The Zinc-Metallothionein Redox System Reduces Oxidative Stress in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells.
ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress affects all the structures of the human eye, particularly the retina and its retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The RPE limits oxidative damage by several protective mechanisms, including the non-enzymatic antioxidant system zinc-metallothionein (Zn-MT). This work aimed to investigate the role of Zn-MT in the protection of RPE from the oxidative damage of reactive oxygen intermediates by analytical and biochemical-based techniques. The Zn-MT system was induced in an in vitro model of RPE cells and determined by elemental mass spectrometry with enriched isotopes and mathematical calculations. Induced-oxidative stress was quantified using fluorescent probes. We observed that 25, 50 or 100 ?M of zinc induced Zn-MT synthesis (1.6-, 3.6- and 11.9-fold, respectively), while pre-treated cells with zinc (25, 50, and 100 ?M) and subsequent 2,2'-Azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH) treatment increased Zn-MT levels in a lesser extent (0.8-, 2.1-, 6.1-fold, respectively), exerting a stoichiometric transition in the Zn-MT complex. Moreover, AAPH treatment decreased MT levels (0.4-fold), while the stoichiometry remained constant or slightly higher when compared to non-treated cells. Convincingly, induction of Zn-MT significantly attenuated oxidative stress produced by free radicals' generators. We conclude that the stoichiometry of Zn-MT plays an important role in oxidative stress response, related with cellular metal homeostasis.
Project description:The physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima D. var. Cabello de Ángel) pectin obtained by cavitation facilitated extraction from pumpkin pulp have been evaluated and compared with commercial citrus and apple pectins. C. maxima pectin had an Mw value of 90 kDa and a high degree (72%) of esterification. The cytoprotective and antioxidant effects of citrus, apple and pumpkin pectin samples with different concentrations were studied in vitro in cell lines HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma) and MDCK1 (canine kidney epithelium). All pectin samples exhibited cytoprotective effect in HT-29 and MDCK1 cells after incubation with toxic concentrations of cadmium and mercury for 4 h. Pumpkin pectin increased the proliferation of cadmium-treated MDCK1 cells by 210%. The studied pectins also inhibited oxidative stress induced by 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH) in cell cultures, as determined by measuring the production of intracellular reactive species using dihydrochlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). Pectin from pumpkin pomace had the highest (p < 0.05) protective effect against reactive oxygen species generation in MDCK1 cells induced by AAPH. Distinctive features of pumpkin pectin were highly branched RG-I regions, the presence of RG-II regions and the highest galacturonic acid content among the studied samples of pectins. This correlates with a considerable protective effect of C. maxima pectin against oxidative stress and cytotoxicity induced by heavy metal ions. Thus, C. maxima pectin can be considered as a source of new functional foods of agricultural origin.
Project description:We examined the profiling of gene expression of metallothioneins (MTs) in human tissues from cadaver eyes with microarray-based analysis. All MT1 isoforms, with the exception of MT1B, were abundantly expressed in lens and corneal tissue. Along with MT1B, MT4 was not detected in any tissues. Antibodies to MT1/2 labeled the corneal epithelial and endothelial cells, whereas MT3 label the retinal ganglion cells. We studied the effects of zinc and cytokines on the gene expression of MT isoforms in a corneal epithelial cell line (HCEsv). Zinc exerted an up-regulation of the expression of MT isoforms, and this effect was further potentiated in the presence of IL1? or TNF?. Zinc also elicited a strong down-regulation of the expression of inflammatory cytokines, and this effect was blocked in the presence of TNF? or IL1?. The concentration of MTs, bound zinc, and the metal stoichiometry of MTs in cultured HCEsv were determined by mass spectrometry. The total concentration of MTs was 0.24 ± 0.03 ?M and, after 24 h of zinc exposure, increased to 0.96 ± 0.01 ?M. The combination of zinc and IL1? further enhanced the level of MTs to 1.13 ± 0.03 ?M. The average metal stoichiometry of MTs was Zn(6)Cu(1)-MT, and after exposure to the different treatments, it changed to Zn(7)-MT. Actinomycin D blocked transcription, and cycloheximide attenuated synthesis of MTs in the presence or absence of zinc, suggesting transcriptional regulation. Overall the data provide molecular and analytical evidence on the interplay between zinc, MTs, and proinflammatory cytokines in HCEsv cells, with potential implications on cell-based inflammatory eye diseases.
Project description:Zinquin [ethyl (2-methyl-8-p-toluenesulphonamido-6-quinolyloxy)acetate], a new intracellular zinc fluorophore, was used to reveal and to measure Zn in cultured rat hepatocytes before and after metallothionein (MT) induction. Hepatocytes labelled with an intense extranuclear fluorescence. Culture with combinations of Zn, dexamethasone and interleukin-6, increased intracellular MT by 24-fold, Zn 3-fold, and Zinquin fluorescence by approx. 2-fold above control values. Zinquin fluorescence correlated in descending order with the total cellular Zn (r = 0.747), exchangeable Zn (r = 0.735), soluble cytosolic Zn (r = 0.669) and MT (r = 0.666). When Zinquin was incubated with a cytosolic fraction of liver proteins before Sephadex G-75 column chromatography, it fluoresced with free, MT-incorporated and protein-bound Zn. Although only a slight attenuation of fluorescence was seen with high-molecular-mass protein-bound Zn, MT was degraded by 60% in the presence of Zinquin. The undegraded Zn-MT fluoresced at about 20% of the expected intensity. Although Zinquin fluoresces with all cytosolic Zn, caution is required when comparisons are made between samples with different concentrations of MT. This limitation was demonstrated by staining liver slices from adjuvant-treated rats where MT was increased 24-fold, intracellular Zn by 77%, but Zinquin fluorescence by only 19% above controls. Nevertheless, Zinquin should prove to be a useful tool for studying the distribution of Zn in living cells.
Project description:Cu and Zn ions are essential in most living beings. Their metabolism is critical for health and mis-metabolism can be lethal. In the last two decades, a large body of evidence has reported the role of copper, zinc and iron, and oxidative stress in several neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, prion diseases, etc. To what extent this mis-metabolism is causative or a consequence of these diseases is still a matter of research. In this context metallothioneins (MTs) appear to play a central gate-keeper role in controlling aberrant metal-protein interactions. MTs are small proteins that can bind high amounts of Zn(ii) and Cu(i) ions in metal-cluster arrangements via their cysteine thiolates. Moreover, MTs are well known antioxidants. The present tutorial outlines the chemistry underlying the interconnection between copper(i/ii) and zinc(ii) coordination to amyloidogenic proteins and MTs, and their redox properties in generation and/or silencing reactive oxygen species (overproduced in oxidative stress) and other reactants. These studies have revealed the coordination chemistry involved in neurodegenerative diseases and the interactions between MTs and amyloidogenic protein metal-complexes (like amyloid-?, ?-synuclein and prion-protein). Overall, the protective role of MTs in neurodegenerative processes is emerging, serving as a foundation for exploring MT chemistry as inspiration for therapeutic approaches.
Project description:The homotrimeric enzyme Mt-Cam from Methanosarcina thermophila is the archetype of the gamma class of carbonic anhydrases. A search of databases queried with Mt-Cam revealed that a majority of the homologs comprise a putative subclass (CamH) in which there is major conservation of all of the residues essential for the archetype Mt-Cam except Glu62 and an acidic loop containing the essential proton shuttle residue Glu84. The CamH homolog from M. thermophila (Mt-CamH) was overproduced in Escherichia coli and characterized to validate its activity and initiate an investigation of the CamH subclass. The Mt-CamH homotrimer purified from E. coli cultured with supplemental zinc (Zn-Mt-CamH) contained 0.71 zinc and 0.15 iron per monomer and had k(cat) and k(cat)/K(m) values that were substantially lower than those for the zinc form of Mt-Cam (Zn-Mt-Cam). Mt-CamH purified from E. coli cultured with supplemental iron (Fe-Mt-CamH) was also a trimer containing 0.15 iron per monomer and only a trace amount of zinc and had an effective k(cat) (k(cat)(eff)) value normalized for iron that was 6-fold less than that for the iron form of Mt-Cam, whereas the k(cat)/K(m)(eff) was similar to that for Fe-Mt-Cam. Addition of 50 mM imidazole to the assay buffer increased the k(cat)(eff) of Fe-Mt-CamH more than 4-fold. Fe-Mt-CamH lost activity when it was exposed to air or 3% H(2)O(2), which supports the hypothesis that Fe(2+) has a role in the active site. The k(cat) for Fe-Mt-CamH was dependent on the concentration of buffer in a way that indicates that it acts as a second substrate in a "ping-pong" mechanism accepting a proton. The k(cat)/K(m) was not dependent on the buffer, consistent with the mechanism for all carbonic anhydrases in which the interconversion of CO(2) and HCO(3)(-) is separate from intermolecular proton transfer.
Project description:Hepatic zinc uptake and accumulation were compared in freshly isolated and cultured hepatocytes prepared from control (MT+/+) and metallothionein (MT)-null (MT-/-) mice. In freshly isolated hepatocytes, rapid (10-15 min) exchange of 65Zn was proportional to the Zn concentration in the medium and occurred to the same extent in hepatocytes from MT+/+ and MT-/- mice. In 24 h culture experiments with MT+/+ and MT-/- hepatocytes it was shown that approx. 40% of newly acquired cell-associated Zn was attached to the cell surface and not internalized. In MT+/+ and MT-/- hepatocyte cultures, internalized Zn (intZn) increased in proportion to extracellular Zn. Zn accumulation in MT-/- hepatocytes was only 60% that of MT+/+ cells. Addition of 1 microM dexamethasone (Dex) and recombinant mouse interleukin-6 (IL-6; 100 units/ml) increased MT accumulation by 8.6-fold in MT+/+ hepatocytes (at 50 microM Zn) and there was an associated parallel increase in intZn. Dex and IL-6 did not increase intZn in the MT-/- hepatocytes. At 16 h after an intraperitoneal injection of 5 micrograms/g Zn, plasma and urine Zn concentrations were 69 +/- 10 microM and 86 +/- 25 microM respectively in MT-/- mice (n = 10) and 27 +/- 1 microM and 23 +/- 4 microM respectively in MT+/+ controls (n = 9) (P < 0.001, plasma; P < 0.05, urine). Hepatic cytosolic Zn concentrations doubled in MT+/+ mice and increased by a significant 15% in MT-/- mice. There was no increase in hepatic Zn (dry wt.) concentrations or in total hepatic Zn, demonstrating that the increase in cytosolic Zn in MT-/- mice was due to hepatic water loss rather than net Zn uptake. It appears that even at extreme plasma concentrations of Zn, little if any accumulates within the liver when there is no MT available for its sequestration. That this is not fully demonstrated in vitro is probably due to nature of cell culture, where organ architecture is lost and the external protein binding milieu is less complex.
Project description:The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is an ATP-gated ion channel that is a key player in oxidative stress under pathological conditions. The P2X7R is expressed in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and neural retina. Chronic oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Mice lacking Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) developed chronic oxidative stress as well as AMD-like features, but whether the P2X7R plays a causative role in oxidative stress-induced AMD is unknown. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to test if concurrent knockout (KO) of P2X7R could block AMD-like defects seen in Sod1 KO mice. Using multiple approaches, we demonstrate that Sod1 KO causes AMD-like defects, including positive staining for oxidative stress markers, 3-nitrotyrosine and carboxymethyl lysine, thinning of the RPE and retina, thickening of Bruch's membrane, presence of basal laminar and linear deposits, RPE barrier disruption and accumulation of microglia/macrophages. Moreover, we find that Sod1 KO mice accumulate more microparticles (MPs) within RPE/choroid tissues. Concurrent KO of the P2X7R protects against AMD-like defects and MP accumulation in Sod1 KO mice. Together, we show for the first time, that deficiency of P2X7R prevents in vivo oxidative stress-induced accumulation of MPs and AMD-like defects. This work could potentially lead to novel therapies for AMD and other oxidative stress-driven diseases.
Project description:We have demonstrated that zinc exposure induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells (PC-3) and benign hyperplasia cells (BPH), but not in normal prostate cells (HPR-1). However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of zinc on prostate cancer cell growth and zinc homeostasis remain unclear. To explore the zinc effect on gene expression profiles in normal (HPR-1) and malignant prostate cells (PC-3), we conducted a time course study of Zn treatment with microarray analysis. Microarray data were evaluated and profiled using computational approach for the primary and secondary data analyses. Final analyses were focused on the genes (1) highly sensitive to zinc; (2) associated with zinc homeostasis, i.e., metallothioneins (MTs), solute zinc carriers (ZIPs) and zinc exporters (ZnTs); (3) relevant to several oncogenic pathways. Zinc-mediated mRNA levels of MT isotypes were further validated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Results showed that zinc effect on genome-wide expression patterns was cell-type specific, and zinc appeared to have mainly down-regulatory effects on thousands of genes (1953 in HPR-1; 3534 in PC-3) with a threshold of +/-2.5-fold, while fewer genes were up-regulated (872 in HPR-1; 571 in PC-3). The patterns of zinc effect on functional MT genes' expression provided evidence for the cell type-dependent zinc accumulation and zinc-induced apoptosis in prostate cells. In PC-3 cells, zinc significantly up-regulated the expression of MT-1 isotypes MT-1J and MT-1M, denoted previously as "nonfunctional" MT genes, and now a depictive molecular structure of MT-1J was proposed. Examination of genes involved in oncogenic pathways indicated that certain genes, e.g., Fos, Akt1, Jak3 and PI3K, were highly regulated by zinc with cell-type specificity. This work provided an extensive database on zinc-related prostate cancer research. The strategy of data analysis was devoted to finding genes highly sensitive to Zn, and the genes associated with zinc accumulation and zinc-induced apoptosis. The results indicate that zinc regulation of gene expression is cell-type specific, and MT genes play important roles in prostate malignancy.
Project description:Metallothioneins (MTs) are low-molecular-mass cysteine-rich proteins implicated in metal homoeostasis and resistance to toxicity induced by heavy metals and alkylating agents. We report high hepatic MT protein accumulation (greater than 100-fold compared with wild-type mice) in toxic milk (tx) mice, along with markedly higher cytosol copper and zinc levels. Increased MT-gene transcription alone could not account for the high constitutive MT protein levels, since MT mRNA levels were not increased in tx mouse livers. However, hepatic MT was significantly more stable in adult tx mice: MT half-life (t1/2) was 79 or 77% greater than in wild-type mice before and after Cd induction respectively. Cd or Zn treatment increased MT mRNA, but not MT protein, accumulation in tx mouse livers: Cd displaced MT-bound Zn and Cu in preexisting MT. Thus tx mice appear to accumulate hepatic MT as a result of decreased protein degradation. These animals may provide a useful model to study the physiological role of MT, and human diseases (such as Wilson's disease) with abnormal copper metabolism.