Cationic Silver Nanoclusters as Potent Antimicrobials against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria.
ABSTRACT: Bacterial multidrug resistance (MDR) is a serious healthcare issue caused by the long-term subtherapeutic clinical treatment of infectious diseases. Nanoscale engineering of metal nanoparticles has great potential to address this issue by tuning the nano-bio interface to target bacteria. Herein, we report the use of branched polyethylenimine-functionalized silver nanoclusters (bPEI-Ag NCs) to selectively kill MDR pathogenic bacteria by combining the antimicrobial activity of silver with the selective toxicity of bPEI toward bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration of bPEI-Ag NCs was determined against 12 uropathogenic MDR strains and found to be 10- to 15-fold lower than that of PEI and 2- to 3-fold lower than that of AgNO3 alone. Cell viability and hemolysis assays demonstrated the biocompatibility of bPEI-Ag NCs with human fibroblasts and red blood cells, with selective toxicity against MDR bacteria.
Project description:Silver exposure is toxic to fish due to disturbances of normal gill function. A proposed toxicity mechanism of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is derived from the release of silver ions, similar to silver nitrate (AgNO3). However, some datasets support the fact that AgNP can have unique toxic effects that are mediated at the gill. To determine if differences between AgNO3 and AgNP toxicities exist, fathead minnows were exposed to 20 nm PVP- or citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (PVP-AgNP; citrate-AgNP) at the nominal concentration of 200 μg/L or AgNO3 at nominal 6 μg/L for 96 hr. This nominal concentration was applied to approximate the dissolved fraction of Ag in the AgNP suspensions. Mucus production in the water was measured. While mucus production was initially significantly increased in the first 4 h of exposure in all silver treatments compared to control, a decrease in mucus production was observed following 24-96 h of exposure. To determine which genes/pathways are driving this shift in mucus production, gills were dissected and microarray analysis was performed. Hierarchal clustering of differentially expressed genes revealed that all samples distinctly clustered by treatment. There were 109 differentially expressed genes shared among all Ag treatments compared to controls. However, there were 185, 423, and 615 differentially expressed genes unique to AgNO3, PVP-AgNP, and citrate-AgNP, relative to control. While functional analysis indicated several common enriched pathways, such as aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling, this analysis also indicated some unique pathways between nanosilver and AgNO3. Our results show that AgNO3, PVP-AgNP, and citrate-AgNP exposure affected mucus production in fish gills and also lead to common and unique transcriptional changes. Overall design: To explore the effects of silver and silver nanoparticles on fathead minnow gills, we explored cellular transcriptional responses following exposure of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) to either AgNO3, citrate or PVP-coated silver nanoparticles. After 96h of exposure, total RNA was isolated from samples RNeasy (Qiagen, Valencia, CA, USA) for microarray analysis. Three to five replicates were used per treatment.
Project description:While the discovery of numerous attractive properties of silver at the nanoscale has increased their demand in many sectors including medicine, optics, sensing, painting and cosmetics, it has also raised wide public concerns about their effect on living organisms in aquatic environment. Despite the continuous effort to understand the various aspects of the toxicity of silver nanomaterials, the molecular level understanding on their cytotoxicity mechanism to biological organisms has remained unclear. Herein, we demonstrated the underlying mechanism of the photosynthetic toxicity against green algae namely, Scenedesmus obliquus by using an emerging silver nanomaterial, called silver nanoclusters (defined as r-Ag NCs). By exploiting the unique fluorescence properties of r-Ag NCs along with various other analytical/biological tools, we proposed that the photosynthetic toxicity of r-Ag NCs was largely attributed to the "joint-toxicity" effect of particulate form of r-Ag NCs and its released Ag+, which resulted in the disruption of the electron transport chain of light reaction and affected the content of key enzymes (RuBP carboxylase/ oxygenase) of Calvin cycle of algae cells. We believe that the present study can also be applied to the assessment of the ecological risk derived from other metal nanoparticles.
Project description:Due to its antimicrobial activity, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are among the most used NPs worldwide, yet little information is available regarding their effects, particularly in soil dwelling organisms. Enchytraeids (Oligochaeta) are important members of the soil fauna which actively contribute to the acceleration of organic matter decomposition and nutrient recycling processes. Hence, for hazard and risk assessment it is important to provide toxicity data for these organisms and to understand more in regard to the mode of action of Ag-NPs within organism. To study this we conducted toxicity experiments using the OECD standard guideline, testing Ag-NPs and AgNO3, having assessed survival, reproduction and differential gene expression. Population toxicity responses were assessed showing higher toxicity for the AgNO3. In an attempt to understand the mode of action we performed transcription profiling using the microarray. Gene expression profile of Enchytraeus albidus was analysed after 2 days of exposure to 100 and 200 mg/kg of two silver forms (nanoparticles and salt_silver nitrate) in OECD soil. Three biological replicates per test treatment and control (clean OECD soil) were used.
Project description:Understanding the mode of action of nanomaterials (NMs) aids in improving predictions and environmental risk assessment. In the present study, a high-throughput (HTP) microarray was used to study Enchytraeus crypticus gene expression. Four Ag materials (Ag NM300K, PVP-coated AgNPs, AgNPs, and AgNO3) were tested at reproduction effect concentrations, EC20 and EC50, to anchor gene expression responses to higher effect level. The results showed that while PVP-AgNPs and AgNPs had similar responses, Ag NM300K caused effects via a differentiated transcriptomic profile, with uniquely affected processes (e.g. transcytosis). For the AgNPs, the EC50 negatively affected apoptosis, which can lead to accumulation of abnormal cells and cause apical damage (reproduction). Mechanisms which are known to be related to Ag toxicity and which were observed here for the various Ag forms included apoptosis regulation, cell redox homeostasis, impairment of energy production and response to DNA damage. This HTP genomic tool enabled discrimination between Ag materials, which is not possible via standard tests (i.e. survival and reproduction endpoints). Moreover, gene expression analysis provided information regarding the mechanisms of toxicity of NMs and the pathways uniquely affected by NMs. An adverse outcome pathway (AOP) was drafted for the first time for Ag NMs; this AOP can and should be used as a basis for further research. Overall design: Gene expression profile of Enchytraeus crypticus was analysed after 3 and 7 days of exposure to the EC20 and EC50 (effect concentrations on reproduction) of three silver nanomaterials (Ag-NPs PVP-Coated, Ag-NPs Non-Coated and Ag NM300K) and silver salt (AgNO3) in LUFA 2.2 soil. Three biological replicates per test treatment and controls (un-spiked LUFA soil for AgNO3, Ag-NPs PVP-Coated and Ag-NPs Non-Coated; and LUFA soil mixed with the NM300K dispersants _tween 20 for the Ag NM300K) were used.
Project description:Emerging antibiotic-resistant bacteria result in increased mortality and have negative economic impacts. It is necessary to discover new strategies to create alternative antibacterial agents that suppress the bacterial resistance mechanism and limit the spread of serious infectious bacterial diseases. Silver nanoparticles may represent a new medicinal agents as alternative antibiotics affect different bacterial mechanisms such as virulence and resistance. In addition to that of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and ampicillin, for the first time, the inhibitory effect of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Desertifilum sp. (D-SNPs) was evaluated against five pathogenic bacteria using the agar well diffusion method. Also, the influence of D-SNPs and AgNO3 on bacterial antioxidant and metabolic activities was studied. The antibacterial activity of D-SNPs and AgNO3 against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains was studied at the morphological and molecular level. D-SNPs and AgNO3 have the ability to inhibit the growth of the five bacterial strains and resulted in an imbalance in the CAT, GSH, GPx and ATPase levels. MRSA treated with D-SNPs and AgNO3 showed different morphological changes such as apoptotic bodies formation and cell wall damage. Moreover, both caused genotoxicity and denaturation of MRSA cellular proteins. Additionally, TEM micrographs showed the distribution of SNPs synthesized by MRSA. This result shows the ability of MRSA to reduce silver nitrate into silver nanoparticles. These data indicate that D-SNPs may be a significant alternative antibacterial agent against different bacteria, especially MDR bacteria, by targeting the virulence mechanism and biofilm formation, leading to bacterial death.
Project description:Once metal-based engineered nanoparticles (NPs) are released into the aquatic environment, they are expected to interact with other existing co-contaminants. A knowledge gap exists as to how the interaction of NPs with other co-contaminants occurs. Here we selected ZnO NPs among various NPs, with Ag ion existing as a contaminant in the aquatic environment by Ag NPs widely used. A novel modeling strategy was demonstrated enabling quantitative and predictive evaluation of the aqueous mixture nanotoxicity. Individual and binary mixture toxicity tests of ZnO NPs and silver (as AgNO3) on Daphnia magna were conducted and compared to determine whether the presence of Ag ions affects the toxicity of ZnO NPs. Binary mixture toxicity was evaluated based on the concentration addition (CA) and independent action models. The CA dose-ratio dependent model was found to be the model of best fit for describing the pattern of mixture toxicity. The MIX I and MIX III suspensions (higher ratios of ZnO NPs to AgNO3) showed a synergism, whereas the MIX II suspension (lower ratio of ZnO NPs to AgNO3) showed an antagonism. The synergistic mixture toxicity at higher ratios of ZnO NPs to AgNO3 was caused by either the physiological or metabolic disturbance induced by the excessive ionic Zn or increased transport and accumulation in D. magna via the formation of complex of ionic Ag with ZnO NPs. Therefore, the toxicity level contributed via their aggregation and physicochemical properties and the dissolved ions played a crucial role in the mixture toxicities of the NPs.
Project description:Applications for silver nanomaterials in consumer products are rapidly expanding, creating an urgent need for toxicological examination of the exposure potential and ecological effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The integration of genomic techniques into environmental toxicology has presented new avenues to develop exposure biomarkers and investigate the mode of toxicity of novel chemicals. In the present study we used a 15k oligonucleotide microarray for Daphnia magna, a freshwater crustacean and common indicator species for toxicity, to differentiate between particle specific and ionic silver toxicity and to develop exposure biomarkers for citrate-coated and PVP-coated AgNPs. Gene expression profiles revealed that AgNO3 and AgNPs have distinct expression profiles suggesting different modes of toxicity. However, the gene expression profiles of the different coated AgNPs were similar revealing similarities in the cellular effects of these two particles. Major biological processes disrupted by the AgNPs include protein metabolism and signal transduction. In contrast, AgNO3 caused a downregulation of developmental processes, particularly in sensory development. Metal responsive and DNA damage repair genes were induced by the PVP AgNPs, but not the other treatments. In addition, two specific biomarkers were developed for the environmental detection of PVP AgNPs; although further verification under different environmental conditions is needed. We exposed Daphnia magna to the 1/10 LC50 and LC25 of citrate coated and PVP-coated Ag nanoparticles and Ag+ as AgNO3 for 24-h. For each exposure condition, we performed 6 replicate exposures with 5 individuals in each. All exposures were compared to a unexposed laboratory control.
Project description:The effects from multigenerational exposures to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in their pristine and transformed states are currently unknown despite such exposures being an increasingly common scenario in natural environments. Here, we examine how exposure over 10 generations affects the sensitivity of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to pristine and sulfidized Ag ENPs and AgNO3 We also include populations that were initially exposed over six generations but kept unexposed for subsequent four generations to allow recovery from exposure. Toxicity of the different silver forms decreased in the order AgNO3, Ag ENPs and Ag2S ENPs. Continuous exposure to Ag ENPs and AgNO3 caused pronounced sensitization (approx. 10-fold) in the F2 generation, which was sustained until F10. This sensitization was less pronounced for Ag2S ENP exposures, indicating different toxicity mechanisms. Subtle changes in size and lifespan were also measured. In the recovery populations, the sensitivity to Ag ENPs and AgNO3 resulting from the initial multigenerational exposure persisted. Their response sensitivity for all endpoints was most closely related to the last ancestral exposed generation (F5), rather than unexposed controls. The mechanisms of transgenerational transfer of sensitivity are probably organized through the epigenome, and we encourage others to investigate such effects as a priority for mechanistic toxicology.
Project description:This article presents a simple, one-step, in situ generation of silver nanoparticle-functionalized fabrics with antibacterial properties, circumventing the conventional, multistep, time-consuming methods. Silver nanoparticle formation was studied with a library of capping agents (branched polyethylenimine [BPEI] of molecular weight [Mw] 10,000 and 25,000, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyethylene glycol, polyvinylalcohol and citrate) mixed with silver nitrate. The mixture was then exposed to an assortment of light wavelengths (ultraviolet, infrared and simulated solar light) for studying the light-assisted synthesis of nanoparticles. The formation of nanoparticles corresponded with the reducing capabilities of the polymers wherein BPEI gave the best response. Notably, the irradiation wavelengths had little effect on the formation of the nanoparticle when the total irradiation energy was kept constant. The feasibility of utilizing this method for in situ nanoparticle synthesis on textile fabrics (towel [100% cotton], gauze [100% cotton], rayon, felt [100% polyester] and microfiber [15% nylon, 85% polyester]) was verified by exposing the fabrics soaked in an aqueous solution of 1% (w/v) AgNO3 and 1% (w/v) BPEI (Mw 25,000) to light. The formation of nanoparticles on fabrics and their retention after washing was verified using scanning electron microscopy and quantified by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The functional property of the fabric as an antibacterial surface was successfully demonstrated using model bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. The successful generation of silver nanoparticle-functionalized textile fabrics without the use of caustic chemicals, solvents and excessive heating presents a major step towards realizing a scalable green chemistry for industrial generation of functionalized fabrics for a wide range of applications.
Project description:In the present study, we have synthesized silver-copper nanocomposites (Ag-Cu NCs) using an Olax scandens leaf extract (green synthesis method) and evaluated their antimicrobial potential against less susceptible pathogens. The kinetics of Ag-Cu NCs synthesis was followed by UV-VIS and fluorescence spectroscopy. The physicochemical characterization of as-synthesized Ag-Cu NCs was executed using electron microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-Ray, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and a Differential Light Scattering method. As-synthesized Ag-Cu NCs induced the formation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), thereby causing alteration and decrementation of cellular proteins, DNA, lipids, etc., and eventually leading to cell death, as determined by a Live/Dead assay. Next, we assessed the anti-biofilm potential of as-synthesized Ag-Cu NCs against biofilm forming bacteria. The as-synthesized Ag-Cu NCs, when compared to monometallic silver nanoparticles, exhibited significantly higher anti-microbial activity against both sensitive as well as drug resistant microbial isolates.