Fabrication of Stacked Graphene Oxide Nanosheet Membranes Using Triethanolamine as a Crosslinker and Mild Reducing Agent for Water Treatment.
ABSTRACT: Two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets show promise for the development of water treatment membranes with extraordinary separation properties and the advantages of atomic thickness with micrometer-sized lateral dimensions. Stacked graphene oxide (GO)-based membranes can demonstrate unique molecular sieving properties with fast water permeation. However, improvements to the structural stability of the membranes in water to avoid problems such as swelling, disruption of the ordered GO layer and decreased rejection are crucial issues. This study reports the fabrication of stacked GO nanosheet membranes by simple vacuum filtration using triethanolamine (TEOA) as a crosslinker and mild reducing agent for improved structural stability and membrane performance. Results show that GO membranes modified with TEOA (GO-TEOA membranes) have a higher structural stability in water than unmodified GO membranes, resulting in improved salt rejection performance. Furthermore, GO-TEOA membranes show stable water permeance at applied pressures up to 9 bar with Na?SO? rejection of 85%, suggesting the potential benefits for water treatment applications.
Project description:Graphene oxide (GO) based membranes have been widely applied in molecular separation based on the size exclusion effect of the nanochannels formed by stacked GO sheets. However, it's still a challenge to prepare a freestanding GO-based membrane with high mechanical strength and structural stability which is prerequisite for separation application in aqueous solution. Here, a freestanding composite membrane based on bacterial cellulose (BC) and GO is designed and prepared. BC network provides a porous skeleton to spread GO sheets and uniformly incorporates into the GO layers, which endows the BC?+?GO composite membrane with well water-stability, excellent tensile strength, as well as improved toughness, guaranteeing its separation applicability in water environment. The resulting BC?+?GO membrane exhibits obviously discrepant permeation properties for different inorganic/organic ions with different size, and in particular, it can quickly separate ions in nano-scale from angstrom-scale. Therefore, this novel composite membrane is considered to be a promising candidate in the applications of water purification, food industry, biomedicine, and pharmaceutical and fuel separation.
Project description:Graphene oxide (GO) membrane has been synthesized on commercial polysulfone ultrafiltration membranes (Pore size: 17 nm) using the drop casting method followed by baking at 90 C for 24 h. Baking resulted in the reduction of GO and removal of bulk water intercalated in the GO sheets. Deposited GO film showed high stability under shear stress variation. This work shows that water adsorption on the GO membrane determines its permeation performance. Despite the higher viscosity of isopropyl alcohol (IPA), its permeability was 7 times higher than water through the baked ("dry") GO membranes, which were never contacted with water. However, IPA permeability of GO membranes dropped to 44% (of deionized water) when contacted with water ("hydrated" or "wet" GO membranes). Extensive size exclusion (rejection) studies with various dye and dendrimer molecules showed pore size reduced from 3.3 nm in the "dry" state to 1.3 nm in the "wet" state of GO membranes. FT-IR characterization of GO membrane suggested adsorption of water on the nanochannels of the active layer. Also, significant decay in flux was observed for water (82% of its initial flux) as compared to IPA (38% of its initial flux) for initially dry GO membranes.
Project description:Two-dimensional membranes have gained enormous interest due to their potential to deliver precision filtration of species with performance that can challenge current desalination membrane platforms. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS<sub>2</sub>) laminar membranes have recently demonstrated superior stability in aqueous environment to their extensively-studied analogs graphene-based membranes; however, challenges such as low ion rejection for high salinity water, low water flux, and low stability over time delay their potential adoption as a viable technology. Here, we report composite laminate multilayer MoS<sub>2</sub> membranes with stacked heterodimensional one- to two-layer-thick porous nanosheets and nanodisks. These membranes have a multimodal porous network structure with tunable surface charge, pore size, and interlayer spacing. In forward osmosis, our membranes reject more than 99% of salts at high salinities and, in reverse osmosis, small-molecule organic dyes and salts are efficiently filtered. Finally, our membranes stably operate for over a month, implying their potential for use in commercial water purification applications.
Project description:The aim of this paper is to shed light on the application of graphene oxide (GO) membranes for the selective removal of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) from wastewater. These molecules are present in traces in the water produced from oil and gas plants and are treated now with complex filtration systems. GO membranes are obtained by a simple, fast, and scalable method. The focus of this work is to prove the possibility of employing GO membranes for the filtration of organic contaminants present in traces in oil and gas wastewater, which has never been reported. The stability of GO membranes is analyzed in water solutions with different pH and salinity. Details of the membrane preparation are provided, resulting in a crucial step to achieve a good filtration performance. Material characterization techniques such as electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy are employed to study the physical and chemical structure of GO membranes, while gas chromatography, UV-visible spectroscopy, and gravimetric techniques allow the quantification of their filtration performance. An impressive rejection of about 90% was achieved for 1 ppm of toluene and other pollutants in water, demonstrating the excellent performance of GO membranes in the oil and gas field.
Project description:In this work, graphene oxide (GO)/ethylene glycol (EG) membranes were designed by a vacuum filtration method for molecular separation and water purification. The composite membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The interlayer spacing of GO membranes (0.825 nm) and GO/EG membranes (0.634 nm) are measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Using the vacuum filtration method, the membrane thickness can be controlled by selecting the volume of the solution from which the membrane is prepared, to achieve high water permeance and high rejection of Rhodamine B (RhB). The membrane performance was evaluated on a dead-end filtration device. The water permeance and rejection of RhB of the membranes are 103.35 L m<sup>-2</sup> h<sup>-1</sup> bar<sup>-1</sup> and 94.56% (GO), 58.17 L m<sup>-2</sup> h<sup>-1</sup> bar<sup>-1</sup> and 97.13% (GO/EG), respectively. The permeability of GO/EG membrane is about 40 × 10<sup>-6</sup> L m<sup>-1</sup> h<sup>-1</sup> bar<sup>-1</sup>. Compared with the GO membrane, the GO/EG membrane has better separation performance because of its proper interlayer spacing. In this study, the highest rejection of RhB (99.92%) is achieved. The GO/EG membranes have potential applications in the fields of molecular separation and water purification.
Project description:Reduced-graphene oxide (r-GO) membranes with narrow channels exhibit salt rejections comparable to conventional nanofiltration (NF) membranes. However, their water permeances are much lower because of the high tortuosity for water permeation. Herein we report a facile solution-processable approach to create in-plane nanopores on GO nanosheets before reduction, dramatically decreasing the tortuosity and increasing water permeance while retaining the salt rejection. Specifically, holey GO (HGO) nanosheets were prepared via chemical etching using hydrogen peroxide, followed by the deposition on a porous support by vacuum filtration and then reduction via exposure to hydriodic acid solutions to generate the reduced HGO (r-HGO) membrane. The generation of nanopores increases the water permeance from 0.4 L m-2?h-1?bar-1 (LMH/bar) to 6.6 LMH/bar with Na2SO4 rejection greater than 98.5 %, and the membranes were robust under strong cross-flow shearing force for 36 h. Both water permeance and Na2SO4 rejection of these r-HGO membranes for the first time simultaneously reach the level of the commercial polyamide-based NF membranes. Given their good antibacterial properties and resistance to aggressive chemical washing, the r-HGO membranes show the promise as next-generation NF membranes for desalination.
Project description:Triethanolamine (TEOA) is one of the most commonly used sacrificial agents in photocatalysis. Due to its more complex structure compared to, for example, ethanol, and its sacrificial role in photocatalysis, it gives a mixture of products. The structures of these molecules are not usually analyzed. Herein, we obtain and isolate the products of TEOA and N-tert-butyl diethanolamine oxygenation under photocatalytic conditions with ≈15 % yield, and followingly characterized them by NMR and mass spectroscopy. The reaction is mediated by potassium poly(heptazine imide) (K-PHI) in the presence of O<sub>2</sub> and affords formyl esters of β-hydroxyethylene formamides from the corresponding ethanolamines.
Project description:Rhizopus oryzae (R. oryzae) can effectively produce organic acids, and its pellet formation in seed cultures has been shown to significantly enhance subsequent fermentation processes. Despite advances in strain development, simple and effective methods for inducing pellet morphology and a basic understanding of the mechanisms controlling this process could facilitate substantial increases in efficiency and product output. Here, we report that 1.5% triethanolamine (TEOA) in seed culture medium can activate the growth of R. oryzae spores in compact and uniform pellets which is optimal for fermentation conditions. Analysis of fermentation kinetics showed that the production of fumaric and L-malic acid increases 293% and 177%, respectively. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that exposure of R. oryzae to 1.5% TEOA during the seed culture activated the phosphatidylinositol and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Theses pathways subsequently stimulated the downstream carbohydrate-active synthases and hydrolases that required for cell wall component synthesis and reconstruction. Our results thus provide insight into the regulatory pathways controlling pellet morphology germane to the viability of seed cultures, and provide valuable reference data for subsequent optimization of organic acid fermentation by R. oryzae.
Project description:Increasing fresh water demand for drinking and agriculture is one of the grand challenges of our age. Graphene oxide (GO) membranes have shown a great potential for desalination and water purification. However, it is challenging to further improve the water permeability without sacrificing the separation efficiency, and the GO membranes are easily delaminated in aqueous solutions within few hours. Here, we report a class of reduced GO membranes with enlarged interlayer distance fabricated by using theanine amino acid and tannic acid as reducing agent and cross-linker. Such membranes show water permeance over 10,000?L?m-2 h-1 bar-1, which is 10-1000 times higher than those of previously reported GO-based membranes and commercial membranes, and good separation efficiency, e.g., rhodamine B and methylene blue rejection of ~100%. Moreover, they show no damage or delamination in water, acid, and basic solutions even after months.
Project description:Graphene oxide (GO) and its composite membranes have exhibited great potential for application in water purification and desalination. This article reports that a novel graphene oxide membrane (GOM) of ~5 µm thickness was fabricated onto a nylon membrane by vacuum filtration and cross-linked by amino acids (L-alanine, L-phenylalanine, and serine). The GOM cross-linked by amino acids (GOM-A) exhibits excellent stability, high water flux, and high rejection to metal ions. The rejection coefficients to alkali and alkaline earth metal ions through GOM-A were over 94% and 96%, respectively. The rejection coefficients decreased with an increasing H+ concentration. Metal ions (K+, Ca2+, and Fe3+) can be inserted into GOM-A layers, which enlarges the interlayer spacing of GOM-A and neutralizes the electronegativity of the membrane, resulting in the decease in the rejection coefficients to metal ions. Meanwhile, GOM-A showed quite high antibacterial efficiency against E. coli. With the excellent performance as described above, GOM-A could be used to purify and desalt water.