Molecular Targets of Epigallocatechin-Gallate (EGCG): A Special Focus on Signal Transduction and Cancer.
ABSTRACT: Green tea is a beverage that is widely consumed worldwide and is believed to exert effects on different diseases, including cancer. The major components of green tea are catechins, a family of polyphenols. Among them, epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant and biologically active. EGCG is widely studied for its anti-cancer properties. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms explaining its action have not been completely understood, yet. EGCG is effective in vivo at micromolar concentrations, suggesting that its action is mediated by interaction with specific targets that are involved in the regulation of crucial steps of cell proliferation, survival, and metastatic spread. Recently, several proteins have been identified as EGCG direct interactors. Among them, the trans-membrane receptor 67LR has been identified as a high affinity EGCG receptor. 67LR is a master regulator of many pathways affecting cell proliferation or apoptosis, also regulating cancer stem cells (CSCs) activity. EGCG was also found to be interacting directly with Pin1, TGFR-II, and metalloproteinases (MMPs) (mainly MMP2 and MMP9), which respectively regulate EGCG-dependent inhibition of NF-kB, epithelial-mesenchimal transaction (EMT) and cellular invasion. EGCG interacts with DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), which modulates epigenetic changes. The bulk of this novel knowledge provides information about the mechanisms of action of EGCG and may explain its onco-suppressive function. The identification of crucial signalling pathways that are related to cancer onset and progression whose master regulators interacts with EGCG may disclose intriguing pharmacological targets, and eventually lead to novel combined treatments in which EGCG acts synergistically with known drugs.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In traditional Chinese medicine, green tea is considered to have a life-prolonging effect, possibly as a result of its rich content of antioxidant tea polyphenols, and hence has the potential to prevent cancer. This study investigated the role of the major tea secondary plant compound epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) for its inhibitory effects on the metastasis-associated 67 kDa laminin receptor (67LR). METHODS: To clarify the impact of EGCG on siRNA-silenced expression of 67LR, we applied an adenoviral-based intestinal in vitro knockdown model, porcine IPEC-J2 cells. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze 67LR gene expression following treatment with physiological and pharmacological concentrations of EGCG (1.0 g/l, 0.1 g/l, 0.02 g/l and 0.002 g/l). RESULTS: We report co-regulation of EGCG and 67LR, which is known to be an EGCG receptor. siRNA selectively and highly significantly suppressed expression of 67LR under the impact of EGCG in a synergetic manner. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that 67LR expression is regulated by EGCG via a negative feedback loop. The explicit occurrence of this effect in synergy with a small RNA pathway and a plant-derived drug reveals a new mode of action. Our findings may help to provide insights into the many unsolved health-promoting activities of other natural pharmaceuticals.
Project description:Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major active polyphenol of green tea, has been shown to downregulate inflammatory responses in macrophages; however, the underlying mechanism has not been understood. Recently, we identified the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) as a cell-surface EGCG receptor that mediates the anti-cancer action of EGCG at physiologically relevant concentrations (0.1-1 mM). Here we show the molecular basis for the downregulation of TLR4 signal transduction by EGCG at 1 mM in macrophages. Anti-67LR antibody treatment or RNAi-mediated silencing of 67LR resulted in abrogation of the inhibitory action of EGCG on LPS-induced activation of downstream signaling pathways and target gene expressions. Additionally, we found that EGCG reduced the TLR4 expression through 67LR. Interestingly, EGCG induced a rapid upregulation of Tollip protein, a negative regulator of TLR-signaling, and this EGCG action was prevented by 67LR silencing or anti-67LR antibody treatment. RNAi-mediated silencing of Tollip impaired the TLR4 signaling inhibitory activity of EGCG. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that 67LR plays a critical role in mediating anti-inflammatory action of a physiologically relevant EGCG and Tollip expression could be modulated through 67LR. These results provide a new insight into the understanding of negative regulatory mechanisms for TLR4 signaling pathway and consequent inflammatory responses which are implicated in the development and progression of many chronic diseases. We quantified expression profile of 210 inflammatory-relating genes in the 67LR-downregulated cells treated with LPS or/and EGCG by microarray
Project description:Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major active polyphenol of green tea, has been shown to downregulate inflammatory responses in macrophages; however, the underlying mechanism has not been understood. Recently, we identified the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) as a cell-surface EGCG receptor that mediates the anti-cancer action of EGCG at physiologically relevant concentrations (0.1-1 mM). Here we show the molecular basis for the downregulation of TLR4 signal transduction by EGCG at 1 mM in macrophages. Anti-67LR antibody treatment or RNAi-mediated silencing of 67LR resulted in abrogation of the inhibitory action of EGCG on LPS-induced activation of downstream signaling pathways and target gene expressions. Additionally, we found that EGCG reduced the TLR4 expression through 67LR. Interestingly, EGCG induced a rapid upregulation of Tollip protein, a negative regulator of TLR-signaling, and this EGCG action was prevented by 67LR silencing or anti-67LR antibody treatment. RNAi-mediated silencing of Tollip impaired the TLR4 signaling inhibitory activity of EGCG. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that 67LR plays a critical role in mediating anti-inflammatory action of a physiologically relevant EGCG and Tollip expression could be modulated through 67LR. These results provide a new insight into the understanding of negative regulatory mechanisms for TLR4 signaling pathway and consequent inflammatory responses which are implicated in the development and progression of many chronic diseases. Overall design: We quantified expression profile of 210 inflammatory-relating genes in the 67LR-downregulated cells treated with LPS or/and EGCG by microarray
Project description:The 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) is a laminin-binding protein overexpressed in various types of cancer, including bile duct carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, cervical cancer, and breast carcinoma. 67LR plays a vital role in growth and metastasis of tumor cells and resistance to chemotherapy. Here, we show that 67LR functions as a cancer-specific death receptor. In this cell death receptor pathway, cGMP initiated cancer-specific cell death by activating the PKC?/acid sphingomyelinase (PKC?/ASM) pathway. Furthermore, upregulation of cGMP was a rate-determining process of 67LR-dependent cell death induced by the green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), a natural ligand of 67LR. We found that phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5), a negative regulator of cGMP, was abnormally expressed in multiple cancers and attenuated 67LR-mediated cell death. Vardenafil, a PDE5 inhibitor that is used to treat erectile dysfunction, significantly potentiated the EGCG-activated 67LR-dependent apoptosis without affecting normal cells and prolonged the survival time in a mouse xenograft model. These results suggest that PDE5 inhibitors could be used to elevate cGMP levels to induce 67LR-mediated, cancer-specific cell death.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs involved in various biological processes by regulating their target genes. Green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) inhibits melanoma tumor growth by activating 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) signaling. To examine the effect of EGCG on miRNA expression in melanoma cells, we performed miRNA microarray analysis. We showed that EGCG up-regulated miRNA-let-7b expression through 67LR in melanoma cells. The EGCG-induced up-regulation of let-7b led to down-regulation of high mobility group A2 (HMGA2), a target gene related to tumor progression. 67LR-dependent cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)/protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) signaling pathway activation was involved in the up-regulation of let-7b expression induced by EGCG. These findings provide a basis for understanding the mechanism of miRNA regulation by EGCG.
Project description:Green tea extract (GTE) induces apoptosis of cancer cells without adversely affecting normal cells. Several clinical trials reported that GTE was well tolerated and had potential anti-cancer efficacy. Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) is the primary compound responsible for the anti-cancer effect of GTE; however, the effect of EGCG alone is limited. To identify GTE compounds capable of potentiating EGCG bioactivity, we performed metabolic profiling of 43 green tea cultivar panels by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Here, we revealed the polyphenol eriodictyol significantly potentiated apoptosis induction by EGCG in vitro and in a mouse tumour model by amplifying EGCG-induced activation of the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR)/protein kinase B/endothelial nitric oxide synthase/protein kinase C delta/acid sphingomyelinase signalling pathway. Our results show that metabolic profiling is an effective chemical-mining approach for identifying botanical drugs with therapeutic potential against multiple myeloma. Metabolic profiling-based data mining could be an efficient strategy for screening additional bioactive compounds and identifying effective chemical combinations.
Project description:Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a main active catechin in green tea, was reported to attenuate renal injury and hypertension. However, its effects on salt-induced hypertension and renal injury remain unclear. In the present study, we explored its effects on hypertension and renal damage in Dahl rats with salt-sensitive hypertension. We found that EGCG could lower blood pressure after 6 weeks of oral administration, reduce 24?h urine protein levels and decrease creatinine clearance, and attenuate renal fibrosis, indicating that it could attenuate hypertension by protecting against renal damage. Furthermore, we studied the renal protective mechanisms of EGCG, revealing that it could lower malondialdehyde levels, reduce the numbers of infiltrated macrophages and T cells, and induce the apoptosis of NRK-49F cells. Considering that the 67 kD laminin receptor (67LR) binds to EGCG, its role in EGCG-induced fibroblast apoptosis was also investigated. The results showed that an anti-67LR antibody partially abrogated the apoptosis-inducing effects of EGCG on NRK-49F cells. In summary, EGCG may attenuate renal damage and salt-sensitive hypertension via exerting anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and apoptosis-inducing effects on fibroblasts; the last effect is partially mediated by 67LR, suggesting that EGCG represents a potential strategy for treating salt-sensitive hypertension.
Project description:Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is one of the major polyphenolic compounds present in green tea extracts and has been used as a potential drug for the treatment of numerous diseases. The present study aimed to elucidate the role and mechanism of EGCG in protecting against H2O2-induced apoptosis in mouse vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). VSMCs were pretreated with various concentrations of EGCG for 2?hours prior to treatment with H2O2. Treatment with H2O2 significantly decreased the cell viability and induced apoptosis of VSMCs, which were attenuated by pretreatment with EGCG. In particular, EGCG pretreatment significantly inhibited the H2O2-induced upregulation of cleaved forms of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9, Bax, CathepsinD, and downregulation of Bcl-2. Moreover, the antioxidation effect of EGCG on VSMCs was determined to be associated with the 67kD laminin receptor (67LR). Our results demonstrated that EGCG improved cell viability and protected VSMCs against oxidative stress through both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, while 67LR is likely to be an active and key receptor of EGCG. These findings provide a novel molecular mechanism of EGCG in inhibiting H2O2-induced apoptosis in VSMCs, as well as its function in preventing the development of atherosclerosis.
Project description:Over the past decade many scientific and medical studies have focused on green tea for its long-purported health benefits. There is convincing evidence that tea is a cup of life. It has multiple preventive and therapeutic effects. This review thus focuses on the recent advances of tea polyphenols and their applications in the prevention and treatment of human cancers. Of the various polyphenols in tea, (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant, and active compound studied in tea research. EGCG inhibits several molecular targets to inhibit cancer initiation and modulates several essential survival pathways to block cancer progression. Herein, we describe the various mechanisms of action of EGCG and also discuss previous and current ongoing clinical trials of EGCG and green tea polyphenols in different cancer types.
Project description:Green tea has been shown to have beneficial effects on many diseases such as cancer, obesity, inflammatory diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders. The major green tea component, epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), has been demonstrated to contribute to these effects through its anti-oxidative and pro-oxidative properties. Furthermore, several lines of evidence have indicated that the binding affinity of EGCG to specific proteins may explain its mechanism of action. This review article aims to reveal how EGCG-protein interactions can explain the mechanism by which green tea/EGCG can exhibit health beneficial effects. We conducted a literature search, using mainly the PubMed database. The results showed that several methods such as dot assays, affinity gel chromatography, surface plasmon resonance, computational docking analyses, and X-ray crystallography have been used for this purpose. These studies have provided evidence to show how EGCG can fit or occupy the position in or near functional sites and induce a conformational change, including a quaternary conformational change in some cases. Active site blocking, steric hindrance by binding of EGCG near an active site or induced conformational change appeared to cause inhibition of enzymatic activity and other biological activities of proteins, which are related to EGCG's biological oligomer and formation of their toxic aggregates, leading to the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases and amyloidosis. In conclusion, these studies have provided useful information on the action of green tea/catechins and would lead to future studies that will provide further evidence for rational EGCG therapy and use EGCG as a lead compound for drug design.