Validating pre-treatment body mass index as moderator of antidepressant treatment outcomes: Findings from CO-MED trial.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Currently, there are no valid clinical or biological markers to personalize the treatment of depression. Recent evidence suggests that body mass index (BMI) may guide the selection of antidepressant medications with different mechanisms of action. METHODS:Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes (CO-MED) trial participants with BMI measurement (n = 662) were categorized as normal- or underweight (<25), overweight (25-<30), obese I (30-<35), and obese II+ (?35). Logistic regression analysis with remission as the dependent variable and treatment arm-by-BMI category interaction as the primary independent variable was used to evaluate if BMI differentially predicted response to escitalopram (SSRI) monotherapy, bupropion-escitalopram combination, or venlafaxine-mirtazapine combination, after controlling for gender and baseline depression severity. RESULTS:Remission rates among the three treatment arms differed on the basis of pre-treatment BMI (chi-square=12.80, degrees of freedom=6, p = .046). Normal- or under-weight participants were less likely to remit with the bupropion-SSRI combination (26.8%) than SSRI monotherapy (37.3%, number needed to treat or NNT = 9.5) or venlafaxine-mirtazapine combination (44.4%, NNT = 5.7). Conversely, obese II+ participants were more likely to remit with bupropion-SSRI (47.4%) than SSRI monotherapy (28.6%, NNT = 5.3) or venlafaxine-mirtazapine combination (37.7%, NNT = 10.3). Remission rates did not differ among overweight and obese I participants. LIMITATIONS:Secondary analysis, higher rates of obesity than the general population. CONCLUSIONS:Antidepressant selection in clinical practice can be personalized with BMI measurements. Bupropion-SSRI combination should be avoided in normal- or under-weight depressed outpatients as compared to SSRI monotherapy and venlafaxine-mirtazapine combination and preferred in those with BMI?35.
Project description:Sub-threshold hypomanic symptoms are common in major depressive disorder. This study evaluated the prevalence, the clinical and sociodemographic correlates, and the overall and differential effects of the presence/absence of sub-threshold hypomanic symptoms at baseline on acute-phase treatment outcomes with bupropion-plus-escitalopram combination, escitalopram monotherapy, and venlafaxine-plus-mirtazapine combination. Combining medications to enhance depression outcomes (CO-MED) trial participants (n = 665) were designated as sub-threshold hypomanic symptoms present (Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale score (ASRM) ≥ 1) or absent (ASRM = 0) and compared on clinical and sociodemographic features and remission rates. Participants with sub-threshold hypomanic symptoms (n = 335/665, 50.4%) were more likely to be black and non-Hispanic, have comorbid medical and psychiatric disorders, experience longer index episodes, and report lower depression severity and psychosocial impairment. Intent-to-treat remission rates were lower overall (absent = 42.7%, present = 34.0%, p = 0.02), with escitalopram monotherapy (absent = 45.8%, present = 31.6%, p = 0.03), and with venlafaxine-XR-plus-mirtazapine combination (absent = 44.4%, present = 30.1%, p = 0.03) but not with bupropion-plus-escitalopram combination (absent = 37.7%, present = 40.0%, p = 0.73). Participants without sub-threshold hypomanic symptoms were more likely to remit than those with such symptoms overall [odds ratio (OR) = 1.49], with escitalopram monotherapy (OR = 1.71), and with venlafaxine-plus-mirtazapine combination (OR = 1.97) but not with bupropion-plus-escitalopram combination (OR = 0.96), even after controlling for baseline depression severity, psychosocial impairment, and number of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Sub-threshold hypomanic symptoms (found in about 50% of patients in this report) were associated with lower remission rates with escitalopram monotherapy and with venlafaxine-plus-mirtazapine combination but not with the bupropion-plus-escitalopram combination.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Interleukin 17 (IL-17) is produced by highly inflammatory Th17 cells and has been implicated in pathophysiology of depression. IL-17 putatively disrupts the blood brain barrier and affects dopamine synthesis whereas dopamine has been shown to decrease Th17 cell-mediated immune response. Nevertheless, whether IL-17 can predict differential treatment outcome with antidepressants modulating dopaminergic transmission is unknown. METHODS:IL-17 and other T cell and non-T cell markers (Th1, Th2 and non-T cell markers) were measured with the Bioplex Pro™ human cytokine 27-plex kit in the Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes (CO-MED) trial participants who provided baseline plasma and were treated with either bupropion plus escitalopram (bupropion-SSRI), escitalopram plus placebo (SSRI monotherapy), or venlafaxine plus mirtazapine (n=166). Differential changes in symptom severity and side-effects based on levels of IL-17 and other T and non-T cell markers were tested using a treatment-arm-by-biomarker interaction in separate repeated measures mixed model analyses. Subsequent analyses stratified by treatment arm were conducted for those markers with a significant interaction. RESULTS:There was a significant treatment-arm-by-IL-17 interaction for depression severity (p=0.037) but not for side-effects (p=0.28). Higher baseline IL-17 level was associated with greater reduction in depression severity (effect size=0.78, p=0.008) in the bupropion-SSRI but not the other two treatment arms. Other T and non-T cell markers were not associated with differential treatment outcomes. CONCLUSION:Higher baseline levels of IL-17 are selectively associated with greater symptomatic reduction in depressed patients treated with bupropion-SSRI combination.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Weight gain as an adverse effect of monotherapy of antidepressant has been well-studied. The effects of augmentation therapy involving multiple antidepressants, on weight changes needs to be adequately addressed. OBJECTIVE: To study the co-medication effects of bupropion in combination with six individual antidepressants on body mass index (BMI) using EMR based data analysis. METHODS: Allscripts data warehouse was used to identify patients on monotherapy of five selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) drugs, escitalopram, sertraline, citalopram, paroxetine, fluoxetine, one selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) duloxetine and the aminoketone, bupropion for at least 180 days. We also identified patients on co-medication of SSRI/SNRI drugs with bupropion. Six ANCOVA models were built to compare the short term effects on BMI, among monotherapy and co-medication groups. The patients' clinical conditions and demographics were included to account for confounding effects. RESULTS: Monotherapy of all the SSRI/SNRI drugs showed significant weight increase, consistent with that of previous studies. The co-medication of bupropion and escitalopram showed a significantly higher increase in BMI than monotherapy (P = 0.0102). The increase in BMI in the other five co-medication groups was not significantly different from their respective monotherapy groups. CONCLUSION: Our study reports an adverse weight gain on co-medication of escitalopram and bupropion, which warrants further validation studies. Considering co-medication effects of antidepressants on weight is important to design robust depression treatment plans.
Project description:Background:Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often comorbid with metabolic diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. A potential link between these disorders is adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived circulating hormone with insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory, and neuroplasticity effects. Reductions in plasma levels of adiponectin have been reported in both humans with depression and in the chronic-defeat mouse model of depression. However, the predictive value of adiponectin for treatment response to depression has not been determined. Methods:We investigated the potential predictive effect of baseline adiponectin levels in patients who provided plasma and were undergoing one of three pharmacological treatments (escitalopram monotherapy; escitalopram plus bupropion; and venlafaxine plus mirtazapine) in the Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes clinical trial (n=160). Specifically, we assessed whether adiponectin moderates-that is, differentially predicts-treatment response among the treatment arms. Improvements with treatment were assessed using change in the clinician-rated 30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C) from baseline through week 12. Moderator effects were tested using separate pairwise repeated measures mixed-effects models with a treatment-arm-by-adiponectin interaction. Results:Baseline adiponectin levels moderated treatment outcome between two combination therapies. Specifically, low adiponectin predicted better response to escitalopram plus bupropion compared to venlafaxine plus mirtazapine, whereas high adiponectin predicted better response to venlafaxine plus mirtazapine compared to escitalopram plus bupropion (F=4.84, p=0.03). Adiponectin levels did not correlate with baseline depression severity (r=-0.03, p=.59). Conclusions:Antidepressant selection for patients with MDD can be personalized using pre-treatment blood-based biomarkers, such as adiponectin, thereby improving treatment outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Elevated S100 calcium binding protein B (S100B) levels in systemic circulation may induce neuroinflammation and reflect greater blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. Neuroinflammation in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), in turn, may reduce likelihood of improvement with serotonergic antidepressants. METHODS:Levels of S100B were measured in plasma samples obtained prior to initiation of treatment with bupropion-plus-escitalopram, escitalopram-plus-placebo, or venlafaxine-plus-mirtazapine in participants of Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes trial (n = 153). Depression severity was measured with 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report and anhedonia was measured with 3 items of 30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology. Differential changes in depression severity and anhedonia over acute-phase (baseline, weeks 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12) in the three treatment arms were tested with logS100B-by-treatment-arm interaction in mixed model analyses after controlling for age, gender, and body mass index. RESULTS:There was a significant logS100B-by-treatment-arm interaction for anhedonia (F = 3.21; df = 2, 142; p = 0.04) but not for overall depression severity (F = 1.99; df = 2, 142; p = 0.14). Higher logS100B levels were associated with smaller reductions in anhedonia (effect size = 0.67, p = 0.047) in escitalopram monotherapy but not in the other two arms. Correlation coefficients of anhedonia severity averaged over acute-phase (including baseline) with baseline S100B levels were 0.57, -0.19, and 0.22 for escitalopram monotherapy, bupropion-plus-escitalopram and venlafaxine-plus-mirtazapine arms respectively. CONCLUSION:Higher baseline S100B levels in depressed patients resulted in poorer response to escitalopram monotherapy. Addition of bupropion, a dopaminergic antidepressant, partially mitigated this effect.
Project description:Obesity and major depressive disorder often co-occur. However, differences between obese and normal-weight depressed patients and the moderating effect of obesity on antidepressant treatment outcome are not well studied.Adults (n = 662) with major depressive disorder in the Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes study were randomized to treatment with escitalopram plus placebo, bupropion plus escitalopram, or venlafaxine plus mirtazapine for a 12-week primary treatment phase and 16-week follow-up. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated at baseline and categorized according to World Health Organization criteria: normal or low weight (NW), overweight, Obese I and Obese II+. A repeated-effects model, unadjusted and adjusted for baseline variables, assessed outcomes.Obesity was common (46.2%), only 25.5% were NW. Higher BMI was associated with greater medical illness (p < .001), social phobia (p = .003), and bulimia (p = .026). Lower BMI was associated with more frequent post-traumatic stress disorder (p = .002) and drug abuse (p < .001). Treatment outcomes did not differ including Week 12 remission rates (NW 36%, overweight 40%, Obese I 43%, Obese II+ 37%; p = .69). Lower BMI was associated with more frequent (p = .024 [unadjusted] and .053 [adjusted]) and more severe (p = .008 [unadjusted] and .053 [adjusted]) adverse effects.BMI was related to clinical presentation and prevalence of comorbidities, but not antidepressant outcomes. Lower BMI classes had more psychiatric comorbidities, potentially obscuring the relationship between BMI and antidepressant effects. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00590863.
Project description:Platelet derived growth factor is integral to maintenance of blood brain barrier, increases in response to blood brain barrier disruption, and may reflect neuroinflammation. Based on previous reports of better outcomes with dopaminergic antidepressants in depressed patients with elevated inflammatory biomarkers, we hypothesize that elevated peripheral platelet derived growth factor levels can serve as a powerful biomarker for selecting dopaminergic antidepressants.Platelet derived growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and granulocyte colony stimulating factor were measured as part of Bioplex Pro human cytokine 27-plex kit in participants of the Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes trial who provided baseline plasma (n=166) and were treated with either bupropion-plus-escitalopram, escitalopram-plus-placebo, or venlafaxine-plus-mirtazapine. Differential changes in overall symptom severity and anhedonia as well as side effects were tested with a treatment-arm-by-biomarker interaction in mixed model analyses. Effect of biomarkers with significant interaction was calculated in subsequent analyses stratified by treatment arm.There was a significant treatment-arm-by-platelet derived growth factor interaction for depression severity (P=.03) and anhedonia (P=.008) but not for side effects (P=.44). Higher baseline platelet derived growth factor level was associated with greater reduction in depression severity (effect size=0.71, P=.015) and anhedonia (effect size=0.66, P=.02) in the bupropion- selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor but not the other two treatment arms. There was no significant treatment-arm-by-biomarker interaction for both depression severity and side effects with the other two biomarkers.As compared with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor monotherapy or venlafaxine-plus-mirtazapine, bupropion-plus-escitalopram selectively improves anhedonia, which in turn results in improved overall depression severity in depressed patients with elevated platelet derived growth factor levels.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Currently, no valid measures inform treatment selection for depressed patients. Whether C-reactive protein (CRP) in particular and two other acute phase reactants (inflammatory markers) could differentiate between patients responding to either of two treatments with different mechanisms of action was assessed. METHOD:Subjects included Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes (CO-MED) trial participants randomly assigned to either escitalopram plus placebo (SSRI monotherapy, n=51) or bupropion plus escitalopram combination (bupropion-SSRI combination, n=55) with baseline plasma samples. CRP, serum amyloid P component, and alpha-2-macroglobulin were measured using the Bioplex Pro™ human acute-phase 4-plex panel. We conducted mixed model analyses of depressive symptom (Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report) and side-effect burden (Frequency, Intensity, and Burden of Side-Effects Rating Scale) obtained weekly or every other week over the 12-week acute-phase of CO-MED trial to evaluate the relationship between these outcomes and baseline CRP and other acute-phase reactants. RESULTS:The treatment arms did not differ in depressive symptom or side effect outcomes. Most participants (69.8%, 74/106) had baseline CRP levels greater than 1mg/L (indicative of systemic inflammatory activity). Higher baseline CRP levels were associated lower depression severity (correlation coefficient=-0.63) with bupropion-SSRI combination but not with SSRI monotherapy (correlation coefficient=0.40). The overall remission rate was 41.5%. The estimated remission rate with CRP threshold based assignment (SSRI monotherapy for <1mg/L and Bupropion-SSRI for ?1mg/L) was 53.1%, with a number needed to treat of 8.6. Side effect burden was unrelated to any baseline inflammatory marker. CONCLUSIONS:Baseline CRP levels relate differentially to antidepressant treatment outcomes in persons with major depressive disorder. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00590863.
Project description:Prior studies suggest that women who use antidepressants during pregnancy have an increased risk for preeclampsia, yet the comparative safety of specific antidepressants remains unclear. US nationwide Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) data have not been used to study medication safety during pregnancy.We identified 100,942 pregnant women with depression from 2000 to 2007 MAX data. We used pharmacy dispensing records to ascertain exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), serotonin-norepenephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), tricyclic, bupropion, other antidepressant monotherapy or polytherapy, and specific antidepressants, during the second trimester and first half of the third trimester. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were adjusted for delivery year, preeclampsia risk factors, depression severity proxies, other antidepressant indications, other medications, and healthcare utilization.The risk of preeclampsia was 5.4% among women with depression and no antidepressant exposure. Compared with these women, the risk for preeclampsia was higher among those receiving SNRI (RR: 1.52, 95% CI = 1.26-1.83) and tricyclic monotherapy (RR: 1.62, 95% CI = 1.23-2.12), but not SSRI monotherapy (RR: 1.00, 95% CI = 0.93-1.07) or other antidepressants. Compared with women receiving SSRI monotherapy, preeclampsia risk was higher among women with SNRI (RR: 1.54, 95% CI = 1.28-1.86) and tricyclic (RR: 1.64, 95% CI = 1.25-2.16) monotherapy. None of the specific SSRIs was associated with preeclampsia. The RR with venlafaxine was 1.57 (95% CI = 1.29-1.91) and with amitriptyline 1.72 (95% CI = 1.24-2.40).In this population, SNRIs and tricyclics were associated with a higher risk of preeclampsia than SSRIs.
Project description:Metabolomics is a developing and promising tool for exploring molecular pathways underlying symptoms of depression and predicting depression recovery. The AbsoluteIDQ™ p180 kit was used to investigate whether plasma metabolites (sphingomyelins, lysophosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylcholines, and acylcarnitines) from a subset of participants in the Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes (CO-MED) trial could act as predictors or biologic correlates of depression recovery. Participants in this trial were assigned to one of three pharmacological treatment arms: escitalopram monotherapy, bupropion-escitalopram combination, or venlafaxine-mirtazapine combination. Plasma was collected at baseline in 159 participants and again 12 weeks later at study exit in 83 of these participants. Metabolite concentrations were measured and combined with clinical and sociodemographic variables using the hierarchical lasso to simultaneously model whether specific metabolites are particularly informative of depressive recovery. Increased baseline concentrations of phosphatidylcholine C38:1 showed poorer outcome based on change in the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (QIDS). In contrast, an increased ratio of hydroxylated sphingomyelins relative to non-hydroxylated sphingomyelins at baseline and a change from baseline to exit suggested a better reduction of symptoms as measured by QIDS score. All metabolite-based models performed superior to models only using clinical and sociodemographic variables, suggesting that metabolomics may be a valuable tool for predicting antidepressant outcomes.