Proposed New Strain of Canine Kobuvirus from Fecal Samples of Brazilian Domestic Dogs.
ABSTRACT: A proposed new strain of canine Kobuvirus was identified in fecal samples of domestic dogs from a rural community located in the municipality of Peixe-Boi, Pará, Brazil. The nucleotide identity was 92.3% similar to other representatives of the family Picornaviridae, genus Kobuvirus, and species Aichivirus A, which suggests that this is possibly a new strain within this species.
Project description:A new strain of avian picornavirus was identified in fecal samples from broiler chickens in a commercial farm in the municipality of Benevides, Pará, Brazil. Genomic analysis showed it to have a nucleotide identity of 78.4% with the family Picornaviridae, genus Avisivirus, and species Avisivirus A, suggesting that this is a possible new strain within this species.
Project description:Fecal samples (N = 10) from 6- to 8-week-old wild boar piglets (Sus scrofa), collected from an animal park in Hungary in April 2011, were analyzed using viral metagenomics and complete genome sequencing. Kobuvirus (genus Kobuvirus, family Picornaviridae) was detected in all (100 %) specimens, with the closest nucleotide (89 %) and amino acid (94 %) sequence identity of the strain wild boar/WB1-HUN/2011/HUN (JX177612) to the prototype porcine kobuvirus S-1-HUN (EU787450). This study suggests that genetically highly similar (practically the same geno-/serotype) porcine kobuvirus circulate in wild boars, the wildlife counterparts of domestic pigs. Wild boars could be an important host and reservoir for kobuvirus.
Project description:Kobuviruses comprise three species, the Aichivirus A, Aichivirus B, and Aichivirus C (porcine kobuvirus). Porcine kobuvirus is endemic to pig farms and is not restricted geographically but, rather, is distributed worldwide. The complete genomic sequences of four porcine kobuvirus strains isolated during a diarrhea outbreak in piglets in the Gansu province of China were determined. Two of these strains exhibited variations relative to the traditional strains. The potential 3C/3D cleavage sites of the variant strains were Q/C, which differed from the Q/S in the traditional porcine kobuvirus genome. A 90-nucleotide deletion in the 2B protein and a single nucleotide insertion in the 3'UTR were found in the variant strains. The VP1 regions of all four porcine kobuviruses in our study were highly variable (81%-86%). Ten common amino acid mutations were found specifically at certain positions within the VP1 region. Significant recombination sites were identified using SimPlot scans of whole genome sequences. Porcine kobuviruses were also detected in pig serum, indicating that the virus can escape the gastrointestinal tract and travel to the circulatory system. These findings suggest that mutations and recombination events may have contributed to the high level of genetic diversity of porcine kobuviruses and serve as a driving force in its evolution.
Project description:Kobuviruses, which belong to the family Picornaviridae, have been detected in fecal samples from infected animals with or without diarrhea. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of a feline kobuvirus (FKoV) strain, FK-13, identified from the feces of a cat with diarrhea in South Korea in 2011.
Project description:Feline kobuvirus (FeKoV) is a newly discovered organism, classified under the species Aichivirus A of the genus Kobuvirus. Since it was first reported in 2013, molecular evidence for FeKoV in the feline population has been restricted to two countries: Korea and Italy. In this study, we collected faecal samples from cats in southern China and detected the FeKoV RNA in these samples. A prevalence rate of 9.9% (8/81) was identified by RT-PCR, and all positive samples were obtained from diarrhoeic animals. In addition, FeKoV was shown positive associated with diarrhoea in cats, with a correlation coefficient of 0.25. Next, we designed three primer pairs with degenerate bases, which targeted the conservative overlapping region of the entire published FeKoV genome, and sequenced the near-complete genome of the first Chinese field FeKoV strain, WHJ-1, using long-fragment PCR. Finally, we analysed WHJ-1's homology and phylogeny using the polyprotein gene. The results indicated that FeKoV has rapidly mutated since it was first discovered. This study will help to better understand FeKoV's epidemiology, evolutionary pattern and genetic diversity.
Project description:Canine kobuvirus (CaKV) is a member of the Picornaviridae family and the Kobuvirus genus. CaKV was first described in fecal samples from diarrheic dogs in the USA in 2011, with subsequent reports in the UK, Italy, South Korea, China, Tanzania, and Japan. CaKV is frequently identified in feces of animals with or without clinical signs of gastroenteritis. The present study investigated the presence of CaKV in fecal samples from 53 diarrheic dogs from Londrina, southern Brazil. Using a RT-PCR assay, CaKV RNA was identified in three dogs, resulting in an overall occurrence rate of 5.7%. In addition, coinfection with canine parvovirus subtype 2b was detected in all CaKV-positive diarrheic fecal samples. Using a phylogenetic analysis based on the VP1 gene sequence, the Brazilian CaKV field strains were found to be very similar to a previously identified CaKV strain from Brazil that was found in the tissue of a puppy and were also found to be clustered with other CaKV strains detected worldwide and other kobuvirus strains identified in mouse, feline, and human hosts.
Project description:The 5'-untranslated regions (5' UTRs) of picornavirus genomes contain an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) that promotes the end-independent initiation of translation. Picornavirus IRESs are classified into four structurally distinct groups, each with different initiation factor requirements. Here, we identify a fifth IRES class in members of Kobuvirus, Salivirus, and Paraturdivirus genera of Picornaviridae: Aichi virus (AV), bovine kobuvirus (BKV), canine kobuvirus (CKoV), mouse kobuvirus (MKoV), sheep kobuvirus (SKV), salivirus A (SV-A), turdivirus 2 (TV2), and TV3. The 410-nucleotide (nt)-long AV IRES comprises four domains (I to L), including a hairpin (L) that overlaps a Yn-Xm-AUG (pyrimidine tract/spacer/initiation codon) motif. SV-A, CKoV, and MKoV also contain these four domains, whereas BKV, SKV, and TV2/TV3 5' UTRs contain domains that are related to domain I and equivalent to domains J and K but lack an AV-like domain L. These IRESs are located at different relative positions between a conserved 5'-terminal origin of replication and divergent coding sequences. Elements in these IRESs also occur elsewhere: domain J's apical subdomain, which contains a GNRA tetraloop, matches an element in type 1 IRESs, and eIF4G-binding motifs in domain K and in type 2 IRESs are identical. Other elements are unique, and their presence leads to unique initiation factor requirements. In vitro reconstitution experiments showed that like AV, but in contrast to other currently characterized IRESs, SV-A requires the DExH-box protein DHX29 during initiation, which likely ensures that the initiation codon sequestered in domain L is properly accommodated in the ribosomal mRNA-binding cleft.
Project description:Picornaviruses (family Picornaviridae) are small, non-enveloped viruses with positive sense, single-stranded RNA genomes. The numbers of the novel picornavirus species and genera are continuously increasing. Picornaviruses infect numerous vertebrate species from fish to mammals, but have not been identified in a member of the Lagomorpha order (pikas, hares and rabbits). In this study, a novel picornavirus was identified in 16 (28.6%) out of 56 faecal samples collected from clinically healthy rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus var. domestica) in two (one commercial and one family farms) of four rabbit farms in Hungary. The 8364 nucleotide (2486 amino acid) long complete genome sequence of strain Rabbit01/2013/HUN (KT325852) has typical picornavirus genome organization with type-V IRES at the 5'UTR, encodes a leader (L) and a single 2A(H-box/NC) proteins, contains a hepatitis-A-virus-like cis-acting replication element (CRE) in the 2A, but it does not contain the sequence forming a "barbell-like" secondary structure in the 3'UTR. Rabbit01/2013/HUN has 52.9%, 52% and 57.2% amino acid identity to corresponding proteins of species Aichivirus A (genus Kobuvirus): to murine Kobuvirus (JF755427) in P1, to canine Kobuvirus (JN387133) in P2 and to feline Kobuvirus (KF831027) in P3, respectively. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that Rabbit01/2013/HUN represents a novel picornavirus species possibly in genus Kobuvirus. This is the first report of detection of picornavirus in rabbit. Further study is needed to clarify whether this novel picornavirus plays a part in any diseases in domestic or wild rabbits.
Project description:Porcine kobuvirus, an emerging virus, was first identified in Hungary in 2007. We report here the complete genome sequence of porcine kobuvirus strain WUH1 isolated from piglets with severe diarrhea, which will help toward understanding the molecular and evolutionary characteristics of the porcine kobuvirus.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Murine kobuviruses (MuKV) are newly recognized picornaviruses first detected in murine rodents in the USA in 2011. Little information on MuKV epidemiology in murine rodents is available. Therefore, we conducted a survey of the prevalence and genomic characteristics of rat kobuvirus in Guangdong, China. RESULTS:Fecal samples from 223 rats (Rattus norvegicus) were collected from Guangdong and kobuviruses were detected in 12.6% (28) of samples. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial 3D and complete VP1 sequence regions showed that rat kobuvirus obtained in this study were genetically closely related to those of rat/mouse kobuvirus reported in other geographical areas. Two near full-length rat kobuvirus genomes (MM33, GZ85) were acquired and phylogenetic analysis of these revealed that they shared very high nucleotide/amino acids identity with one another (95.4%/99.4%) and a sewage-derived sequence (86.9%/93.5% and 87.5%/93.7%, respectively). Comparison with original Aichivirus A strains, such human kobuvirus, revealed amino acid identity values of approximately 80%. CONCLUSION:Our findings indicate that rat kobuvirus have distinctive genetic characteristics from other Aichivirus A viruses. Additionally, rat kobuvirus may spread via sewage.