via a 2.5% trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) enema. The HF-FO diet improved the obese phenotype by reducing i) serum hormone concentrations (leptin and resistin), ii) adipose tissue mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IFN?, IL-6, IL17F and IL-21) and iii) total (F4/80? CD11b?) and inflammatory adipose tissue M1 (F4/80? CD11c?) macrophage content compared to HF (P<0.05). In addition, the HF-FO diet reduced both colitis-associated disease severity and colonic mRNA expression of the Th17 cell master transcription factor (ROR??) and critical cytokines (IL-6, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-23 and IFN?) versus HF (P<0.05). Compared to HF, the percentage of both splenic Th17 and Th1 cells were reduced by the HF-FO group (P<0.05). Under ex vivo polarizing conditions, the percentage of HF-FO derived CD4? T cells that reached Th17 cell effector status was suppressed (P?=?0.05). Collectively, these results indicate that n-3 PUFA suppress Th1/Th17 cells and inflammatory macrophage subsets and reconfigure the inflammatory gene expression profile in diverse tissue sites in obese mice following the induction of colitis.
Project description:Indigo naturalis (also known as Qing-dai, or QD), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used as an anticolitis regimen in the clinical practice of Chinese medicine. However, the precise mechanisms behind its efficacy remain unknown. We investigated the protective effects and associated molecular mechanisms of QD in DSS-induced colitis in mice. We found that QD administration attenuated DSS-induced colon shortening, tissue damage, and the disease activity index during the onset of colitis. Moreover, QD administration significantly suppressed colonic MPO activity and increased the activities of colonic T-SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px, as well the expression of p-AMPK and Nrf-2 in colon tissues of colitic mice. In addition, QD was capable of reducing the colonic Th1 and Th17 cell cytokines, the frequencies of Th1 and Th17 cells, and the phosphorylation of p-STAT1 and p-STAT3 in the mesenteric lymph nodes of colitic mice. An in vitro assay showed that QD significantly suppressed the differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells. These findings suggest that QD has the potential to alleviate experimental colitis by suppressing colonic oxidative stress and restraining colonic Th1/Th17 responses, which are associated with activating AMPK/Nrf-2 signals and inhibiting STAT1/STAT3 signals, respectively. These findings also support QD as an effective regimen in the treatment of IBD.
Project description:Our aim was to determine the contribution of proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR(2))-expressing bone marrow-derived cells on the development of colonic inflammation.Chimeric mice were generated by injecting bone marrow cells from wildtype (PAR (2) (+/+) ) or PAR(2) knockout mice (PAR (2) (-/-) ) into irradiated PAR (2) (+/+) or PAR (2) (-/-) mice.Colitis was induced by giving 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) solution for 7 days or by a single intracolonic administration of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS, 2 mg dissolved in 40% ethanol).Seven days after the induction of colitis, bowel thickness, inflammatory parameters [myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, macroscopic/microscopic damage scores], and leukocyte trafficking (visualized via intravital microscopy) were assessed.Total deficiency of PAR(2) resulted in a marked reduction in severity of both TNBS and DSS induced colitis as assessed by MPO activity, macroscopic damage, bowel thickness, and leukocyte adherence. Colitis was attenuated in all chimeric lines in which there was loss of PAR(2) in the host, non-bone marrow-derived tissue, independent of the status of PAR expression by bone marrow-derived cells. Interestingly, TNBS colitis was attenuated in PAR (2) (+/+) chimeric mice with PAR (2) (-/-) derived bone marrow but these animals were not protected from DSS colitis.Expression of PAR(2) by host-derived tissues plays a dominant role in regulating colonic inflammation. PAR(2) expression by bone marrow-derived cells appears to play a role in TNBS colitis but not in DSS induced injury.
Project description:To investigate the protective effect of a recombinant adeno-associated virus carrying thymosin ?4 (AAV-T?4) on murine colitis via intracolonic administration.AAV-T?4 was prepared and intracolonically used to mediate the secretory expression of T?4 in mouse colons. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) was applied to induce the murine ulcerative colitis, and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) was used to establish a mouse colitis model resembling Crohn's disease. The disease severity and colon injuries were observed and graded to reveal the effects of AAV-T?4 on colitis. The activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined using biochemical assays. Colonic levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-10 were measured using ELISA, and mucosal epithelial cell apoptosis and proliferation were detected by TUNEL assay and immunochemistry, respectively.Recombinant AAVs efficiently delivered LacZ and T?4 into the colonic tissues of the mice, and AAV-T?4 led to a strong expression of T?4 in mouse colons. In both the DSS and TNBS colitis models, AAV-T?4-treated mice displayed distinctly attenuated colon injuries and reduced apoptosis rate of colonic mucosal epithelia. AAV-T?4 significantly reduced inflammatory cell infiltrations and relieved oxidative stress in the inflamed colons of the mice, as evidenced by decreases in MPO activity and MDA content and increases in SOD activity. AAV-T?4 also modulated colonic TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-10 levels and suppressed the compensatory proliferation of colonic epithelial cells in DSS- and TNBS-treated mice.T?4 exerts a protective effect on murine colitis, indicating that AAV-T?4 could potentially be developed into a promising agent for the therapy of inflammatory bowel diseases.
Project description:This study focuses on characterizing the effect of a high salt diet (HSD) on intestinal immunity and the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We found that mice on a HSD had an increased frequency of IL-17A producing cells in the intestinal lamina propria (LP) compared to mice on a normal diet (ND). Furthermore, most intestinal IL-17A producing cells were CD4+TCR?+ cells. A HSD increased the LP T helper 17 (Th17) responses in both the small and large intestines but did not increase the Th17 response of other gut-associated lymphoid organ. Although, HSD did not change the percentage of regulatory T (Treg) cells, HSD significantly inhibit secretion of IL-10 and the suppressive function of Treg cells. Moreover, we found that HSD exacerbates trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis, and Th17 response was significantly increased in the colonic LP of HSD TNBS-treated mice compared with the ND TNBS-treated mice. This study demonstrates that HSD stimulates the intestinal Th17 response but inhibits the function of Treg cells. Moreover, HSD exacerbates TNBS induced mice colitis, suggesting that HSD disrupts the intestinal immunity and increases the risk of IBD.
Project description:Helminth infections and their components have been shown to have a protective effect on autoimmune diseases. The isolated purified protein from Schisotosoma japonicum and its potential therapeutic effect on trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis could provide an alternative way to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBDs).Colitis was induced in Balb/c mice by rectal administration of 2.5% TNBS, followed by intraperitoneal injection of rSjcystatin 50 ?g at 6 h and 24 h afterwards. The inflammation was monitored by recording weight change, stool character and bleeding, colon length, macroscopic score (MAO), microscopic score (MIO), myeloperoxidase activity (MPO) and disease activity index (DAI). The potential underlying mechanism was investigated by examining cytokine profiles including Th1 (IFN?), Th2 (IL-4), Th17 (IL-17A) and Treg subsets from lymphocytes of spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and intestinal lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) by flow cytometry. The mRNA relative expressions of the cytokines in splenocytes and MLN were analysed by quantitative real time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Simultaneously, the concentrations of the cytokines in the colon homogenate supernatants were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and key transcription factors were detected by Western blotting.Administration of rSjcystatin significantly reduced inflammatory parameters and ameliorated the severity of the TNBS-induced colitis through decreasing IFN? in three organs and lifting the level of IL-4, IL-13, IL-10, and TGF-? in the colon tissues, with uptrending Tregs in the MLN and LPMC.The findings provide evidence that rSjcystatin has a therapeutic potential for diminishing colitis inflammation in Balb/c mice. The immunological mechanism may involve the down-regulation of Th1 response and up-regulation of Th2 and Tregs in the MLN and colon.
Project description:Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) synthesis is enhanced in the colonic mucosa in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). BLT1, a high-affinity receptor for LTB4, exhibits no effect on the progression of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, which mostly relies on innate immunity. Here, we reported that BLT1 regulates trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis, which reflects CD4+ T-cell-dependent adaptive immune mechanisms of IBD. We found that BLT1 signaling enhanced the progression of colitis through controlling the production of proinflammatory cytokines by dendritic cells (DCs) and modulating the differentiation of Th1 and Th17. BLT1-/- mice displayed an alleviated severity of TNBS-induced colitis with reduced body weight loss and infiltrating cells in the lamina propria. BLT1 deficiency in DCs led to reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-?, and IL-12, and these results were further confirmed via treatment with a BLT1 antagonist. The impaired cytokine production by BLT1-/- DCs subsequently led to reduced Th1 and Th17 differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. We further performed a conditional DC reconstitution experiment to assess whether BLT1 in DCs plays a major role in regulating the pathogenesis of TNBS-induced colitis, and the results indicate that BLT1 deficiency in DCs also significantly reduces disease severity. The mechanistic study demonstrated that BLT1-regulated proinflammatory cytokine production through the G?i ?? subunit-phospholipase C? (PLC?)-PKC pathway. Notably, we found that treatment with the BLT1 antagonist also reduced the production of proinflammatory cytokines by human peripheral blood DCs. Our findings reveal the critical role of BLT1 in regulating adaptive immunity and TNBS-induced colitis, which further supports BLT1 as a potential drug target for adaptive immunity-mediated IBD.