Advances in risk assessment and prophylaxis for central nervous system relapse in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
ABSTRACT: Central nervous sytem recurrence of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is an uncommon but devastating event, making identification of patients at high risk for relapse within the central nervous system essential for clinicians. Modern risk stratification includes both clinical and biological features. A validated clinical risk model employing the five traditional International Prognostic Index risk factors plus renal or adrenal involvement can identify a high-risk patient population with a central nervous system recurrence risk of greater than 10%. Lymphoma involvement of certain discrete extranodal sites such as the testis also confers increased risk, even in stage I disease. Adverse biological risk factors for central nervous system relapse include presence of translocations of MYC, BCL2 and/or BCL6, in so-called double- or triple-hit lymphoma. Immunohistochemically detectable co-expression of MYC and BCL2 in the absence of translocations also portends an increased risk of relapse within the central nervous system, particularly in the setting of the activated B-cell-like subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The role, method, and timing of prophylactic therapy remain controversial based on the available data. We review both intrathecal and systemic strategies for prophylaxis in high-risk patients. Our preference is for systemic methotrexate in concert with standard chemoimmunotherapy in the majority of cases. Several novel agents have also demonstrated clinical activity in primary and secondary central nervous system lymphoma and warrant future investigation in the prophylactic setting.
Project description:Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients have a 5% overall risk of central nervous system events (relapse or progression), which account for high morbidity and frequently fatal outcomes,1 and shortened overall survival of <6 months.2 Early diagnosis of central nervous system events is critical for successful treatment and improved prognosis. Identification of patients at risk of central nervous system disease is critical to accurately identify candidates for central nervous system prophylaxis vs. THERAPY:3-5 This report by the Spanish Lymphoma Group (GELTAMO) aims to provide useful guidelines and recommendations for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients with, or at risk of, leptomeningeal and/or brain parenchyma lymphoma relapse. A panel of lymphoma experts working on behalf of GELTAMO reviewed all data published on these topics available in PubMed up to May 2016. Recommendations were classified according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach.6 A practical algorithm based on the proposed recommendations was then developed (Figure 1). Initial discussions among experts were held in May 2014, and final consensus was reached in June 2016. The final manuscript was reviewed by all authors and the Scientific Committee of GELTAMO.
Project description:Central nervous system (CNS) relapse carries a poor prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Integrating biomarkers into the CNS-International Prognostic Index (CNS-IPI) risk model may improve identification of patients at high risk for developing secondary CNS disease. CNS relapse was analyzed in 1418 DLBCL patients treated with obinutuzumab or rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone chemotherapy in the phase 3 GOYA study. Cell of origin (COO) was assessed using gene-expression profiling. BCL2 and MYC protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The impact of CNS-IPI, COO, and BCL2/MYC dual-expression status on CNS relapse was assessed using a multivariate Cox regression model (data available in n = 1418, n = 933, and n = 688, respectively). High CNS-IPI score (hazard ratio [HR], 4.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-12.3; P = .02) and activated B-cell?like (ABC) (HR, 5.2; 95% CI, 2.1-12.9; P = .0004) or unclassified COO subtypes (HR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.5-11.7; P = .006) were independently associated with CNS relapse. BCL2/MYC dual-expression status did not impact CNS relapse risk. Three risk subgroups were identified based on the presence of high CNS-IPI score and/or ABC/unclassified COO (CNS-IPI-C model): low risk (no risk factors, n = 450 [48.2%]), intermediate risk (1 factor, n = 408 [43.7%]), and high risk (both factors, n = 75 [8.0%]). Two-year CNS relapse rates were 0.5%, 4.4%, and 15.2% in the respective risk subgroups. Combining high CNS-IPI and ABC/unclassified COO improved CNS relapse prediction and identified a patient subgroup at high risk for developing CNS relapse. The study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01287741.
Project description:Primary breast diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PB-DLBCL) is a rare subtype of DLBCL with limited data on patterns of failure. This multicenter study aimed to define the optimum treatment strategy and patterns of failure for PB-DLBCL patients. We retrospectively reviewed data on 108 PB-DLBCL patients from 21 Chinese medical centers. Only patients with localized disease (involvement of breast and localized lymph nodes) were included. After a median follow-up of 3.2 years, 32% of patients developed progression or relapse. A continuous pattern of relapse was observed, characterized by frequent late relapses in the contralateral breast and central nervous system (CNS). Although rituximab significantly reduced the overall cumulative risk of progression or relapse (5-year cumulative risk 57% vs 24%, P = .029), it had limited effect on the reduction of breast relapse (P = .46). Consolidative radiotherapy significantly decreased the risk of breast relapse, even in the subgroup of patients treated with rituximab (5-year cumulative risk 21.2% vs 0%, P = .012). A continuous risk of CNS progression or relapse up to 8.2 years from diagnosis was observed (10-year cumulative risk 28.3%), with a median time to CNS relapse of 3.1 years. Neither rituximab nor prophylactic intrathecal chemotherapy significantly decreased the risk of CNS relapse. In summary, our study indicates that PB-DLBCL has a continuous pattern of relapse, especially with frequent late relapses in the CNS and contralateral breast. Rituximab and RT confer complementary benefit in the reduction of relapse. However, neither the addition of rituximab nor prophylactic intrathecal chemotherapy could effectively prevent CNS relapse for PB-DLBCL patients.
Project description:Double-hit B-cell lymphoma is a common designation for a group of tumors characterized by concurrent translocations of MYC and BCL2, BCL6, or other genes. The prognosis of concurrent MYC and BCL6 translocations is not well known. In this study, we assessed rearrangements and expression of MYC, BCL2 and BCL6 in 898 patients with de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with standard chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone plus rituximab). Neither BCL6 translocation alone (more frequent in activated B-cell like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) nor in combination with MYC translocation (observed in 2.0% of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) predicted poorer survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients with MYC/BCL6 co-expression did have significantly poorer survival, however, MYC/BCL6 co-expression had no effect on prognosis in the absence of MYC/BCL2 co-expression, and had no additive impact in MYC+/BCL2+ cases. The isolated MYC+/BCL6+/BCL2- subset, more frequent in germinal center B-cell like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, had significantly better survival compared with the isolated MYC+/BCL2+/BCL6- subset (more frequent in activated B-cell like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma). In summary, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients with either MYC/BCL6 rearrangements or MYC/BCL6 co-expression did not always have poorer prognosis; MYC expression levels should be evaluated simultaneously; and double-hit B-cell lymphoma needs to be refined based on the specific genetic abnormalities present in these tumors.
Project description:Activating mutations in CD79 and MYD88 have recently been found in a subset of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), identifying B-cell receptor and MYD88 signalling as potential therapeutic targets for personalized treatment. Here, we report the prevalence of CD79B and MYD88 mutations and their relation to established clinical, phenotypic and molecular parameters in a large panel of DLBCLs. We show that these mutations often coexist and demonstrate that their presence is almost mutually exclusive with translocations of BCL2, BCL6 and cMYC, or Epstein-Bar virus infection. Intriguingly, MYD88 mutations were by far most prevalent in immune-privileged site-associated DLBCL (IP-DLBCL), presenting in central nervous system (75%) or testis (71%) and relatively uncommon in nodal (17%) and gastrointestinal tract lymphomas (11%). Our results suggest that MYD88 and CD79B mutations are important drivers of IP-DLBCLs and endow lymphoma-initiating cells with tissue-specific homing properties or a growth advantage in these barrier-protected tissues.
Project description:BCL2 and MYC are oncogenes commonly deregulated in lymphomas. Concurrent BCL2 and MYC translocations (BCL2(+)/MYC(+)) were identified in 54 samples by karyotype and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization with the aim of correlating clinical and cytogenetic characteristics to overall survival. BCL2(+)/MYC(+) lymphomas were diagnosed as B-cell lymphoma unclassifiable (BCLU; n = 36) with features intermediate between Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL); DLBCL (n = 17), or follicular lymphoma (n = 1). Despite the presence of a t(14;18), 5 cases were BCL2 protein-negative. Nonimmunoglobulin gene/MYC (non-IG/MYC) translocations occurred in 24 of 54 cases (44%) and were highly associated with DLBCL morphology (P < .001). Over a median follow-up of 5.3 years, 6 patients remained in remission and 32 died within 6 months of the MYC(+) rearrangement, irrespective of whether MYC(+) occurred at diagnosis (31 of 54) or transformation (23 of 54; P = .53). A non-IG/MYC translocation partner, absent BCL2 protein expression and treatment with rituximab-based chemotherapy, were associated with a more favorable outcome, but a low International Prognostic Index score and DLBCL morphology were independent predictors of overall survival. A comprehensive cytogenetic analysis of BCL2 and MYC status on all aggressive lymphomas may identify a group of high-risk patients who may benefit from chemotherapeutic regimens that include rituximab and/or BCL2-targeted therapy.
Project description:In diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, first-line treatment with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone; salvage with cisplatin-based regimens for relapsing patients; and autologous stem cell therapy are standards of care. Treatment approaches are less clear for patients who are refractory or who are not candidates for autologous stem cell therapy. Options may include palliative regimens or clinical trial enrollment. One therapy under investigation in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is lenalidomide, an immunomodulatory agent with antiangiogenic activity.We present the case of a 55-year-old Caucasian male patient diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who had an early relapse after treatment with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone. He then had a subsequent early relapse after cisplatin-based salvage consolidated with autologous stem cell therapy. The efficacy of gemcitabine-cisplatin-rituximab was limited to five months, followed by systemic and central nervous system progression. Fourth-line treatment with lenalidomide plus rituximab and involved-field radiotherapy followed by lenalidomide monotherapy greatly improved this patient's quality of life and performance status, allowing over two years of progression-free survival to date (excluding a brief relapse due to treatment interruption).A lenalidomide-based regimen was highly effective in this patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Project description:Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma represents a biologically and clinically heterogeneous diagnostic category with well-defined cell-of-origin subtypes. Using data from the GOYA study (NCT01287741), we characterized the mutational profile of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and evaluated the prognostic impact of somatic mutations in relation to cell-of-origin. Targeted DNA next-generation sequencing was performed in 499 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue biopsies from previously untreated patients. Prevalence of genetic alterations/mutations was examined. Multivariate Cox regression was used to evaluate the prognostic effect of individual genomic alterations. Of 465 genes analyzed, 59 were identified with mutations occurring in at least 10 of 499 patients (?2% prevalence); 334 additional genes had mutations occurring in ?1 patient. Single nucleotide variants were the most common mutation type. On multivariate analysis, BCL2 alterations were most strongly associated with shorter progression-free survival (multivariate hazard ratio: 2.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.6 to 4.2). BCL2 alterations were detected in 102 of 499 patients; 92 had BCL2 translocations, 90% of whom had germinal center B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. BCL2 alterations were also significantly correlated with BCL2 gene and protein expression levels. Validation of published mutational subsets revealed consistent patterns of co-occurrence, but no consistent prognostic differences between subsets. Our data confirm the molecular heterogeneity of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, with potential treatment targets occurring in distinct cell-of-origin subtypes. clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01287741.
Project description:Central nervous system (CNS) relapse of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a devastating event occurring in ~ 5% of patients treated with R-CHOP. We hypothesized that adding lenalidomide to R-CHOP (R2CHOP) may decrease the risk of CNS relapse. We analyzed records for patients with DLBCL from two R2CHOP trials. We assessed variables pertinent to the CNS-International Prognostic Index (CNS-IPI) scoring system and classified patients into groups of low, intermediate, and high risk of CNS relapse. The 2-year CNS relapse rate for each risk group was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with reported rates in cohorts treated with contemporary chemoimmunotherapy. A total of 136 patients were included. Mean age was 65 and median follow-up was 48.2 months. 10.3, 71.3, and 18.4% of patients were classified into low, intermediate, and high-risk CNS-IPI groups, respectively. Only one of 136 patients developed CNS relapse, corresponding to an incidence of 0.7% and an estimated 2-year CNS relapse rate of 0.9% for the entire R2CHOP cohort. The estimated 2-year CNS relapse rates for the low, intermediate, and high-risk groups were 0, 0, and 5.0%, respectively. Frontline therapy with R2CHOP in patients with DLBCL is associated with a lower-than-expected rate of CNS relapse.
Project description:Central nervous system (CNS) lymphomatosis is a fatal complication of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). In lymphoblastic or Burkitt lymphoma, without specific CNS prophylaxis the risk of CNS relapse is 20-30%. DLBCL has a lower risk of relapse (around 5%) but several factors increase its incidence. There is no consensus or trials to conclude which is the best CNS prophylaxis. Best results seem to be associated with the use of intravenous (iv) high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX) but with a significant toxicity. Other options are the administration of intrathecal (IT) MTX, cytarabine or liposomal cytarabine (ITLC). Our aim is to analyze the experience of the centers of the Balearic Lymphoma Group (BLG) about the toxicity and efficacy of ITLC in the prophylaxis and therapy of CNS lymphomatosis. We retrospectively reviewed cases from 2005 to 2015 (n = 58) treated with ITLC. Our toxicity results were: 33% headache, 20% neurological deficits, 11% nausea, 9% dizziness, 4% vomiting, 4% fever, 2% transient blindness and 2% photophobia. In the prophylactic cohort (n = 26) with a median follow-up of 55 months (17-81) only 3 CNS relapses (11%) were observed (testicular DLBCL, Burkitt and plasmablastic lymphoma, with a cumulative incidence of 8%, 14% and 20% respectively). In the treatment cohort (n = 32), CSF complete clearance was obtained in 77% cases. Median OS was 6 months (0-16). Death causes were lymphoma progression (19 patients, 79%), treatment toxicity (2 patients) and non-related (3 patients, 12%). Toxicity profile was good especially when concomitant dexamethasone was administered. In the prophylactic cohort the incidence of CNS relapse in DLBCL group was similar to previously reported for HDMTX and much better than IT MTX. A high number of ITLC injections was associated with better rates of CSF clearance, clinical responses, PFS and lower relapses. Survival is still poor in CNS lymphomatosis and new therapeutic approaches are still needed.