Improving Visual Field Examination of the Macula Using Structural Information.
ABSTRACT: Purpose:To investigate a novel approach for structure-function modeling in glaucoma to improve visual field testing in the macula. Methods:We acquired data from the macular region in 20 healthy eyes and 31 with central glaucomatous damage. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans were used to estimate the local macular ganglion cell density. Perimetry was performed with a fundus-tracking device using a 10-2 grid. OCT scans were matched to the retinal image from the fundus perimeter to accurately map the tested locations onto the structural damage. Binary responses from the subjects to all presented stimuli were used to calculate the structure-function model used to generate prior distributions for a ZEST (Zippy Estimation by Sequential Testing) Bayesian strategy. We used simulations based on structural and functional data acquired from an independent dataset of 20 glaucoma patients to compare the performance of this new strategy, structural macular ZEST (MacS-ZEST), with a standard ZEST. Results:Compared to the standard ZEST, MacS-ZEST reduced the number of presentations by 13% in reliable simulated subjects and 14% with higher rates (?20%) of false positive or false negative errors. Reduction in mean absolute error was not present for reliable subjects but was gradually more important with unreliable responses (?10% at 30% error rate). Conclusions:Binary responses can be modeled to incorporate detailed structural information from macular OCT into visual field testing, improving overall speed and accuracy in poor responders. Translational Relevance:Structural information can improve speed and reliability for macular testing in glaucoma practice.
Project description:PURPOSE: To investigate the structural and clinical characteristics of peripapillary retinoschisis observed in glaucomatous eyes using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). METHODS: Circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) and macular cross-hair SD-OCT scans and infrared fundus images of the glaucoma patients from the Investigating Glaucoma Progression Study (IGPS) and healthy volunteers were reviewed. Optic disc images obtained using enhanced depth imaging (EDI) SD-OCT were also evaluated. The structural characteristics and clinical course of the retinoschisis associated with glaucoma were investigated. RESULTS: Twenty-five retinoschisis areas were found in 22 of the 372 patients (5.9%) included in the IGPS, and in 1 area in 1 of 187 healthy control subjects (0.5%). In the 22 glaucomatous eyes with retinoschisis, the schisis was attached to the optic disc and overlapped with the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defect. The RNFL was the layer most commonly affected by the retinoschisis, either alone or together with other deeper layers. Acquired optic disc pit was identified in 8 eyes on disc photography and/or B-scan images obtained by EDI SD-OCT. Spontaneous resolution of this condition was observed in nine eyes. No retinal detachment or macular involvement of the retinoschisis was observed in any of the eyes. Multivariate analysis showed a significant influence of a higher intraocular pressure at SD-OCT scanning on the presence of retinoschisis (Odds ratio ?= 1.418, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The present study investigated 22 cases of peripapillary retinoschisis in glaucomatous eyes. The retinoschisis was attached to the optic nerve and topographically correlated with RNFL defect. It often resolved spontaneously without causing severe visual disturbance. Care should be taken not to overestimate the RNFL thickness in eyes with retinoschisis, and also not to misinterpret the resolution of retinoschisis as a rapid glaucomatous RNFL deterioration.
Project description:To correlate the thicknesses of focal regions of the macular ganglion cell layer with those of the peripapillary nerve fiber layer using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in glaucoma subjects.Macula and optic nerve head SD-OCT volumes were obtained in 57 eyes of 57 subjects with open-angle glaucoma or glaucoma suspicion. Using a custom automated computer algorithm, the thickness of 66 macular ganglion cell layer regions and the thickness of 12 peripapillary nerve fiber layer regions were measured from registered SD-OCT volumes. The mean thickness of each ganglion cell layer region was correlated to the mean thickness of each peripapillary nerve fiber layer region across subjects. Each ganglion cell layer region was labeled with the peripapillary nerve fiber layer region with the highest correlation using a color-coded map.The resulting color-coded correlation map closely resembled the nerve fiber bundle (NFB) pattern of retinal ganglion cells. The mean r(2) value across all local macular-peripapillary correlations was 0.49 (± 0.11). When separately analyzing the 30 glaucoma subjects from the 27 glaucoma-suspect subjects, the mean r(2) value across all local macular-peripapillary correlations was significantly larger in the glaucoma group (0.56 ± 0.13 vs. 0.37 ± 0.11; P < 0.001).A two-dimensional (2-D) spatial NFB map of the retina can be developed using structure-structure relationships from SD-OCT. Such SD-OCT-based NFB maps may enhance glaucoma detection and contribute to monitoring change in the future.
Project description:PURPOSE:To investigate inter-eye retinal vessel density asymmetry in healthy, glaucoma suspect, and mild-to-moderate glaucoma subjects, and its potential utility for early detection of glaucomatous damage. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. METHODS:In 153 subjects including 55 healthy, 32 glaucoma suspect, and 66 glaucoma subjects enrolled in the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study (DIGS), vessel density was obtained from optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) macular and optic nerve head scans. Thickness of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC) was measured with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scans. Inter-eye asymmetry was calculated by taking the absolute value of difference in vessel density and thickness between the right and left eyes. RESULTS:Inter-eye retinal vessel density asymmetry parameters were significantly different among the 3 groups. Glaucoma suspects had significantly higher peripapillary and macular inter-eye vessel density asymmetries compared to healthy groups in univariate (1.1% vs 2.0%, P = .014 and 1.2% vs 2.5%, P = .027, respectively) and multivariate analyses (P = .007 and P = .038, respectively). No significant differences in asymmetry of thickness parameters were found between glaucoma suspect and healthy groups (all P > .718). However, significant differences in asymmetry of thickness parameters between glaucoma suspects and glaucoma patients (P < .01) were found for all parameters. CONCLUSION:Inter-eye vessel density asymmetry can be quantified by OCT-A measurement. Glaucoma suspects have significantly greater vessel density asymmetry than healthy eyes. Longitudinal studies are needed to better characterize the relationship of vessel density asymmetry with the development and progression of glaucoma.
Project description:AIMS:To improve the diagnostic power for glaucoma by combining measurements of peripapillary nerve fibre layer (NFL), macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) and disc variables obtained with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) into the glaucoma structural diagnostic index (GSDI). METHODS:In this observational, cross-sectional study of subjects from the Advanced Imaging of Glaucoma Study, GCC and NFL of healthy and perimetrical glaucoma subjects from four major academic referral centres of the Advanced Imaging of Glaucoma Study were mapped with the RTVue FD-OCT. Global loss volume and focal loss volume parameters were defined using NFL and GCC normative reference maps. Optimal weights for NFL, GCC and disc variables were combined using multivariate logistic regression to build the GSDI. Glaucoma severity was classified using the Enhanced Glaucoma Staging System (GSS2). Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by sensitivity, specificity and the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS:We analysed 118 normal eyes of 60 subjects, 236 matched eyes of 166 subjects with perimetrical glaucoma, and 105 eyes from a healthy reference group of 61 subjects. The GSDI included composite overall thickness and focal loss volume with weighted NFL and GCC components, as well as the vertical cup-to-disc ratio. The AUC of 0.922 from leave-one-out cross validation was better than the best component variable alone (p=0.047). The partial AUC in the high specificity region was also better (p=0.01), with a sensitivity of 69% at 99% specificity, and a sensitivity of 80.3% at 95% specificity. For GSS2 stages 3-5 the sensitivity was 98% at 99% specificity, and 100% at 95% specificity. CONCLUSIONS:Combining structural measurements of GCC, NFL and disc variables from FD-OCT created a GSDI that improved the accuracy for glaucoma diagnosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT01314326.
Project description:To evaluate the diagnostic ability of macular ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer measurements in glaucoma, obtained using swept source (SS) and spectral domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to compare to circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) thickness measurements.The study included 106 glaucomatous eyes of 80 subjects and 41 eyes of 22 healthy subjects from the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study. Macular ganglion cell and inner plexiform layer (mGCIPL), macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC) and cpRNFL thickness were assessed using SS-OCT and SD-OCT, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were calculated to determine ability to differentiate glaucomatous and healthy eyes and between early glaucomatous and healthy eyes.Mean (± standard deviation) mGCIPL and mGCC thickness were thinner in both healthy and glaucomatous eyes using SS-OCT compared to using SD-OCT. Fixed and proportional biases were detected between SS-OCT and SD-OCT measures. Diagnostic accuracy (AUCs) for differentiating between healthy and glaucomatous eyes for average and sectoral mGCIPL was similar in SS-OCT (0.65 to 0.81) and SD-OCT (0.63 to 0.83). AUCs for average cpRNFL acquired using SS-OCT and SD-OCT tended to be higher (0.83 and 0.85, respectively) than for average mGCC (0.82 and 0.78, respectively), and mGCIPL (0.73 and 0.75, respectively) but these differences did not consistently reach statistical significance. Minimum SD-OCT mGCIPL and mGCC thickness (unavailable in SS-OCT) had the highest AUC (0.86) among macular measurements.Assessment of mGCIPL thickness using SS-OCT or SD-OCT is useful for detecting glaucomatous damage, but measurements are not interchangeable for patient management decisions. Diagnostic accuracies of mGCIPL and mGCC from both SS-OCT and SD-OCT were similar to that of cpRNFL for glaucoma detection.
Project description:AIMS; It is well established that glaucoma results in a thinning of the inner retina. To investigate whether the outer retina is also involved, ultrahigh-resolution retinal imaging techniques were utilised.Eyes from 10 glaucoma patients (25-78 years old), were imaged using three research-grade instruments: (1) ultrahigh-resolution Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (UHR-FD-OCT), (2) adaptive optics (AO) UHR-FD-OCT and (3) AO-flood illuminated fundus camera (AO-FC). UHR-FD-OCT and AO-UHR-FD-OCT B-scans were examined for any abnormalities in the retinal layers. On some patients, cone density measurements were made from the AO-FC en face images. Correlations between retinal structure and visual sensitivity were measured by Humphrey visual-field (VF) testing made at the corresponding retinal locations.All three in vivo imaging modalities revealed evidence of outer retinal changes along with the expected thinning of the inner retina in glaucomatous eyes with VF loss. AO-UHR-FD-OCT images identified the exact location of structural changes within the cone photoreceptor layer with the AO-FC en face images showing dark areas in the cone mosaic at the same retinal locations with reduced visual sensitivity.Losses in cone density along with expected inner retinal changes were demonstrated in well-characterised glaucoma patients with VF loss.
Project description:PURPOSE:The ganglion cell analysis (GCA) of the CIRRUSTM HD-OCT (Carl Zeiss, Meditec; Dublin, CA) provides measurement of the macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness. This study determined the frequency of scan artefacts and errors in GCIPL imaging in individuals undergoing HD-OCT surveillance for glaucoma. METHOD:A total of 1439 eyes from 721 subjects enrolled in a prospective study assessing predictors of glaucoma progression underwent macular GCIPL imaging with the CIRRUS HD-OCT at recruitment. The prevalence of acquisition errors, segmentation errors, and co-morbid macular pathology was determined. RESULTS:A total of 87 (6.0%) of the 1439 scans had either acquisition errors, segmentation artefacts, or other macular pathology. The most common co-morbid macular pathology was epiretinal membrane in 2.2% of eyes. CONCLUSION:The macular GCIPL scan was artefact free in 94% of eyes. However, epiretinal membrane and high myopia can cause scan artefact and should be considered when interpreting the results.
Project description:Importance:Both parapapillary and macular areas are important in determining the progression of early glaucoma. However, no attempt has been made to assess the progression of glaucoma in images that combine the 2 areas. Objective:To evaluate the potential usefulness of serial analysis of combined wide-field optical coherence tomography (OCT) maps for detection of structural progression in patients with early glaucoma. Design, Setting, and Participants:Retrospective observational study. Patients with early primary open-angle glaucoma with a minimum of 3-year follow-up involving serial spectral-domain OCT measurement were analyzed. Patients were divided into a nonprogressor group (n?=?47) and a progressor group (n?=?47) on the basis of serial stereo disc photography and red-free photography. Serial combined wide-field OCT maps integrating parapapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) maps were generated with the embedded software of serial spectral-domain OCT. Glaucoma specialists then assessed the structural progression detection ability of those serial wide-field OCT maps for early glaucomatous eyes and compared their sensitivity with those of RNFL and GCIPL guided progression analyses (GPAs). Main Outcomes and Measures:The diagnostic ability of the serial wide-field OCT maps for early glaucomatous structural progression. Results:Ninety-four patients (mean [SD] age, 51.4?[12.3] years; 48 [51.1%] women; all Korean) were included. The serial wide-field OCT map analysis showed good agreement for detection of structural progression between the 2 glaucoma graders (wide-field OCT thickness map: ??=?0.649; wide-field OCT deviation map: ??=?0.833). These maps showed early glaucomatous structural progression detection abilities comparable with those of RNFL and GCIPL GPAs (sensitivities of wide-field OCT thickness map, wide-field OCT deviation map, RNFL GPA, and GCIPL GPA?=?63.8%, 83.0%, 83.0%, and 66.0%, respectively, all P?>?.05; specificities of wide-field OCT thickness map, wide-field OCT deviation map, RNFL GPA, and GCIPL GPA?=?93.6%, 95.7%, 84.8%, and 93.6%, respectively, all P?>?.05). Conclusions and Relevance:The serial combined wide-field OCT maps integrating RNFL and GCIPL maps performed well in detecting structural progression in early glaucomatous eyes. Confirmation in an independent prospective study might provide greater confidence in this conclusion.
Project description:Introduction:To evaluate the sectorial thickness of single retinal layers and optic nerve using spectral domain optic coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and highlight the parameters with the best diagnostic accuracy in distinguishing between normal and glaucoma subjects at different stages of the disease. Material and Methods:For this cross-sectional study, 25 glaucomatous (49 eyes) and 18 age-matched healthy subjects (35 eyes) underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination including visual field testing. Sectorial thickness values of each retinal layer and of the optic nerve were measured using SD-OCT Glaucoma Module Premium Edition (GMPE) software. Each parameter was compared between the groups, and the layers and sectors with the best area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were identified. Correlation of visual field index with the most relevant structural parameters was also evaluated. Results and Discussion:All subjects were grouped according to stage as follows: Controls (CTRL); Early Stage Group (EG) (Stage 1?+?Stage 2); Advanced Stage Group (AG) (Stage 3?+?Stage 4?+?Stage 5). mGCL TI, mGCL TO, mIPL TO, mean mGCL, cpRNFLt NS, and cpRNFLt TI showed the best results in terms of AUC according classification proposed by Swets (0.9?<?AUC?<?1.0). These parameters also showed significantly different values among group when CTRL vs EG, CTRL vs AG, and EG vs AG were compared. SD-OCT examination showed significant sectorial thickness differences in most of the macular layers when glaucomatous patients at different stages of the disease were compared each other and to the controls.
Project description:PURPOSE:To evaluate choroidal thickness (CT) in healthy and glaucomatous eyes using Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT). METHODS:A cross-sectional observational study of 216 eyes of 140 subjects with glaucoma and 106 eyes of 67 healthy subjects enrolled in the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study. CT was assessed from wide-field (12×9 mm) SS-OCT scans. The association between CT and potential confounding variables including age, gender, axial length, intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness and ocular perfusion pressure was examined using univariable and multivariable regression analyses. RESULTS:Overall CT was thinner in glaucomatous eyes with a mean (± standard deviation) of 157.7±48.5 µm in glaucoma compared to 179.9±36.1 µm in healthy eyes (P<0.001). The choroid was thinner in both the peripapillary and macular regions in glaucoma compared to controls. Mean peripapillary CT was 154.1±44.1 µm and 134.0±56.9 µm (P<0.001) and macular CT 199.3±46.1 µm and 176.2±57.5 µm (P<0.001) for healthy and glaucomatous eyes respectively. However, older age (P<0.001) and longer axial length (P<0.001) were also associated with thinner choroid and when differences in age and axial length between glaucomatous and healthy subjects were accounted for, glaucoma was not significantly associated with CT. There was also no association between glaucoma severity and CT. CONCLUSIONS:Glaucoma was not associated with CT measured using SS-OCT; however, older age and longer axial length were associated with thinner choroid so should be considered when interpreting CT measurements.