Galectin-3 enhances monocyte-derived macrophage efferocytosis of apoptotic granulocytes in asthma.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Galectin-3 is a 32?kDa protein secreted by macrophages involved in processes such as cell activation, chemotaxis and phagocytosis. Galectin-3 has previously been shown to improve the ability of airway macrophages to ingest apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and may be of interest in non-eosinophilic asthma (NEA) which is also characterised by impaired efferocytosis. It was hypothesised that the addition of exogenous galectin-3 to monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) derived from donors with NEA would enhance their ability to engulf apoptotic granulocytes. METHODS:Eligible non-smoking adults with asthma (n?=?19), including 7 with NEA and healthy controls (n?=?10) underwent a clinical assessment, venepuncture and sputum induction. MDMs were co-cultured with apoptotic granulocytes isolated from healthy donors with or without exogenous recombinant galectin-3 (50??g/mL) and efferocytosis was assessed by flow cytometry. Galectin-3 expression and localisation in MDMs was visualised by immunofluorescence staining and fluorescence microscopy. Galectin-3, interleukin (IL)-6 and CXCL8 secretion were measured in cell culture supernatants by ELISA and cytometric bead array. RESULTS:Baseline efferocytosis (mean (±standard deviation)) was lower in participants with asthma (33.2 (±17.7)%) compared with healthy controls (45.3 (±15.9)%; p?=?0.081). Efferocytosis did not differ between the participants with eosinophilic asthma (EA) (31.4 (±19.2)%) and NEA (28.7 (±21.5)%; p?=?0.748). Addition of galectin-3 significantly improved efferocytosis in asthma, particularly in NEA (37.8 (±18.1)%) compared with baseline (30.4 (±19.7)%; p?=?0.012). Efferocytosis was not associated with any of the clinical outcomes but was negatively correlated with sputum macrophage numbers (Spearman r?=?-?0.671; p?=?0.017). Galectin-3 was diffusely distributed in most MDMs but formed punctate structures in 5% of MDMs. MDM galectin-3 secretion was lower in asthma (9.99 (2.67, 15.48) ng/mL) compared with the healthy controls (20.72 (11.28, 27.89) ng/mL; p?=?0.044) while IL-6 and CXCL8 levels were similar. CONCLUSIONS:Galectin-3 modulates macrophage function in asthma, indicating a potential role for galectin-3 to reverse impaired efferocytosis in NEA.
Project description:The heterogeneity of asthma involves complex pathogenesis leading to confusion regarding the choice of therapeutic strategy. In the clinic, asthma is commonly classified as having either eosinophilic asthma (EA) or non-eosinophilic asthma (NEA) phenotypes. Microbiota colonizing in airways has been demonstrated to induce distinct phenotypes of asthma and the resistance to steroids. Rhodiola wallichiana var. cholaensis (RWC) has the potential to alleviate asthmatic inflammation according to recent studies, but its pharmacological mechanisms remain unclarified. In our study, murine asthmatic phenotypes were established and treated with RWC and/or dexamethasone (DEX). Combined treatment with RWC and DEX could improve spirometry and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in asthmatic phenotypes, alleviate steroid resistance in NEA, and reduce the inflammatory infiltration of the both phenotypes. The combined treatment increased Th1, regulated the imbalance of Th2/Th1, and decreased the related cytokines in EA. As for NEA, the combined treatment reduced Th17 and promoted the accumulation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in lung. A microbiome study based on 16S rDNA sequencing technique revealed the significantly changed structure of the lower airway microbiota after combined treatment in NEA, with 4 distinct genera and 2 species identified. OPLS-DA models of metabolomics analysis based on UPLC-Q/TOF-MS technique identified 34 differentiated metabolites and 8 perturbed metabolic pathways. A joint multiomics study predicted that the colonized microbiota in airways might be associated with susceptibility of asthma and steroid resistance, which involved systematic and pulmonary metabolic perturbation. In summary, the pharmacological network of RWC included the complicated interaction mechanisms of immune regulation, microbiota change, and metabolic perturbation.
Project description:The requirement to remove apoptotic cells is equally important in homeostasis and inflammatory disease. In particular, during viral infections large quantities of infected cells undergo apoptosis and need to be efficiently cleared by phagocytes to prevent secondary necrosis. Although specific roles of several apoptotic cell sensors, such as the TAM (Tyro3, Axl, MerTK) receptor family, have been characterized in mouse models, little is known about their regulation and involvement in apoptotic cell uptake (efferocytosis) by human macrophages under inflammatory conditions. We show that whereas pro-inflammatory stimuli consistently downregulated MerTK expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), stimuli indicative of a viral infection, interferon-? (IFN-?) and the TLR3 ligand poly(I:C), specifically induced Axl expression and promoted binding of the bridging molecule Gas6. Axl induction by IFN-? and poly(I:C) was associated with higher MDM efferocytic capacity compared to cells treated with other pro-inflammatory stimuli, such as LPS and IFN-?. While MerTK blocking antibody uniformly suppressed apoptotic cell uptake by MDMs, Axl blocking antibody significantly reduced efferocytosis by poly(I:C)-stimulated MDMs, but not by resting MDMs. Our observations demonstrate that Axl induction during viral infections contributes to maintaining macrophage capacity to engulf apoptotic cells, which may have important consequences for resolution of anti-viral immune responses.
Project description:Background and Objective:Asthma as a chronic heterogeneous disease seriously affects the quality of life. Incorrect identification for its clinical phenotypes lead to a huge waste of medical resources. Metabolomic technique as a novel approach to explore the pathogenesis of diseases have not been used to study asthma based on their clear defined inflammatory phenotypes. This study is aimed to distinguish the divergent metabolic profile in different asthma phenotypes and clarify the pathogenesis of them. Methods:Participants including eosinophilic asthmatics (EA, n=13), noneosinophilic asthmatics (NEA, n=16), and healthy controls (HC, n=15) were enrolled. A global profile of untargeted serum metabolomics was identified with Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry technique. Results:Multivariate analysis was performed and showed a clear distinction between EA, NEA, and HC. A total of 18 different metabolites were recognized between the three groups based on OPLS-DA model and involved in 10 perturbed metabolic pathways. Glycerophospholipid metabolism, retinol metabolism, and sphingolipid metabolism were identified as the most significant changed three pathways (impact > 0.1 and -log(P) > 4) between the phenotypes. Conclusions:We showed that the different inflammatory phenotypes of asthma involve the immune regulation, energy, and nutrients metabolism. The clarified metabolic profile contributes to understanding the pathophysiology of asthma phenotypes and optimizing the therapeutic strategy against asthma heterogeneity.
Project description:Background and Objective: Asthma is a common respiratory disease with a high prevalence and morbidity that can seriously affect quality of life. Microbial colonization of the airway may participate in the pathogenesis of asthma, however the mechanisms involved have not been established. In the present study, we aimed to determine the composition of the microbiota in different asthmatic phenotypes from Northeast China. Methods: 24 mild-to-moderate asthmatics (10 eosinophilic asthma and 14 non-eosinophilic asthma) and 12 healthy volunteers participated in this cross-sectional study. DNA was extracted from their induced sputum and amplified for 16s rRNA gene sequencing on Illumina Miseq platform. Bioinformatic analysis on the microbiome was performed. Results: Alpha-diversity analysis showed that the asthmatics had a decreased richness, evenness and diversity. Non-eosinophilic asthmatics showed a decreased richness, evenness and diversity compared with eosinophilic patients. A different taxonomy of 1 phylum and 6 genera taxa between the phenotypes was identified. Compared with heathy controls, asthmatics existed a larger taxonomic difference (P<0.05 for both EA and NEA vs. HC). 5 genera as the dominance in the microbial co-occurrence network correlated with the spirometry and disease progression of asthma. The function of microbiota genes was predicted to be related with infectious, immune and metabolic diseases. Conclusion: The diversity and composition of the airway microbiome was associated with the pathogenesis of asthma in different phenotypes. The diverse composition has been identified in the present study.
Project description:The prevalence of a macrophage phenotype in atherosclerotic plaque may drive its progression and/or instability. Macrophages from coronary plaques are not available, and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) are usually considered as a surrogate. We compared the MDM profile obtained from coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and healthy subjects, and we evaluated the association between CAD MDM profile and in vivo coronary plaque characteristics assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). At morphological analysis, MDMs of CAD patients had a higher prevalence of round than spindle cells, whereas in healthy subjects the prevalence of the two morphotypes was similar. Compared to healthy subjects, MDMs of CAD patients had reduced efferocytosis, lower transglutaminase-2, CD206 and CD163 receptor levels, and higher tissue factor (TF) levels. At OCT, patients with a higher prevalence of round MDMs showed more frequently a lipid-rich plaque, a thin-cap fibroatheroma, a greater intra-plaque macrophage accumulation, and a ruptured plaque. The MDM efferocytosis correlated with minimal lumen area, and TF levels in MDMs correlated with the presence of ruptured plaque. MDMs obtained from CAD patients are characterized by a morpho-phenotypic heterogeneity with a prevalence of round cells, showing pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic properties. The MDM profile allows identifying CAD patients at high risk.
Project description:In healthy individuals, billions of cells die by apoptosis each day. Clearance of these apoptotic cells, termed "efferocytosis," must be efficient to prevent secondary necrosis and the release of proinflammatory cell contents that disrupt tissue homeostasis and potentially foster autoimmunity. During inflammation, most apoptotic cells are cleared by macrophages; the efferocytic process actively induces a macrophage phenotype that favors tissue repair and suppression of inflammation. Several chronic lung diseases, particularly airways diseases such as chronic obstructive lung disease, asthma, and cystic fibrosis, are characterized by an increased lung burden of uningested apoptotic cells. Alveolar macrophages from individuals with these chronic airways diseases have decreased efferocytosis relative to alveolar macrophages from healthy subjects. These two findings have led to the hypothesis that impaired apoptotic cell clearance may contribute causally to sustained lung inflammation and that therapies to enhance efferocytosis might be beneficial. This review of the English-language scientific literature (2006 to mid-2012) explains how such existing therapies as corticosteroids, statins, and macrolides may act in part by augmenting apoptotic cell clearance. However, efferocytosis can also impede host defenses against lung infection. Thus, determining whether novel therapies to augment efferocytosis should be developed and in whom they should be used lies at the heart of efforts to differentiate specific phenotypes within complex chronic lung diseases to provide appropriately personalized therapies.
Project description:Noneosinophilic asthma is common across asthma severities. However, in patients with moderate-to-severe disease, the absence of sputum eosinophilia cannot distinguish between asthmatic subjects with eosinophilic inflammation controlled by corticosteroids versus those in whom eosinophilic inflammation is not a component of the disease.We sought to develop a method to quantify eosinophil proteins in airway macrophages as a novel biomarker of eosinophilic airway inflammation.Eosinophil proteins in airway macrophages were assessed by means of flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and cytoplasmic hue change after ingestion of apoptotic eosinophils. Airway macrophage median percentage of red-hued area in stained sputum cytospin preparations was assessed by means of image analysis from (1) subjects with mild-to-severe asthma, subjects with nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis, and healthy control subjects; (2) subjects with eosinophilic severe asthma after treatment with prednisolone; and (3) subject with noneosinophilic asthma before corticosteroid withdrawal.Eosinophil proteins were detected in airway macrophages, and cytoplasmic red hue increased after ingestion of apoptotic eosinophils. Airway macrophage percentage redhued area was increased in subjects with moderate-to-severe asthma compared with that seen in subjects with mild asthma and healthy control subjects, was similar in those with or without a sputum eosinophilia, and was increased after corticosteroid therapy. In asthmatic subjects without sputum eosinophilia, the airway macrophage percentage red-hued area was increased in subjects who did versus those who did not have sputum eosinophilia after corticosteroid withdrawal.Eosinophil proteins can be reliably measured in airway macrophages. In combination with sputum eosinophilia, the macrophage eosinophil protein content might further define the asthma phenotype and provide an additional tool to direct therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Asthma is a heterogeneous chronic airway disease, which may be classified into different phenotypes. YKL-40 is a chitin-binding glycoprotein with unclear functions, but its expression is associated with inflammation and tissue remodeling. However, few studies have explored whether YKL-40 is associated with inflammatory phenotypes of asthma. METHODS:The study had two parts. Study I (n?=?115) was a one-year prospective cohort designed to explore the relationship of serum YKL-40 levels with inflammatory phenotypes of asthma at baseline, and during exacerbations. Study II (n?=?62) was a four-week prospective cohort designed to define whether serum YKL-40 levels could predict responses to a fixed anti-asthma regimen. YKL-40, IL-6 and CCL22 levels were detected using ELISA, and a sputum inflammatory panel (including IL-1?, IL-5, IL-8 and TNF-?) was assessed using Luminex-based MILLIPLEX assay. RESULTS:Study I: Serum YKL-40 levels in non-eosinophilic asthma (NEA) i.e. neutrophilic (47.77 [29.59, 74.97] ng/mL, n?=?40) and paucigranulocytic (47.36 [28.81, 61.68] ng/mL, n?=?31) were significantly elevated compared with eosinophilic asthma (31.05 [22.41, 51.10] ng/mL, n?=?44) (P?=?0.015). Serum YKL-40levels positively correlated with blood neutrophils, sputum IL-1? and plasma IL-6 but negatively correlated with serum IgE and blood eosinophils (all P???0.05). Baseline YKL-40 levels predicted moderate to severe exacerbations within a one-year period (aOR?=?4.13, 95% CI?=?[1.08, 15.83]). Study II: Serum YKL-40 was an independent biomarker of negative responses to anti-asthma regimens (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]?=?0.82, 95% CI?=?[0.71, 0.96]. CONCLUSIONS:These studies show that YKL-40 is a non-type 2 inflammatory signature for NEA, which could predict responsiveness or insensitivity to anti-asthma medications and more exacerbations. Further studies are needed to assess whether monitoring YKL-40 levels could provide potential implications for clinical relevance.
Project description:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive fibrosing interstitial pneumonia. The pathogenicity of IPF has been widely investigated but still remains to be clarified. Efferocytosis, the specialized recognition and ingestion of apoptotic cells by phagocytes, is essential for the resolution of inflammation in the lungs and repair of injured tissues. Impaired efferocytosis contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases such as emphysema and cystic fibrosis. We hypothesized that efferocytosis would also be reduced in alveolar macrophages isolated from subjects with IPF.Efferocytosis, was evaluated using Wright-Giemsa stained cell preparations isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of patients with IPF (n = 5), nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis (n = 6), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (n = 4) and eosinophilic pneumonia (EP) (n = 5).Uningested apoptotic cells were significantly higher in BAL fluid from patients with IPF compared to other forms of interstitial lung disease. Macrophages isolated from patients with eosinophilic pneumonia had significantly fewer phagocytic ingestions than macrophages from the other three groups.Efferocytosis by alveolar macrophages was significantly lower in subjects with IPF compared to subjects with other interstitial pneumonia. Dysregulated efferocytosis may contribute to the pathogenesis of IPF.
Project description:Macrophages are a source of both proinflammatory and restorative functions in damaged tissue through complex dynamic phenotypic changes. Here, we sought to determine whether monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) contribute to recovery after acute sterile brain injury. By profiling the transcriptional dynamics of MDMs in the murine brain after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), we found robust phenotypic changes in the infiltrating MDMs over time and demonstrated that MDMs are essential for optimal hematoma clearance and neurological recovery. Next, we identified the mechanism by which the engulfment of erythrocytes with exposed phosphatidylserine directly modulated the phenotype of both murine and human MDMs. In mice, loss of receptor tyrosine kinases AXL and MERTK reduced efferocytosis of eryptotic erythrocytes and hematoma clearance, worsened neurological recovery, exacerbated iron deposition, and decreased alternative activation of macrophages after ICH. Patients with higher circulating soluble AXL had poor 1-year outcomes after ICH onset, suggesting that therapeutically augmenting efferocytosis may improve functional outcomes by both reducing tissue injury and promoting the development of reparative macrophage responses. Thus, our results identify the efferocytosis of eryptotic erythrocytes through AXL/MERTK as a critical mechanism modulating macrophage phenotype and contributing to recovery from ICH.