Calcitriol inhibits ROS-NLRP3-IL-1? signaling axis via activation of Nrf2-antioxidant signaling in hyperosmotic stress stimulated human corneal epithelial cells.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:The activation of ROS-NLRP3-IL-1? signaling axis induced by hyperosmotic stress (HS) has been recognized as a key priming stage of epithelial inflammation in dry eye pathogenesis. The current study aims to investigate whether calcitriol, the active metabolite of vitamin D3, could protect cells against HS-induced inflammation through modulating this critical step. METHODS:Human corneal epithelial cells (iHCECs) were cultured in hyperosmotic medium (450 mOsM) with various concentrations of calcitriol. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to knock down the expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in iHCECs. NLRP3 activation and IL-1? generation were detected by RT-qPCR or ELISA, respectively. Oxidative stress markers including ROS and 8-OHdG were examined by fluorometric analysis. The nuclear translocation of NRF2 was assessed by western blotting. RESULTS:Calcitriol could protect cells against HS-induced injury through inhibiting ROS-NLRP3-IL-1? signaling axis. Calcitriol remarkably suppressed the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome related genes and the production of IL-1? in cells that were exposed to HS. It could also significantly attenuate HS-induced oxidative stress, shown as the reduced intracellular ROS generation and 8-OHdG staining cells after calcitriol treatment. Calcitriol induced the translocation of NRF2 to the nucleus, and thereby triggered the expression of several antioxidant enzymes. CONCLUSION:The current study indicated that calcitriol could inhibit the priming stage of HS-induced cellular inflammation, highlighting its potential capacity to prevent and mitigate dry eye related corneal inflammation at an earlier stage.
Project description:Blueberries have been recognized to possess protective properties from inflammation and various diseases, but not for eye and ocular disorders. This study explores potential benefits of pterostilbene (PS), a natural component of blueberries, in preventing ocular surface inflammation using an in vitro culture model of human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) exposed to hyperosmotic medium at 450 mOsM. Gene expression was detected by RT-qPCR, and protein production or activity was determined by ELISA, zymography, Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was measured using DCFDA kit. The addition of PS significantly reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, TNF-α, IL-1 β, IL-6, MMP-2 and MMP-9 in HCECs exposed to hyperosmotic medium. Pre-treatment with PS (5 to 20 μM) suppressed ROS overproduction in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, PS significantly decreased the levels of oxidative damage biomarkers, malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), aconitase-2 and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Importantly, PS was found to rebalance homeostasis between oxygenases and anti-oxidative enzymes by decreasing cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression and restoring the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and peroxiredoxin-4 (PRDX4) during hyperosmotic stress. Our findings demonstrate that PS protects human cornea from hyperosmolarity-induced inflammation and oxidative stress, suggesting protective effects of PS on dry eye.
Project description:Oxidative stress may cause ocular surface damage during the development of dry eye. Mammalian cells have defense systems against oxidative stress. A central regulator of the stress response is nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NFE2L2). NFE2L2 is activated by the novel triterpenoid RS9 (a biotransformation compound of RTA 402). The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of RS9 against dry eye using in vitro and in vivo models. Bioactivity was estimated by the induction of mRNAs for two NFE2L2-targeted genes: NQO1 (prevents radical species) and GCLC (glutathione synthesis), using a corneal epithelial cell line (HCE-T). Protection against oxidation and cell damage was tested in vitro by culturing cells under hyperosmotic stress or by the addition of menadione, a generator of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Dry eye in vivo was induced by the injection of scopolamine into rats. Then, 930 nM of RS9 was applied to both eyes for 2 weeks. Oxidative stress was measured by the accumulation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Corneal wound healing was measured by scoring for superficial punctate keratitis (SPK). Corneal epithelial cell densities were evaluated histologically. RS9 and RTA 402 induced the expression of NQO1 and GCLC mRNAs in HCE-T cells. And both compounds suppressed hyperosmotic-ROS generation and menadione induced cellular damage. However RS9 had a stronger protective effect than RTA 402. Ocular instillation of RS9 also significantly upregulated the expression of Nqo1 mRNA in the corneal epithelium. Accumulation of 8-OHdG, increase of SPK scores and decrement of basal cell density were observed in corneal epithelium from scopolamine-injected rats. These changes were significantly ameliorated by the topical administration of RS9. RS9 induced Nfe2l2 activation and Nfe2l2-targeted genes, reduced oxidation, and ameliorated symptoms of dry eye using in vitro and in vivo models. Thus, RS9 might be a potent candidate agent against dry eye disease.
Project description:The present study was set out to address the therapeutic efficacy of human adipose tissue stem cells derived extracellular vesicles (hADSC-Evs) in a mouse model of dry eye disease and to investigate the underlying mechanisms involved. hADSC-Evs eye drops were topically administered to mice that subjected to desiccating stress (DS). Clinical parameters of ocular surface damage were assessed with fluorescein staining, tear production and PAS staining. For in vitro studies, cell viability assay and TUNEL staining were performed in human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) treated with hADSC-Evs under hyperosmotic media. In addition, immunofluorescent staining, Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blots were used to evaluated NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, and IL-1? expression levels. Compared with vehicle control mice, topical hADSC-Evs treated mice showed decreased corneal epithelial defects, increased tear production, decreased goblet cell loss, as well as reduced inflammatory cytokines production. In vitro, hADSC-Evs could protect HCECs against hyperosmotic stress-induced cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, hADSC-Evs treatment suppressed the DS induced rises in NLRP3 inflammasome formation, caspase-1 activation and IL-1? maturation. In conclusion, hADSC-Evs eye drops effectively suppress NLRP3 inflammatory response and alleviate ocular surface damage in dry eye disease.
Project description:Chronic inflammation and severe dry eye are two important adverse factors for the successful transplant of cultured limbal stem cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inflammation and hyperosmotic stress (a key pathological factor in dry eye) on corneal epithelial stem cells (CESCs) and corneal epithelial wound healing. We observed that the CESCs exhibited significant morphological changes when treated with interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), or hyperosmotic stress. Colony-forming efficiency or colony-forming size was decreased with the increasing concentrations of IL-1?, TNF-?, or hyperosmotic stress, which was exacerbated when treated simultaneously with pro-inflammatory factors and hyperosmotic stress. However, the colony-forming capacity of CESCs recovered more easily from pro-inflammatory factor treatment than from hyperosmotic stress treatment. Moreover, when compared with pro-inflammatory factors treatment, hyperosmotic stress treatment caused a more significant increase of apoptotic and necrotic cell numbers and cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. Furthermore, the normal ability of corneal epithelial wound healing in the mice model was suppressed by both pro-inflammatory factors and hyperosmotic stress treatment, and especially severely by hyperosmotic stress treatment. In addition, inflammation combined with hyperosmotic stress treatment induced more serious epithelial repair delays and apoptosis in corneal epithelium. Elevated levels of inflammatory factors were found in hyperosmotic stress-treated cells and mice corneas, which persisted even during the recovery period. The results suggested that pro-inflammatory factors cause transient inhibition, while hyperosmotic stress causes severe apoptosis and necrosis, persistent cell cycle arrest of CESCs, and severe corneal wound healing delay. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2019;8:46-57.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mitochondrial damage leading to oxidant stress may play an important role in the pathogenesis of airflow obstruction and emphysema. NLPR3 inflammasome can be activated by mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) and other stimuli. We examined the importance of mtROS and NLRP3 inflammasome and their interactions in multiple ozone-induced lung inflammation and emphysema. METHODS:C57/BL6 mice were exposed to ozone (2.5?ppm, 3?h) or filtered air twice a week over 6?weeks. MitoTEMPO (20?mg/kg), an inhibitor of mtROS, and VX765 (100?mg/kg), an inhibitor of caspase-1 activity, were administered by intraperitoneal or intragastric injection respectively 1?h prior to each ozone exposure for 6?weeks. RESULTS:Ozone-exposed mice had increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) total cells and levels of IL-1?, KC and IL-6, augmented lung tissue inflammation scores, enhanced oxidative stress with higher serum 8-OHdG concentrations, emphysema with greater mean linear intercept (Lm), airway remodeling with increased airway smooth muscle mass and airflow limitation as indicated by a reduction in the ratio of forced expiratory volume at 25 and 50 milliseconds to forced vital capacity (FEV25/FVC, FEV50/FVC). Both MitoTEMPO and VX765 reduced lung inflammation scores, cytokine levels, oxidative stress and increased mitochondrial fission proteins. VX765 also attenuated emphysema, airway remodeling and airflow limitation. MitoTEMPO inhibited the increased expression of mitochondrial complex II and IV and of NLPR3 while VX765 inhibited the expression and activity of NLRP3 and caspase-1 pathway in the lung. CONCLUSIONS:Both mtROS and NLRP3 inflammasome play a role in ozone-induced lung inflammation while only NLRP3 is involved in ozone-induced emphysema.
Project description:Hyperosmolarity has been recognized as an important pathological factor in dry eye leading to ocular discomfort and damage. As one of the major neuropeptides of corneal innervation, substance P (SP) has been shown to possess anti-apoptotic effects in various cells. The aim of this study was to determine the capacity and mechanism of SP against hyperosmotic stress-induced apoptosis in cultured corneal epithelial cells. The cells were exposed to hyperosmotic stress by the addition of high glucose in the presence or absence of SP. The results showed that SP inhibited hyperosmotic stress-induced apoptosis of mouse corneal epithelial cells. Moreover, SP promoted the recovery of phosphorylated Akt level, mitochondrial membrane potential, Ca2+ contents, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione levels that impaired by hyperosmotic stress. However, the antiapoptotic capacity of SP was partially suppressed by Akt inhibitor or glutathione depleting agent, while the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist impaired Akt activation and ROS scavenging that promoted by SP addition. In conclusion, SP protects corneal epithelial cells from hyperosmotic stress-induced apoptosis through the mechanism of Akt activation and ROS scavenging via the NK-1 receptor.
Project description:NLRP3 inflammasome activation plays an important role in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), which may relate to excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Gypenosides (Gps), the major ingredients of Gynostemma pentaphylla (Thunb.) Makino, have exerted the properties of anti-hyperglycaemia and anti-inflammation, but whether Gps improve myocardial damage and the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we found that high glucose (HG) induced myocardial damage by activating the NLRP3 inflammasome and then promoting IL-1? and IL-18 secretion in H9C2 cells and NRVMs. Meanwhile, HG elevated the production of ROS, which was vital to NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Moreover, the ROS activated the NLRP3 inflammasome mainly by cytochrome c influx into the cytoplasm and binding to NLRP3. Inhibition of ROS and cytochrome c dramatically down-regulated NLRP3 inflammasome activation and improved the cardiomyocyte damage induced by HG, which was also detected in cells treated by Gps. Furthermore, Gps also reduced the levels of the C-reactive proteins (CRPs), IL-1? and IL-18, inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation and consequently improved myocardial damage in vivo. These findings provide a mechanism that ROS induced by HG activates the NLRP3 inflammasome by cytochrome c binding to NLRP3 and that Gps may be potential and effective drugs for DCM via the inhibition of ROS-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation.
Project description:An important mechanism involved in dry eye (DE) is the association between tear hyperosmolarity and inflammation severity. Inflammation in DE might be mediated by the NLRP3 inflammasome, which activated by exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS). A combination of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH) may influence DE through this mechanism, thus avoiding defects of signal drug. In this study, we assessed whether treatment comprising CMC combined with ?-MSH could ameliorate ocular surface function; we found that it promoted tear secretion, reduced the density of fluorescein sodium staining, enhanced the number of conjunctival goblet cells, and reduced the number of corneal apoptotic cells. Investigation of the underlying mechanism suggested that the synergistic effect of combined treatment alleviated DE inflammation through reduction of ROS level and inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome in human corneal epithelial cells. These findings indicate that combined CMC?+??-MSH treatment could ameliorate lesions and restore ocular surface function in patients with DE through reduction of ROS level and inhibition of NLRP3 signalling.
Project description:Bone marrow stromal cells from patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) display a senescence phenotype, but the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. Pro-inflammatory signaling within the malignant clone and the bone marrow microenvironment has been identified as a key pathogenetic driver of MDS. Our study revealed that S100A9 is highly-expressed in lower-risk MDS. Moreover, normal primary mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and the human stromal cell line HS-27a co-cultured with lower-risk MDS bone marrow mononuclear cells acquired a senescence phenotype. Exogenous supplemented S100A9 also induced cellular senescence in MSCs and HS-27a cells. Importantly, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) inhibition or knockdown attenuated the cellular senescence induced by S100A9. Furthermore, we showed that S100A9 induces NLRP3 inflammasome formation, and IL-1? secretion; findings in samples from MDS patients further confirmed these thoughts. Moreover, ROS and IL-1? inhibition suppressed the cellular senescence induced by S100A9, whereas NLRP3 overexpression and exogenous IL-1? supplementation induces cellular senescence. Our study demonstrated that S100A9 promotes cellular senescence of bone marrow stromal cells via TLR4, NLRP3 inflammasome formation, and IL-1? secretion for its effects. Our findings deepen the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in MDS reprogramming of MSCs and indicated the essential role of S100A9 in tumor-environment interactions in bone marrow.
Project description:Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) has been shown to promote vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. The NLRP3 inflammasome has been identified as the cellular machinery responsible for activation of inflammatory processes. In this study, we hypothesized that the activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes contributes to HHcy-induced inflammation and atherosclerosis. ApoE-/- mice were fed regular chow, high-fat (HF) diet, or HF plus high methionine diet to induce HHcy. To assess the role of NLRP3 inflammasomes in HHcy-aggravated atherosclerosis, NLRP3 shRNA viral suspension was injected via tail vein to knock down the NLRP3 gene. Increased plasma levels of IL-1β and IL-18, aggravated macrophage infiltration into atherosclerotic lesions, and accelerated development of atherosclerosis were detected in HHcy mice as compared with control mice, and were associated with the activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes. Silencing the NLRP3 gene significantly suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome activation, reduced plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines, attenuated macrophage infiltration and improved HHcy-induced atherosclerosis. We also examined the effect of homocysteine (Hcy) on NLRP3 inflammasome activation in THP-1-differentiated macrophages in the presence or absence of NLRP3 siRNA or the caspase-1 inhibitor Z-WEHD-FMK. We found that Hcy activated NLRP3 inflammasomes and promoted subsequent production of IL-1β and IL-18 in macrophages, which were blocked by NLRP3 gene silencing or Z-WEHD-FMK. As reactive oxygen species (ROS) may have a central role in NLRP3 inflammasome activation, we next investigated whether antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) prevented Hcy-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages. We found Hcy-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation was abolished by NAC. Treatment with NAC in HHcy mice also suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome activation and improved HHcy-induced atherosclerosis. These data suggest that the activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes contributes to HHcy-aggravated inflammation and atherosclerosis in apoE-/- mice. Hcy activates NLRP3 inflammasomes in ROS-dependent pathway in macrophages. These results may have implication for the treatment of HHcy-associated cardiovascular diseases.