Associations of Dietary Patterns and Metabolic-Hormone Profiles with Breast Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study.
ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the most diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. Studies regarding complex breast cancer aetiology are limited and the results are inconclusive. We investigated the associations between dietary patterns (DPs), metabolic-hormone profiles (M-HPs), and breast cancer risk. This case-control study involved 420 women aged 40?79 years from north-eastern Poland, including 190 newly-diagnosed breast cancer cases. The serum concentration of lipid components, glucose, and hormones (oestradiol, progesterone, testosterone, prolactin, cortisol, insulin) was marked in 129 post-menopausal women (82 controls, 47 cases). The food frequency consumption was collected using a validated 62-item food frequency questionnaire. A posteriori DPs or M-HPs were derived with a Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Three DPs: 'Non-Healthy', 'Prudent', and 'Margarine and Sweetened Dairy' and two M-HPs: 'Metabolic-Syndrome' and 'High-Hormone' were identified. The 'Polish-adapted Mediterranean Diet' ('Polish-aMED') score was calculated. The risk of breast cancer risk was three-times higher (odds ratio (OR): 2.90; 95% confidence interval (95% Cl): 1.62?5.21; p < 0.001) in the upper tertile of the 'Non-Healthy' pattern (reference: bottom tertile) and five-times higher (OR: 5.34; 95% Cl: 1.84?15.48; p < 0.01) in the upper tertile of the 'High-Hormone' profile (reference: bottom tertile). There was a positive association of 'Metabolic-Syndrome' profile and an inverse association of 'Polish-aMED' score with the risk of breast cancer, which disappeared after adjustment for confounders. No significant association between 'Prudent' or 'Margarine and Sweetened Dairy' DPs and cancer risk was revealed. Concluding, a pro-healthy diet is insufficient to reduce the risk of breast cancer in peri- and postmenopausal women. The findings highlight the harmful effect of the 'High-Hormone' profile and the 'Non-Healthy' dietary pattern on breast cancer risk. In breast cancer prevention, special attention should be paid to decreasing the adherence to the 'Non-Healthy' pattern by reducing the consumption of highly processed food and foods with a high content of sugar and animal fat. There is also a need to monitor the concentration of multiple sex hormones in the context of breast cancer risk.
Project description:Lung cancer in men and breast cancer in women are the most commonly diagnosed cancers in Poland and worldwide. Results of studies involving dietary patterns (DPs) and breast or lung cancer risk in European countries outside the Mediterranean Sea region are limited and inconclusive. This study aimed to develop a 'Polish-adapted Mediterranean Diet' ('Polish-aMED') score, and then study the associations between the 'Polish-aMED' score and a posteriori-derived dietary patterns with breast or lung cancer risk in adult Poles. This pooled analysis of two case-control studies involved 560 subjects (280 men, 280 women) aged 40-75 years from Northeastern Poland. Diagnoses of breast cancer in 140 women and lung cancer in 140 men were found. The food frequency consumption of 21 selected food groups was collected using a 62-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ)-6. The 'Polish-adapted Mediterranean Diet' score which included eight items-vegetables, fruit, whole grain, fish, legumes, nuts and seeds-as well as the ratio of vegetable oils to animal fat and red and processed meat was developed (range: 0-8 points). Three DPs were identified in a Principal Component Analysis: 'Prudent', 'Non-healthy', 'Dressings and sweetened-low-fat dairy'. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, two models were created: crude, and adjusted for age, sex, type of cancer, Body Mass Index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES) index, overall physical activity, smoking status and alcohol abuse. The risk of breast or lung cancer was lower in the average (3-5 points) and high (6-8 points) levels of the 'Polish-aMED' score compared to the low (0-2 points) level by 51% (odds ratio (OR): 0.49; 95% confidence interval (Cl): 0.30-0.80; p < 0.01; adjusted) and 63% (OR: 0.37; 95% Cl: 0.21-0.64; p < 0.001; adjusted), respectively. In the middle and upper tertiles compared to the bottom tertile of the 'Prudent' DP, the risk of cancer was lower by 38-43% (crude) but was not significant after adjustment for confounders. In the upper compared to the bottom tertile of the 'Non-healthy' DP, the risk of cancer was higher by 65% (OR: 1.65; 95% Cl: 1.05-2.59; p < 0.05; adjusted). In conclusion, the Polish adaptation of the Mediterranean diet could be considered for adults living in non-Mediterranean countries for the prevention of the breast or lung cancers. Future studies should explore the role of a traditional Mediterranean diet fitted to local dietary patterns of non-Mediterranean Europeans in cancer prevention.
Project description:Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men worldwide. Studies regarding dietary patterns (DPs) and lung cancer are limited, with results remaining inconclusive, and the association of DPs with lung cancer in smokers is unclear. This study analyzed the associations between DPs, including the Polish-adapted Mediterranean diet (Polish-aMED) score, and lung cancer risk in Polish adult male smokers. This case-control study involved 439 men aged 45-80 years from northeastern Poland, including 187 newly diagnosed lung cancer cases. Dietary data was collected with a 62-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ-6). Two approaches were applied to identify dietary patterns. The Polish-aMED score was calculated (hypothesis-driven approach) and a principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify PCA-driven DPs (data-driven approach). A logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of the lung cancer risk associated with the adherence to DPs overall as well as for moderate (2.5-11 pack-years) and heavy (>11 pack-years) smokers. Among moderate smokers, the risk of lung cancer was lower by 41% (OR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.39-0.90; <i>p</i> < 0.05; adjusted model) in the higher adherence to the prudent DP when compared to the lower adherence, and by 66% (OR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.15-0.76; <i>p</i> < 0.05; adjusted model) in the high adherence (7-9 points) to the Polish-aMED score when compared to the low adherence (0-3 points). No significant association between the westernized traditional DP or the sweet dairy DP and lung cancer was revealed. In conclusion, the current study suggests that pro-healthy dietary patterns, including the Mediterranean pattern, may favour lower risk of lung cancer in moderate smokers, although it was not confirmed in heavy smokers.
Project description:Understanding the factors that coexist with healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors is prevalent and important for public health. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between food involvement, eating restrictions, and dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish adults. The study was conducted among a group of 1007 adults. Questions with the answers yes or no were used to obtain the data regarding eating restrictions. Data relating to food involvement were obtained with the Food Involvement Scale (FIS). Questions from the Beliefs and Eating Habits questionnaire were used to measure the frequency of consumption of different food groups. Five dietary patterns (DPs) were derived using principal component analysis (PCA), i.e., 'Fruit and vegetables', 'Wholemeal food', 'Fast foods and sweets', 'Fruit and vegetable juices' and "Meat and meat products'. In each of the DPs, three groups of participants were identified based on tertile distribution with the upper tertile denoting the most frequent consumption. Nearly two-thirds of the study sample declared some restrictions in food consumption. The probability of implementing restrictions in consumption of foods high in sugar, fat and high-fat foods increased in the upper tertile of 'Fruit and vegetables' and 'Wholemeal' DPs. Moreover, the probability of implementing restrictions in consumption of meat and high-starch products increased in 'Wholemeal' DP. The probability of using eating restrictions decreased in the upper tertile of 'Fast foods and sweets' and Meat and meat products' DPs. In conclusion, individuals characterized by high food involvement were more inclined to use eating restrictions than individuals with lower food involvement. Their DPs were also healthier compared to those of individuals manifesting low food involvement. Therefore, promoting personal commitment to learning about and experiencing food may be an effective way of inducing a change of eating habits, and therefore a healthier diet.
Project description:Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in females worldwide. Studies evaluating the blood vitamins and minerals status in the breast cancer etiology are limited, and the results are inconclusive. This study analyzed the association between serum vitamin-mineral profiles (V-MPs) and breast cancer (BC) risk with including dietary patterns (DPs) and the use of supplements. This case-control study involved 420 women aged 40-79 years from north-eastern Poland, including 190 newly diagnosed breast cancer cases. The fasting serum concentrations of vitamins (folate, cobalamin, 25(OH) vitamin D) and minerals (iron, calcium, magnesium) were measured in 129 post-menopausal women, including 82 controls and 47 cases. Three V-MPs were derived with a Principal Component Analysis (PCA). A logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of the breast cancer risk associated with serum V-MPs and serum levels of single biomarkers. The risk of BC was lower by 88% (OR: 0.12; 95% Cl: 0.02-0.88; p < 0.05) in the upper tertile of the serum 'Iron-Calcium' profile compared to the bottom tertile, lower by 67% (OR: 0.33; 95% Cl: 0.11-0.97; p < 0.05) at the level of serum 25(OH) vitamin D ≥24.6 ng/mL and lower by 68% (OR: 0.32; 95% Cl: 0.11-0.91; p < 0.05) at the level of serum calcium ≥9.6 mg/dL. There was an inverse association of the serum 'Magnesium' profile or serum level of iron with the risk of BC, which disappeared after adjustment for the set of confounders accounted for: age, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status, overall physical activity, smoking status, age at menarche, number of full-term pregnancies, oral contraceptive use, hormone-replacement therapy use, family history of breast cancer, vitamin/mineral supplement use, the molecular subtype of breast cancer, and dietary patterns. No significant association was found between BC risk and the serum 'Folate-Cobalamin-Vitamin D' profile or serum folate, cobalamin or magnesium considered separately. These findings highlight that a higher-normal serum level of both iron and calcium, considered together as the serum profile, as well as a higher-normal serum level of calcium, considered separately, and a slightly below the normal range of serum vitamin D level may protect against breast cancer among postmenopausal women, independent of dietary patterns or the use of vitamin/mineral supplements. Therefore, the maintenance of the adequate status of vitamins and minerals and the regular monitoring of their blood markers should be included in breast cancer prevention.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although dietary intakes and dietary intake patterns (DPs) have been associated with single metabolites, it is unclear whether DPs are also reflected in specific metabolite patterns (MPs). Moreover, the influence of groups of gut bacteria on the relationship between DPs and MPs is underexplored. OBJECTIVES:We aimed to investigate the association of DPs and serum MPs and also the modifying effect of the gut bacteria compositional patterns (BCPs). METHODS:This is a cross-sectional investigation among 225 individuals (median age: 63 y; 53% women) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Dietary intakes were assessed by three 24-h dietary recalls, gut bacteria composition was quantified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the serum metabolome was profiled by an untargeted approach. We identified DPs and BCPs by the treelet transform analysis. We modeled associations between DPs and 8 previously published MPs and the modifying effect of BCPs by fitting generalized linear models using DataSHIELD R. RESULTS:We identified 5 DPs and 7 BCPs. The "bread, margarine, and processed meat" and "fruiting vegetables and vegetable oils" DPs were positively associated with the "amino acids" (? = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.69; P = 0.03) and "fatty acids" MPs (? = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.74; P = 0.01), respectively. The "tea and miscellaneous" was inversely associated with the "amino acids" (? = -0.28; 95% CI: -0.52, -0.05; P = 0.02) and "amino acid derivatives" MPs (? = -0.21; 95% CI: -0.39, -0.02; P = 0.03). One BCP negatively modified the association between the "bread, margarine, and processed meat" DP and the "amino acids" MP (P-interaction = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS:In older German adults, DPs are reflected in MPs, and the gut bacteria attenuate 1 DP-MP association. These MPs should be explored as biomarkers of these jointly consumed foods while taking into account a potentially modifying role of the gut bacteria.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-death among women in Poland. The known high-risk mutations account for 25% of familial aggregation cases and 5% of total breast cancer predisposition. Genome-wide association studies have identified a number of common low-penetrance genetic variants, but their contribution to disease risk differs between populations. METHODS: To verify selected associations with breast cancer susceptibility among Polish women, the replication study was performed, included 1424 women with breast cancer and 1788 healthy persons. Sixteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. Allele frequency differences were tested using chi2-test implemented in PLINK v1.07 and Cochran-Armitage trend test was performed using R software. RESULTS: Significant differences (Bonferroni corrected p-valuecor ? 0.0197) in the frequency of alleles distribution between all cancer and control subjects were observed for four (rs2736098, rs13281615, rs1219648, rs2981582) out of 16 SNPs. The same result was obtained for group of patients without high-risk BRCA1/2 mutations. The rs1219648 (p-valuecor ? 6.73E-03) and rs2981582 (p-valuecor ? 6.48E-03) SNPs showed significant association with both familial and sporadic cancers. Additionally, rs2736098 (p-valuecor ? 0.0234) was associated with only sporadic cancers; also in group without carriers of high-risk mutation. All these associations revealed their significance also in Cochran-Armitage trend test. Opposite to other SNPs, rs2736098 was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer. CONCLUSION: The association of four known susceptibility SNPs, representing three individual loci, with breast cancer risk in Polish women was confirmed. One of them (rs2736098) seems to be specific for the Polish population. Due to the population differences in allele frequencies, identification of general genetic risk factors requires sets of association studies conducted on different populations.
Project description:Attitudes can be predictors of certain health-related behaviours. The attitudes of young females towards health and taste have not been yet fully examined and their associations with dietary behaviours remain unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate if attitudes are associated with dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls. The study population consisted of 1107 girls, aged 13-21 and living in Poland. Attitudes were assessed using the Health and Taste Attitudes Scale (HTAS) and categorised as negative, neutral or positive. Dietary data was obtained using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Dietary patterns (DPs), derived previously with a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), were 'Traditional Polish', 'Fruit and vegetables', 'Fast food and sweets' and 'Dairy and fats'. The associations between attitudes and DPs were assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficients and logistic regression. The reference group were girls with neutral attitudes. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, socioeconomic status (SES), and body mass index (BMI). The correlations between attitudes and DPs ranged from -0.28 for attitudes towards health and 'Fast food and sweets' and 'Traditional Polish' DPs to 0.33 for attitudes towards health and the 'Fruit and vegetables' DP (p < 0.05). In the logistic regression analysis, the strongest associations within health-related HTAS subscales were observed between negative attitudes towards natural products and the 'Fast food and sweets' DP (OR: 10.93; 95% CI: 3.32-36.01) and between positive attitudes towards health and the 'Fruit and vegetables' DP (OR: 5.10; 3.11-8.37). The strongest associations within taste-related HTAS subscales were observed between positive attitudes towards craving for sweet foods and the 'Traditional Polish' DP (OR: 1.93; 1.43-2.61) and between positive attitudes towards using food as a reward and the 'Dairy and fats' DP (OR: 2.08; 1.22-3.55) as well as the 'Fast food and sweets' DP (OR: 2.07; 1.14-3.74). Positive attitudes towards health were associated with a pro-healthy dietary pattern characterised by the consumption of fruit and vegetables, while negative attitudes towards natural products as well as a strong craving for sweets and using food as a reward were associated with less healthy dietary patterns. To improve the dietary habits of girls and young women, positive attitudes towards health should be strengthened and supported by emphasizing the sensory values of pro-healthy foods.
Project description:Mammographic density and sex hormone levels are strong risk factors for breast cancer, but it is unclear whether they represent the same aetiological entity or are independent risk factors.Within the Breakthrough Generations Study cohort, we conducted a case-control study of 265 postmenopausal breast cancer cases and 343 controls with prediagnostic mammograms and blood samples. Plasma was assayed for oestradiol, testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations and mammographic density assessed by Cumulus.Oestradiol and testosterone were negatively and SHBG positively associated with percentage density and absolute dense area, but after adjusting for body mass index the associations remained significant only for SHBG. Breast cancer risk was independently and significantly positively associated with percentage density (P=0.002), oestradiol (P=0.002) and testosterone (P=0.007) levels. Women in the highest tertile of both density and sex hormone level were at greatest risk, with an odds ratio of 7.81 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.89-21.1) for oestradiol and 4.57 (95% CI: 1.75-11.9) for testosterone and high density compared with those who were in the lowest tertiles. The cumulative risk of breast cancer in the highest oestradiol and density tertiles, representing 8% of controls, was estimated as 12.8% at ages 50-69 years and 19.4% at ages 20-79 years, and in the lowest tertiles was 1.7% and 4.3%, respectively. Associations of breast cancer risk with tertiles of mammographic dense area were less strong than for percentage density.Endogenous sex hormone levels and mammographic density are independent risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer, which in combination can identify women who might benefit from increased frequency of screening and chemoprophylaxis.
Project description:Socioeconomic factors influence access to cancer care and survival. This study investigated the role of socioeconomic status on the risk of breast cancer recurrence and on the delivery of appropriate cancer care (sentinel lymph node biopsy and breast-conserving surgery plus radiotherapy), by patients' age and hormone receptor status.3,462 breast cancer cases diagnosed in 2003-2005 were selected from 7 Italian cancer registries and assigned to a socioeconomic tertile on the basis of the deprivation index of their census tract. Multivariable models were applied to assess the delivery of sentinel lymph node biopsy and of breast-conserving surgery plus radiotherapy within socioeconomic tertiles.In the 1,893 women younger than 65 years, the 5-year risk of recurrence was higher in the most deprived group than in the least deprived, but this difference was not significant (16.4% vs. 12.9%, log-rank p=0.08); no difference was seen in women ?65 years. Among the 2,024 women with hormone receptor-positive cancer, the 5-year risk was significantly higher in the most deprived group than in the least deprived one (13.0% vs. 8.9%, p=0.04); no difference was seen in cases of hormone receptor-negative cancer. The most deprived women were less likely than the least deprived women to receive sentinel lymph node biopsy (adjusted odds ratio (ORa), 0.69; 95% CI, 0.56-0.86) and to undergo breast-conserving surgery plus radiotherapy (ORa=0.66; 95% CI, 0.51-0.86). Conclusions: Socioeconomic inequalities affect the risk of recurrence, among patients with hormone receptor-positive cancer, and the opportunity to receive standard care.
Project description:Soy food intake has previously been associated with reduced breast cancer risk. Epidemiological evidence for subgroups of breast cancer, particularly by menopausal and hormone receptor status, is less consistent. To evaluate the role of hormone receptor and menopausal status on the association between soy food intake and breast cancer risk, we measured usual soy food intake in adolescence and adulthood via food frequency questionnaire in 70,578 Chinese women, aged 40-70 years, recruited to the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1996-2000). After a median follow-up of 13.2 years (range: 0.01-15.0), 1,034 incident breast cancer cases were identified. Using Cox models, we found that adult soy intake was inversely associated with breast cancer risk [hazard ratio (HR) for fifth versus first quintile soy protein intake?=?0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI):0.63-0.97]. The association was predominantly seen in premenopausal women (HR?=?0.46; 95% CI:0.29-0.74). Analyses further stratified by hormone receptor status showed that adult soy intake was associated with significantly decreased risk of estrogen receptor (ER)+/progesterone receptor (PR)+ breast cancer in postmenopausal women (HR?=?0.72; 95% CI:0.53-0.96) and decreased risk of ER-/PR- breast cancer in premenopausal women (HR?=?0.46; 95% CI:0.22-0.97). The soy association did not vary by human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2) status. Furthermore, we found that high soy intake during adulthood and adolescence was associated with reduced premenopausal breast cancer risk (HR?=?0.53; 95% CI: 0.32-0.88; comparing third vs. first tertile) while high adulthood soy intake was associated with postmenopausal breast cancer only when adolescent intake was low (HR?=?0.63; 95% CI: 0.43-0.91). Our study suggests that hormonal status, menopausal status and time window of exposure are important factors influencing the soy-breast cancer association.