Challenges in Stratifying the Molecular Variability of Patient-Derived Colon Tumor Xenografts.
ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer in Europe and a leading cause of death worldwide. Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models maintain complex intratumoral biology and heterogeneity and therefore remain the platform of choice for translational drug discovery. In this study, we implanted 37 primary CRC tumors and five CRC cell lines into NU/J mice to develop xenograft models. Primary tumors and established xenografts were histologically assessed and surveyed for genetic variants and gene expression using a panel of 409 cancer-related genes and RNA-seq, respectively. More than half of CRC tumors (20 out of 37, 54%) developed into a PDX. Histological assessment confirmed that PDX grading, stromal components, inflammation, and budding were consistent with those of the primary tumors. DNA sequencing identified an average of 0.14 variants per gene per sample. The percentage of mutated variants in PDXs increased with successive passages, indicating a decrease in clonal heterogeneity. Gene Ontology analyses of 4180 differentially expressed transcripts (adj. p value < 0.05) revealed overrepresentation of genes involved in cell division and catabolic processes among the transcripts upregulated in PDXs; downregulated transcripts were associated with GO terms related to extracellular matrix organization, immune responses, and angiogenesis. Neither a transcriptome-based consensus molecular subtype (CMS) classifier nor three other predictors reliably matched PDX molecular subtypes with those of the primary tumors. In sum, both genetic and transcriptomic profiles differed between donor tumors and PDXs, likely as a consequence of subclonal evolution at the early phase of xenograft development, making molecular stratification of PDXs challenging.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the most challenging type of cancer to treat, with a 5-year survival rate of <10%. Furthermore, because of the large portion of the inoperable cases, it is difficult to obtain specimens to study the biology of the tumors. Therefore, a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model is an attractive option for preserving and expanding these tumors for translational research. Here we report the generation and characterization of 20 PDX models of PDAC. The success rate of the initial graft was 74% and most tumors were re-transplantable. Histological analysis of the PDXs and primary tumors revealed a conserved expression pattern of p53 and SMAD4; an exome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and Comprehensive Cancer Panel showed that PDXs retained over 94% of cancer-associated variants. In addition, Polyphen2 and the Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant (SIFT) prediction identified 623 variants among the functional SNPs, highlighting the heterologous nature of pancreatic PDXs; an analysis of 409 tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes in Comprehensive Cancer Panel revealed heterologous cancer gene mutation profiles for each PDX-primary tumor pair. Altogether, we expect these PDX models are a promising platform for screening novel therapeutic agents and diagnostic markers for the detection and eradication of PDAC.
Project description:Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) brain metastasis cell lines and in vivo models are not widely accessible. Herein we report on a direct-from patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model system of NSCLC brain metastases with genomic annotation useful for translational and mechanistic studies. Both heterotopic and orthotopic intracranial xenografts were established and RNA and DNA sequencing was performed on patient and matching tumors. Morphologically, strong retention of cytoarchitectural features was observed between original patient tumors and PDXs. Transcriptome and mutation analysis revealed high correlation between matched patient and PDX samples with more than more than 95% of variants detected being retained in the matched PDXs. PDXs demonstrated response to radiation, response to selumetinib in tumors harboring KRAS G12C mutations and response to savolitinib in a tumor with MET exon 14 skipping mutation. Savolitinib also demonstrated in vivo radiation enhancement in our MET exon 14 mutated PDX. Early passage cell strains showed high consistency between patient and PDX tumors. Together, these data describe a robust human xenograft model system for investigating NSCLC brain metastases. These PDXs and cell lines show strong phenotypic and molecular correlation with the original patient tumors and provide a valuable resource for testing preclinical therapeutics.
Project description:Herein, we report an oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) patient-derived xenograft (PDX) platform, with genomic annotation useful for co-clinical trial and mechanistic studies. Genomic analysis included whole-exome sequencing (WES) and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) on 16 tumors and matched PDXs and additional whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on 9 of these pairs as a representative subset of a larger OCSCC PDX repository (n = 63). In 12 models with high purity, more than 90% of variants detected in the tumor were retained in the matched PDX. The genomic landscape across these PDXs reflected OCSCC molecular heterogeneity, including previously described basal, mesenchymal, and classical molecular subtypes. To demonstrate the integration of PDXs into a clinical trial framework, we show that pharmacological intervention in PDXs parallels clinical response and extends patient data. Together, these data describe a repository of OCSCC-specific PDXs and illustrate conservation of primary tumor genotypes, intratumoral heterogeneity, and co-clinical trial application.
Project description:Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models have become an important asset in translational cancer research. However, to provide a robust preclinical platform, PDXs need to accommodate the tumor heterogeneity that is observed in patients. Colorectal cancer (CRC) can be stratified into four consensus molecular subtypes (CMS) with distinct biological and clinical features. Surprisingly, using a set of CRC patients, we revealed the partial representation of tumor heterogeneity in PDX models. The epithelial subtypes, the largest subgroups of CRC subtype, were very ineffective in establishing PDXs, indicating the need for further optimization to develop an effective personalized therapeutic approach to CRC. Moreover, we showed that tumor cell proliferation was associated with successful PDX establishment and able to distinguish patient with poor clinical outcomes within CMS2 group.
Project description:Cancer patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) better preserve tumor characteristics and microenvironment than traditional cancer cell line derived xenografts and are becoming a valuable model in translational cancer research and personalized medicine. We have established a PDX model for colorectal cancer (CRC) in CIEA NOG mice with a 50% engraftment rate. Tumor fragments from patients with CRC (<i>n</i> = 5) were engrafted in four mice per tumor (<i>n</i> = 20). Mice with established PDXs received a liquid diet enriched with fish oil or placebo, and fatty acid profiling was performed to measure fatty acid content in whole blood. Moreover, a biobank consisting of tissue and blood samples from patients was established. Histology, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization procedures were used for staining of tumor and xenograft tissue slides. Results demonstrate that key histological characteristics of the patients' tumors were retained in the established PDXs, and the liquid diets were consumed as intended by the mice. Some of the older mice developed lymphomas that originated from human Ki67<sup>+</sup>, CD45<sup>+</sup>, and EBV<sup>+</sup> lymphoid cells. We present a detailed description of the process and methodology, as well as possible issues that may arise, to refine the method and improve PDX engraftment rate for future studies. The established PDX model for CRC can be used for exploring different cancer treatment regimes, and liquid diets enriched with fish oil may be successfully delivered to the mice through the drinking flasks.
Project description:Molecular annotated patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models are useful for the preclinical investigation of anticancer drugs and individualized anticancer therapy. We established 23 PDXs from 88 surgical specimens of lung cancer patients and determined gene mutations in these PDXs and their paired primary tumors by ultradeep exome sequencing on 202 cancer-related genes. The numbers of primary tumors with deleterious mutations in TP53, KRAS, PI3KCA, ALK, STK11, and EGFR were 43.5%, 21.7%, 17.4%, 17.4%, 13.0%, and 8.7%, respectively. Other genes with deleterious mutations in ?3 (13.0%) primary tumors were MLL3, SETD2, ATM, ARID1A, CRIPAK, HGF, BAI3, EP300, KDR, PDGRRA and RUNX1. Of 315 mutations detected in the primary tumors, 293 (93%) were also detected in their corresponding PDXs, indicating that PDXs have the capacity to recapitulate the mutations in primary tumors. Nevertheless, a substantial number of mutations had higher allele frequencies in the PDXs than in the primary tumors, or were not detectable in the primary tumor, suggesting the possibility of tumor cell enrichment in PDXs or heterogeneity in the primary tumors. The molecularly annotated PDXs generated from this study could be useful for future translational studies.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The dearth of relevant tumor models reflecting the heterogeneity of human central nervous system metastasis (CM) has hindered development of novel therapies.<h4>Methods</h4>We established 39 CM patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models representing the histological spectrum, and performed phenotypic and multi-omic characterization of PDXs and their original patient tumors. PDX clonal evolution was also reconstructed using allele-specific copy number and somatic variants.<h4>Results</h4>PDXs retained their metastatic potential, with flank-implanted PDXs forming spontaneous metastases in multiple organs, including brain, and CM subsequent to intracardiac injection. PDXs also retained the histological and molecular profiles of the original patient tumors, including retention of genomic aberrations and signaling pathways. Novel modes of clonal evolution involving rapid expansion by a minor clone were identified in 2 PDXs, including CM13, which was highly aggressive in vivo forming multiple spontaneous metastases, including to brain. These PDXs had little molecular resemblance to the patient donor tumor, including reversion to a copy number neutral genome, no shared nonsynonymous mutations, and no correlation by gene expression.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We generated a diverse and novel repertoire of PDXs that provides a new set of tools to enhance our knowledge of CM biology and improve preclinical testing. Furthermore, our study suggests that minor clone succession may confer tumor aggressiveness and potentiate brain metastasis.
Project description:Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models have been recognized as being more suitable for predicting therapeutic efficacy than cell-culture models. However, there are several limitations in applying PDX models in preclinical studies, including their availability-especially for cancers such as gastric cancer-that are not frequently encountered in Western countries. In addition, the differences in morphology between primary, PDX, and tumor cell line-derived xenograft (CDX) models have not been well established. In this study, we aimed to establish a series of gastric cancer PDXs and cell-lines from a relatively large number of gastric cancer patients. We also investigated the clinicopathological factors associated with the establishment of PDX and CDX models, and compared the histology between the primary tumor, PDX, and CDX that originated from the same patient. We engrafted 232 gastric cancer tissues into immune-deficient mice subcutaneously and successfully established 35 gastric cancer PDX models (15.1% success rate). Differentiated type adenocarcinomas (DAs, 19.4%) were more effectively established than poorly differentiated type adenocarcinomas (PDAs, 10.8%). For establishing CDXs, the success rate was less influenced by histological differentiation grade (DA vs. PDA, 12.1% vs. 9.8%). In addition, concordance of histological differentiation grade between primary tumors and PDXs was significant (<i>p</i> < 0.01), while concordance between primary tumors and CDXs was not. Among clinicopathological factors investigated, pathological nodal metastasis status (pN) was significantly associated with the success rate of PDX establishment. Although establishing cell lines from ascites fluid was more efficient (41.2%, 7/17) than resected tissues, it should be noted that all CDXs from ascites fluid had the PDA phenotype. In conclusion, we established 35 PDX and 32 CDX models from 249 gastric cancer patients; among them, 21 PDX/CDX models were established from the same patients. Our findings may provide helpful insights for establishing PDX and CDX models not only from gastric but from other cancer types, as well as select preclinical models for developing new therapeutics.
Project description:Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) have become a prominent cancer model system, as they are presumed to faithfully represent the genomic features of primary tumors. Here we monitored the dynamics of copy number alterations (CNAs) in 1,110 PDX samples across 24 cancer types. We observed rapid accumulation of CNAs during PDX passaging, often due to selection of preexisting minor clones. CNA acquisition in PDXs was correlated with the tissue-specific levels of aneuploidy and genetic heterogeneity observed in primary tumors. However, the particular CNAs acquired during PDX passaging differed from those acquired during tumor evolution in patients. Several CNAs recurrently observed in primary tumors gradually disappeared in PDXs, indicating that events undergoing positive selection in humans can become dispensable during propagation in mice. Notably, the genomic stability of PDXs was associated with their response to chemotherapy and targeted drugs. These findings have major implications for PDX-based modeling of human cancer.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of human death. Mortality is primarily due to metastatic organ colonization, with the liver being the main organ affected. We modeled metastatic CRC (mCRC) liver colonization using patient-derived primary and metastatic tumor xenografts (PDX). Such PDX modeling predicted patient survival outcomes. In vivo selection of multiple PDXs for enhanced metastatic colonization capacity upregulated the gluconeogenic enzyme PCK1, which enhanced liver metastatic growth by driving pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis under hypoxia. Consistently, highly metastatic tumors upregulated multiple pyrimidine biosynthesis intermediary metabolites. Therapeutic inhibition of the pyrimidine biosynthetic enzyme DHODH with leflunomide substantially impaired CRC liver metastatic colonization and hypoxic growth. Our findings provide a potential mechanistic basis for the epidemiologic association of anti-gluconeogenic drugs with improved CRC metastasis outcomes, reveal the exploitation of a gluconeogenesis enzyme for pyrimidine biosynthesis under hypoxia, and implicate DHODH and PCK1 as metabolic therapeutic targets in CRC metastatic progression.