MiR?122 promotes proliferation and invasion of clear cell renal cell carcinoma by suppressing Forkhead box O3.
ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) serve an important role in renal cancer, but renal cancer miRNA expression data remains inconsistent. Therefore, there is a requirement for integrated analysis of these data. An increasing number of studies demonstrate that miR?122 is dysregulated in numerous cancer types, including liver, lung and breast cancer, yet its role in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) remains unclear. In the present study, an integrated analysis of four ccRCC miRNAs expression datasets was performed and the expression of miR?122 in the present cohort was validated. The effects of cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of ccRCC cells in vitro were assayed following transfection with miR?122 mimics and inhibitor. The target gene of miR?122 was confirmed using a luciferase reporter assay, and a xenograft mouse model was used to determine the effect of miR?122 in ccRCC tumorigenicity in vivo. The present results demonstrated that patients with ccRCC with an increased miR?122 level in tumor tissues had a shortened metastasis?free survival time as indicated by The Cancer Genome Atlas?Kidney Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma dataset and the present ccRCC cohort. Overexpression of miR?122 in 786?O cells improved cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion, while knockdown of miR?122 in SN12?PM6 cells inhibited cell growth, colony formation, migration and invasion. Western blot analysis and luciferase reporter assays were used to identify FOXO3 as a direct target of miR?122. The present results indicate that miR?122 serves a tumor?promoting role by direct targeting FOXO3 in ccRCC.
Project description:Background:MicroRNAs (miRNA) play a relevant role in carcinogenesis, cancer progression, invasion, and metastasis. Thus, they can serve as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers. The knowledge on circulating miRNAs for clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC) is limited. Our study was designed to identify novel biomarkers for ccRCC patients. Results:The serum small RNA expression profile was determined in 18 ccRCC and 8 patients with benign renal tumors (BRT) using small RNA sequencing. We detected 29 differentially expressed miRNAs (17 upregulated and 12 downregulated in ccRCC) in the expression profiling cohort. Based on the expression levels, we next validated serum miR-122-5p, miR-193a-5p, and miR-206 levels in an independent cohort (68 ccRCC, 47 BRT, and 28 healthy individuals) using quantitative real-time PCR. Serum expression levels of miR-122-5p and miR-206 were significantly decreased in ccRCC compared to healthy individuals. Both miRNAs were circulating at similar levels in ccRCC and BRT patients. miR-193a-5p expression levels were not different within the study cohort. High serum miR-122-5p and miR-206 levels were associated with adverse clinicopathological parameters: miR-122-5p levels were correlated with metastatic RCC and grade, and miR-206 with pT-stage and metastasis. Furthermore, high miR-122-5p and miR-206 serum levels were associated with a shorter period of progression-free, cancer-specific, and overall survival in patients with ccRCC. Conclusion:We identified serum miR-122-5p and miR-206 as novel non-invasive prognostic biomarkers for patients with ccRCC.
Project description:Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common subtype of renal cell carcinoma, which shows high aggressiveness and lacks biomarkers. RhoB acts as a tumor suppressor that inhibits the progression of ccRCC. In the present study, we examined the effects of oncogenic microRNAs, miR-19a and miR-19b, on RhoB expression in ccRCC cells. The results showed that both miR-19a and miR-19b could directly target the 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of RhoB, resulting in the reduced expression of RhoB. With RT-PCR analysis, we detected the increased expression of miR-19a and miR-19b in ccRCC tissues compared to adjacent non-tumor renal tissues. These data also demonstrated an exclusive negative correlation between miR-19a/19b and RhoB expression in ccRCC specimens and cell lines. In addition, the knockdown of RhoB or overexpression of miR-19a and miR-19b in ccRCC cells could promote cell proliferation, migration and invasion. These data demonstrate the direct roles of miR-19a and miR-19b on the repression of RhoB and its consequences on tumorigenesis, cancer cell proliferation and invasiveness. These results suggest the potential clinical impact of miR-19a and miR-19b as molecular targets for ccRCC.
Project description:Exosome-miRNAs (exo-miR) have recently been identified as modulators of cancer progression and distant metastasis. We previously found that intracellular miR-224 is up-regulated and significantly related to cancer invasion and metastasis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). We therefore investigated the role of exosome miR-224 in ccRCC and explored the interaction between intra- and extracellular miR-224 in renal cell carcinoma. To validate the method for isolating exosomes from blood samples or cell culture media, we examined exosome morphology using transmission electron microscope (TEM). We investigated the relationship between exo-miR-224 expression and patient prognosis in 108 ccRCC patients. We isolated exosomes from a metastatic renal cancer cell line and tested their effects on a primary renal cancer cell line with several functional analyses. We found that the high expression level exo-miR-224 group has significantly shorter progression-free survival, cancer-specific survival, and overall survival compared with the low expression group. In multivariate analysis, a high level of exo-miR-224 was a significant risk factor related to all prognoses investigated. After adding exosomes from a metastatic RCC cell line to a primary RCC cell line, cell proliferation and invasion were increased while the percentage of apoptotic cells was significantly decreased. Intracellular levels of miR-224 were significantly up-regulated in the primary renal cancer cell line. Extracellular miR-224 in exosomes impacts on patient prognosis and is a potential prognostic biomarker for ccRCC patients.
Project description:Background:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) serve as important regulators of the tumorigenesis and progression of many human cancers. Therefore, we evaluated the biological function and underlying mechanism of miR-363 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Methods:The expression of miR-363 in ccRCC tissues compared with adjacent normal renal tissues was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the association between miR-363 levels and prognosis of ccRCC patients was analyzed. The candidate target gene of miR-363 was determined by in silico analysis and luciferase reporter assays. The effects of miR-363 on the proliferation, migration and invasion of ccRCC cells in vitro were determined by MTS assay, colony formation assay, Transwell assay and wound healing assay. We also investigated the roles of miR-363 in vivo by a xenograft tumour model. The mechanism of miR-363 on the proliferation, migration and invasion of ccRCC was determined by gain- and loss-of-function analyses. Results:we demonstrated that miR-363 expression was obviously downregulated in ccRCC tissues and that reduced miR-363 expression was correlated with poor disease-free survival (DFS) in ccRCC patients after surgery. S1PR1 expression was inversely correlated with the level of miR-363 in human ccRCC samples. Luciferase reporter assays suggested that S1PR1 was a direct functional target of miR-363. miR-363 downregulated S1PR1 expression and suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion abilities of ccRCC cells in vitro and suppressed xenograft tumour growth in vivo. Importantly, miR-363 exerted its biological function by inhibiting S1PR1 expression in ccRCC cells, leading to the repression of ERK activation. Moreover, we found that the levels of downstream effectors of ERK, including PDGF-A, PDGF-B, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes, were decreased after miR-363 overexpression. Conclusions:Our results suggest that miR-363 acts as a tumour suppressor by directly targeting S1PR1 in ccRCC and may be a potential new therapeutic target for ccRCC.
Project description:Clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is an aggressive and malignant kidney cancer which has the worst prognosis. Although microRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been identified as a novel class of regulators in oncogenesis and metastasis, there are few studies on their participation in ccRCC. In the present study, we observed that miR-367 expression was increased in both human ccRCC tissues and cell lines. Cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay and 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay kit, which indicated that inhibition of miR-367 could suppress the ccRCC proliferation. Forced expression of miR-367 substantially induced cell migration and invasion evidenced by wound-healing and transwell assays, and this carcinogenesis could be abolished by miR-367 inhibitor treatment. Further analysis identified Metastasis-Associated Protein 3 (MTA3) as a direct target of miR-367. QRT-PCR and western blot results indicated the correlative expression of miR-367 and MTA3 in ccRCC tissue samples. Overexpression of MTA3 reversed miR-367-induced cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Our data uncovered a novel molecular interaction between miR-367 and MTA3, indicating a therapeutic strategy of miR-367 for ccRCC.
Project description:Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most aggressive RCC subtype with high metastasis, chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance, and poor prognosis. This study attempted to establish the deregulations of miR-4521 and FAM129A together with their correlation to and mechanism of regulation of ccRCC development and progression. FAM129A acted as tumor promotor and miR-4521 acted as a suppressor in ccRCC. As measured in surgical tumorous tissues from ccRCC patients, FAM129A overexpression and miR-4521 deficiency together contributed to ccRCC progression by promoting advances in patients' TNM stage and Fuhrman grade. Both the FAM129A knockdown and miR-4521 overexpression could reduce the in vitro migration and invasion abilities of renal cancer cells 786-O and ACHN, through the TIMP-1/MMP2/MMP9 pathway and could decrease their proliferation by promoting their apoptosis through the MDM2/p53/Bcl2/Bax pathway. By directly targeting the 3'-UTR domain of <i>FAM129A</i>, miR-4521 was negatively correlated with <i>FAM129A</i>/FAM129A levels in ccRCC progression and renal cancer cell malignancies. This work establishes the miR-4521-FAM129A axial regulation mechanism in ccRCC. Micro-4521 deficiency leads to <i>FAM129A</i>/FAM129A upregulation, which synergistically enhances the migration and invasion of renal cancer cells due to the induced decrease of TIMP-1 and increases of MMP2 and MMP9, and increases their growth through escaping apoptosis by suppressing p53 by way of upregulation of induced MDM2. The current work provides new clues to assist fundamental research into the diagnosis and treatment of ccRCC.
Project description:Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), the most common subtype of renal cell carcinoma, can easily invade local tissues and metastasize, and is resistant to currently available treatments. Recent studies profiling microRNA expression in ccRCC have suggested miR-30a-5p may be deregulated in these cancer cells. To determine its role and mechanism of action in ccRCC, miR-30-5p expression levels were quantified and functions were analyzed using in vitro and in vivo experiments and bioinformatics. A decrease in miR-30a-5p expression was frequently noted in ccRCC cells and tissues. Importantly, low miR-30a-5p levels were significantly associated with a poor ccRCC patient prognosis. Stable overexpression of miR-30a-5p in 769-P cells was sufficient to prevent cellular proliferation and invasion in vitro and in vivo. Upon further examination, it was found that miR-30a-5p directly targeted the 3'-UTR of ZEB2 and suppressed ccRCC cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In addition, miR-30a-5p may be downregulated by the long non-coding RNA DLEU2. Taken together, these data reveal an important role for miR-30a-5p in the regulation of ccRCC proliferation and invasion, and indicate the potential for miR-30a-5p in applications furthering ccRCC prognostics and therapeutics.
Project description:Background:Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is molecularly diverse and distinct molecular subtypes show different clinical outcomes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential components of gene regulatory networks and play a crucial role in progression of many cancer types including ccRCC. Objective:Identify prognostic miRNAs and determine the role of miR-22 in ccRCC. Methods:Hierarchical clustering was done in R using gene expression profiles of over 450 ccRCC cases in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to identify prognostic miRNAs in the TCGA dataset. RNA-Seq was performed to identify miR-22 target genes in primary ccRCC cells and Matrigel invasion assay was performed to assess the effects of miR-22 overexpression on cell invasion. Results:Hierarchical clustering analysis using 2,621 prognostic genes previously identified by our group demonstrated that ccRCC patients with longer overall survival expressed lower levels of genes promoting proliferation or immune responses, while better maintaining gene expression associated with cortical differentiation and cell adhesion. Targets of 26 miRNAs were significantly enriched in the 2,621 prognostic genes and these miRNAs were prognostic by themselves. MiR-22 was associated with poor overall survival in the TCGA dataset. Overexpression of miR-22 promoted invasion of primary ccRCC cells in vitro and modulated transcriptional programs implicated in cancer progression including DNA repair, cell proliferation and invasion. Conclusions:Our results suggest that ccRCCs with differential clinical outcomes have distinct transcriptomes for which miRNAs could serve as master regulators. MiR-22, as a master regulator, promotes ccRCC progression at least in part by enhancing cell invasion.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To better understand the contribution of dysregulated DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) expression to the progression and biology of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). METHODS:We examined the differences in the expression of DNMT1 in 89 ccRCC and 22 normal tissue samples by immunohistochemistry. In addition, changes in cell viability, apoptosis, colony formation and invading ability of ccRCC cell lines (786-0 and Caki-1) were assessed after transfection with DNMT1 siRNA. RESULTS:We found DNMT1 protein was significantly higher expressed in ccRCC than that of in no-tumor tissues (56.2% and 27.3%, respectively, P=0.018). The expression of DNMT1 was strongly associated with ccRCC tumor size, tumor pathology stage, histological grading, lymph node metastasis, vascular invasion, recurrence and prognosis. Moreover, knockdown of DNMT1 expression significantly inhibited ccRCC cell viability, induced apoptosis, decreased colony formation and invading ability. CONCLUSIONS:Expression of DNMT1 protein is increased in ccRCC tissues, and DNMT1 expression is associated with poor prognosis of patients. Experiments in vitro further showed DNMT1 played an essential role in proliferation and invasion of renal cancer cells. Moreover, targeting this enzyme could be a promising strategy for treating ccRCC, as evidenced by inhibited cell viability, increased apoptosis, decreased colony formation and invading ability.
Project description:Background:Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) represents approximately 70% of RCC,as the most frequent histological subtype of RCC. MiR-138-5p, a tumor-related microRNA (miRNA), has been reported to be implicated in the diverse types of human malignancies, but its role in ccRCCremains unclear. Objective:The study was designed to investigate the functional behaviors and regulatory mechanisms of miR-138-5p in ccRCC. Materials and Methods:Quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting analyses were performed to determine the expression of miR-138-5p and TMEM40 in ccRCC tissues. Pearson's correlation coefficient was utilized to evaluate the correlation between miR-138-5p and TMEM40 expression. The function of miR-138-5p and TMEM40 in the cell proliferation, migration and invasion of ccRCC cells (786-O and ACHN) was assessed by CCK-8, colony formation, wound healing and transwell assay, respectively. A luciferase reporter assay was performed to confirm the direct binding of miR-138-5p to the target gene TMEM40. Results:We found the expression of miR-138-5p was significantly down-regulated, while TMEM40 was remarkably up-regulated in ccRCC tissues. TMEM40 expression was discovered to be inversely correlated with miR-138-5p expression in ccRCC tissues. Functional studies demonstrated that miR-138-5p overexpression or TMEM40 knockdown significantly suppressed ccRCC cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. Notably, we experimentally confirmed that miR-138-5p directly recognizes the 3'-UTR of the TMEM40 transcript and down-regulated its expression in ccRCC cells. Conclusions:Taken together, our findings provide the first clues regarding the role of miR-138-5p as a tumor suppressor in ccRCC by directly targeting of TMEM40.