Neutrophils facilitate ovarian cancer premetastatic niche formation in the omentum.
ABSTRACT: Ovarian cancer preferentially metastasizes to the omentum, a fatty tissue characterized by immune structures called milky spots, but the cellular dynamics that direct this tropism are unknown. Here, we identified that neutrophil influx into the omentum is a prerequisite premetastatic step in orthotopic ovarian cancer models. Ovarian tumor-derived inflammatory factors stimulated neutrophils to mobilize and extrude chromatin webs called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs were detected in the omentum of ovarian tumor-bearing mice before metastasis and of women with early-stage ovarian cancer. NETs, in turn, bound ovarian cancer cells and promoted metastasis. Omental metastasis was decreased in mice with neutrophil-specific deficiency of peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4), an enzyme that is essential for NET formation. Blockade of NET formation using a PAD4 pharmacologic inhibitor also decreased omental colonization. Our findings implicate NET formation in rendering the premetastatic omental niche conducive for implantation of ovarian cancer cells and raise the possibility that blockade of NET formation prevents omental metastasis.
Project description:Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play important roles in cancer progression. Here, we have characterized the ontogeny and function of TAM subsets in a mouse model of metastatic ovarian cancer that is representative for visceral peritoneal metastasis. We show that the omentum is a critical premetastatic niche for development of invasive disease in this model and define a unique subset of CD163+ Tim4+ resident omental macrophages responsible for metastatic spread of ovarian cancer cells. Transcriptomic analysis showed that resident CD163+ Tim4+ omental macrophages were phenotypically distinct and maintained their resident identity during tumor growth. Selective depletion of CD163+ Tim4+ macrophages in omentum using genetic and pharmacological tools prevented tumor progression and metastatic spread of disease. These studies describe a specific role for tissue-resident macrophages in the invasive progression of metastatic ovarian cancer. The molecular pathways of cross-talk between tissue-resident macrophages and disseminated cancer cells may represent new targets to prevent metastasis and disease recurrence.
Project description:Ovarian cancer has a clear predilection for metastasis to the omentum, but the underlying mechanisms involved in ovarian cancer spread are not well understood. Here, we used a parabiosis model that demonstrates preferential hematogenous metastasis of ovarian cancer to the omentum. Our studies revealed that the ErbB3-neuregulin 1 (NRG1) axis is a dominant pathway responsible for hematogenous omental metastasis. Elevated levels of ErbB3 in ovarian cancer cells and NRG1 in the omentum allowed for tumor cell localization and growth in the omentum. Depletion of ErbB3 in ovarian cancer impaired omental metastasis. Our results highlight hematogenous metastasis as an important mode of ovarian cancer metastasis. These findings have implications for designing alternative strategies aimed at preventing and treating ovarian cancer metastasis.
Project description:The omentum is the most common site of ovarian cancer metastasis. Immune cell clusters called milky spots are found throughout the omentum. It is however unknown if these immune cells contribute to ovarian cancer metastasis. Here we report that omental macrophages promote the migration and colonization of ovarian cancer cells to the omentum through the secretion of chemokine ligands that interact with chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1). We found that depletion of macrophages reduces ovarian cancer colonization of the omentum. RNA-sequencing of macrophages isolated from mouse omentum and mesenteric adipose tissue revealed a specific enrichment of chemokine ligand CCL6 in omental macrophages. CCL6 and the human homolog CCL23 were both necessary and sufficient to promote ovarian cancer migration by activating ERK1/2 and PI3K pathways. Importantly, inhibition of CCR1 reduced ovarian cancer colonization. These findings demonstrate a critical mechanism of omental macrophage induced colonization by ovarian cancer cells via CCR1 signaling.
Project description:Neutrophil infiltration and neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) in solid cancers are associated with poorer prognosis, but the mechanisms are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that NETs enhance mitochondrial function in tumor cells, providing extra energy for accelerated growth. Metastatic colorectal cancer tissue showed increased intratumoral NETs and supranormal preoperative serum MPO-DNA, a NET marker. Higher MPO-DNA correlated with shorter survival. In mice, subcutaneous tumor implants and hepatic metastases grew slowly in PAD4-KO mice, genetically incapable of NETosis. In parallel experiments, human cancer cell lines grew slower in nu/nu mice treated with DNAse, which disassembles NETs. PAD4-KO tumors manifested decreased proliferation, increased apoptosis, and increased evidence of oxidative stress. PAD4-KO tumors had decreased mitochondrial density, mitochondrial DNA, a lesser degree of ATP production, along with significantly decreased mitochondrial biogenesis proteins PGC1?, TFAM, and NRF-1. In vitro, cancer cells treated with NETs upregulated mitochondrial biogenesis-associated genes, increased mitochondrial density, increased ATP production, enhanced the percentage of cancer cells with reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased the oxygen consumption rate. Furthermore, NETs increased cancer cells' expression of fission and fusion-associated proteins, DRP-1 and MFN-2, and mitophagy-linked proteins, PINK1 and Parkin. All of which were decreased in PAD4-KO tumors. Mechanistically, neutrophil elastase released from NETs activated TLR4 on cancer cells, leading to PGC1? upregulation, increased mitochondrial biogenesis, and accelerated growth. Taken together, NETs can directly alter the metabolic programming of cancer cells to increase tumor growth. NETs represent a promising therapeutic target to halt cancer progression. SIGNIFICANCE: Neutrophils through the release of NETs facilitate the growth of stressed cancer cells by altering their bioenergetics, the inhibition of which induces cell death.
Project description:The goal of controlling ovarian cancer metastasis formation has elicited considerable interest in identifying the tissue microenvironments involved in cancer cell colonization of the omentum. Omental adipose is a site of prodigious metastasis in both ovarian cancer models and clinical disease. This tissue is unusual for its milky spots, comprised of immune cells, stromal cells, and structural elements surrounding glomerulus-like capillary beds. The present study shows the novel finding that milky spots and adipocytes play distinct and complementary roles in omental metastatic colonization. In vivo assays showed that ID8, CaOV3, HeyA8, and SKOV3ip.1 cancer cells preferentially lodge and grow within omental and splenoportal fat, which contain milky spots, rather than in peritoneal fat depots. Similarly, medium conditioned by milky spot-containing adipose tissue caused 75% more cell migration than did medium conditioned by milky spot-deficient adipose. Studies with immunodeficient mice showed that the mouse genetic background does not alter omental milky spot number and size, nor does it affect ovarian cancer colonization. Finally, consistent with the role of lipids as an energy source for cancer cell growth, in vivo time-course studies revealed an inverse relationship between metastatic burden and omental adipocyte content. Our findings support a two-step model in which both milky spots and adipose have specific roles in colonization of the omentum by ovarian cancer cells.
Project description:Intra-abdominal tumors, such as ovarian cancer, have a clear predilection for metastasis to the omentum, an organ primarily composed of adipocytes. Currently, it is unclear why tumor cells preferentially home to and proliferate in the omentum, yet omental metastases typically represent the largest tumor in the abdominal cavities of women with ovarian cancer. We show here that primary human omental adipocytes promote homing, migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells, and that adipokines including interleukin-8 (IL-8) mediate these activities. Adipocyte-ovarian cancer cell coculture led to the direct transfer of lipids from adipocytes to ovarian cancer cells and promoted in vitro and in vivo tumor growth. Furthermore, coculture induced lipolysis in adipocytes and ?-oxidation in cancer cells, suggesting adipocytes act as an energy source for the cancer cells. A protein array identified upregulation of fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4, also known as aP2) in omental metastases as compared to primary ovarian tumors, and FABP4 expression was detected in ovarian cancer cells at the adipocyte-tumor cell interface. FABP4 deficiency substantially impaired metastatic tumor growth in mice, indicating that FABP4 has a key role in ovarian cancer metastasis. These data indicate adipocytes provide fatty acids for rapid tumor growth, identifying lipid metabolism and transport as new targets for the treatment of cancers where adipocytes are a major component of the microenvironment.
Project description:Ovarian cancer has a clear predilection for metastasis to the omentum, but the underlying mechanisms involved in ovarian cancer spread are not well understood. Here, we used a parabiosis model that demonstrates preferential hematogenous metastasis of ovarian cancer to the omentum. Our studies revealed that the ErbB3-neuregulin1 (NRG1) axis is a dominant pathway responsible for hematogenous omental metastasis. Elevated levels of ErbB3 in ovarian cancer cells and NRG1 in the omentum allowed for tumor cell localization and growth in the omentum. Depletion of ErbB3 in ovarian cancer substantially impaired omental metastasis. Our results highlight hematogenous metastasis as a previously under-recognized mode of ovarian cancer metastasis. These findings have implications for designing new strategies aimed at preventing and treating ovarian cancer metastasis. Overall design: Two groups of samples are included: 1.SKOV3-ip1 2.SKOV3-OM3. Gene expression profiles of SKOV3-OM3 cells were compared to that of parental SKOV3 ip1 cells.
Project description:Accumulating data suggest that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) exert a key function in several diseases. Peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) regulates NET formation via citrullination of histones. The aim of this study was to examine the role of miR-155 in controlling PAD4-dependent generation of NETs. Bone marrow neutrophils were stimulated with PMA and MIP-2. Pre-incubation of neutrophils with translational inhibitors (cycloheximide or puromycin) markedly decreased NET formation induced by PMA or MIP-2. Neutrophil transfection with a mimic miR-155 increased PMA-induced PAD4 mRNA expression and NET formation. In contrast, transfection with an antagomiR-155 decreased induction of PAD4 mRNA and NETs in response to PMA challenge. Bioinformatical examination of PAD4 revealed a potential binding site in AU-rich elements at the 3'-UTR region. MiR-155 binding to PAD4 was examined by use of target site blockers and RNA immunoprecipitation, revealing that miR-155 regulation of PAD4 mRNA is mediated via AU-rich elements in the 3'-UTR region. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that miR-155 positively regulates neutrophil expression of PAD4 and expulsion of extracellular traps. Thus, our novel results indicate that targeting miR-155 might be useful to inhibit exaggerated NET generation in inflammatory diseases.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Adipose tissue contains a population of multipotent adipose stem cells (ASCs) that form tumor stroma and can promote tumor progression. Given the high rate of ovarian cancer metastasis to the omental adipose, we hypothesized that omental-derived ASC may contribute to ovarian cancer growth and dissemination. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We isolated ASCs from the omentum of three patients with ovarian cancer, with (O-ASC4, O-ASC5) and without (O-ASC1) omental metastasis. BM-MSCs, SQ-ASCs, O-ASCs were characterized with gene expression arrays and metabolic analysis. Stromal cells effects on ovarian cancer cells proliferation, chemoresistance and radiation resistance was evaluated using co-culture assays with luciferase-labeled human ovarian cancer cell lines. Transwell migration assays were performed with conditioned media from O-ASCs and control cell lines. SKOV3 cells were intraperitionally injected with or without O-ASC1 to track in-vivo engraftment. RESULTS:O-ASCs significantly promoted in vitro proliferation, migration chemotherapy and radiation response of ovarian cancer cell lines. O-ASC4 had more marked effects on migration and chemotherapy response on OVCA 429 and OVCA 433 cells than O-ASC1. Analysis of microarray data revealed that O-ASC4 and O-ASC5 have similar gene expression profiles, in contrast to O-ASC1, which was more similar to BM-MSCs and subcutaneous ASCs in hierarchical clustering. Human O-ASCs were detected in the stroma of human ovarian cancer murine xenografts but not uninvolved ovaries. CONCLUSIONS:ASCs derived from the human omentum can promote ovarian cancer proliferation, migration, chemoresistance and radiation resistance in-vitro. Furthermore, clinical O-ASCs isolates demonstrate heterogenous effects on ovarian cancer in-vitro.
Project description:Peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4/PADI4) is a posttranslational modification enzyme that converts protein arginine or mono-methylarginine to citrulline. The PAD4-mediated hypercitrullination reaction in neutrophils causes the release of nuclear chromatin to form a chromatin network termed neutrophil extracellular traps (NET). NETs were first described as antimicrobial fibers that bind and kill bacteria. However, it is not known whether PAD4 can mediate the release of chromatin DNA into the extracellular space of cancer cells. Here, we report that murine breast cancer 4T1 cells expressing high levels of PADI4 can release cancer extracellular chromatin networks (CECN) in vitro and in vivo. Deletion of Padi4 using CRISPR/Cas9 abolished CECN formation in 4T1 cells. Padi4 deletion from 4T1 cells also reduced the rate of tumor growth in an allograft model, and decreased lung metastasis by 4T1 breast cancers. DNase I treatment, which degrades extracellular DNA including CECNs, also reduced breast to lung metastasis of Padi4 wild-type 4T1 cells in allograft experiments in the Padi4-knockout mice. We further demonstrated that DNase I treatment in this mouse model did not alter circulating tumor cells but decreased metastasis through steps after intravasation. Taken together, our genetic studies show that PAD4 plays a cell autonomous role in cancer metastasis, thus revealing a novel strategy for preventing cancer metastasis by inhibiting cancer cell endogenous PAD4. IMPLICATIONS: This study shows that PADI4 can mediate the formation of CECNs in 4T1 cells, and that endogenous PADI4 plays an essential role in breast cancer lung metastasis. VISUAL OVERVIEW: http://mcr.aacrjournals.org/content/molcanres/18/5/735/F1.large.jpg.