Contribution and interaction of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and triglyceride to diabetes in hypertensive patients: A cross-sectional study.
ABSTRACT: AIMS/INTRODUCTION:Hypertension is one of the most significant risk factors for diabetes. The present study aimed to investigate the associations of lipid profiles, including the ratio of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels, as well as their interactions, with type 2 diabetes in hypertensive patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Hypertensive patients without a history of diabetes and hypolipidemic agents were enrolled continuously at the Hypertension Clinic, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University (Shanghai, China) from 2014 to 2016. General clinical data, including body mass index, blood pressure, fasting glucose and 2-h post-load glucose levels, and lipid profiles, were collected. The LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, TG/HDL-C ratio and TC/HDL-C ratio were separately calculated. Statistical analyses were carried out by using SPSS software (version 13.0). RESULTS:In total, 935 hypertensive patients were included, of which 114 patients (12.2%) were diagnosed with diabetes. After multivariate adjustments, the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio and TG levels had the most significant and independent associations with diabetes. In the multivariate logistic regression, the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio and TG were independently associated with diabetes. After the interaction variable was included, the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio remained independently associated with diabetes, but TG was replaced by TG*LDL-C/HDL-C. CONCLUSIONS:In conclusion, elevated LDL-C/HDL-C ratios and TG levels were associated with diabetes in patients with hypertension, with an interactive effect of the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio and TG on diabetes in the hypertensive population.
Project description:Objective The triglyceride (TG)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio is related to insulin resistance (IR). However, information about whether or not the TG/HDL-C ratio is associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subclasses in the Japanese population is limited. Methods In total, 1,068 Japanese subjects who underwent an annual health examination and who were not taking medications were recruited. The association between the TG/HDL-C ratio and LDL subclasses was investigated using correlation, multiple regression, and receiver operating characteristic analyses. Results A correlation analysis revealed that both malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) and small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) were positively associated with the TG/HDL-C ratio. Furthermore, a multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the TG/HDL-C ratio was positively associated with MDA-LDL and sdLDL-C in both men and women. The multiple logistic regression analysis also revealed that the TG/HDL-C ratio was positively associated with the upper tertile of MDA-LDL and sdLDL-C in men and women. The LDL-C levels increased with the increasing TG/HDL-C ratio. The MDA-LDL and sdLDL-C are known to be positively associated with LDL-C. However, within the same LDL-C range, both MDA-LDL and sdLDL-C levels increased with the TG/HDL-C ratio, except for MDA-LDL levels in the LDL-C <112 mg/dL group in women. These results further supported the notion that the TG/HDL-C ratio was positively associated with the MDA-LDL and sdLDL-C levels, especially in the higher LDL-C range, in both men and women. The optimal cut-off points of the TG/HDL-C ratio for the upper tertile of MDA-LDL and sdLDL-C were 1.85 and 2.03 in men and 0.88 and 1.30 in women, respectively. Conclusion The TG/HDL-C ratio is positively associated with MDA-LDL and sdLDL-C in Japanese subjects. The relationship was particularly notable in subjects with high LDL-C levels.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein- cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C) ratio is an excellent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, previous studies linking the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio to mortality have yielded inconsistent results and been limited by short follow-up periods. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio could be an effective predictor of all-cause mortality in elderly hypertensive patients. METHODS:A total of 6941 hypertensive patients aged 65?years or older who were not treated with lipid-lowering drugs were selected from the Chinese Hypertension Registry for analysis. The endpoint of the study was all-cause mortality. The relationship between the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio and all-cause mortality was determined using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression, smoothing curve fitting (penalized spline method), subgroup analysis and Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis. RESULTS:During a median follow-up of 1.72?years, 157 all-cause deaths occurred. A U-shaped association was found between the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio and all-cause mortality. Patients were divided according to the quintiles of the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. Compared to the reference group (Q3: 1.67-2.10), patients with both lower (Q1 and Q2) and higher (Q4 and Q5) LDL-C/HDL-C ratios had higher all-cause mortality (<?1.67: HR 1.81, 95% CI: 1.08-3.03; ?2.10: HR 2.00, 95% CI: 1.18-3.39). Compared with the lower and higher LDL-C/HDL-C ratio groups, patients with LDL-C/HDL-C ratios of 1.67-2.10 had a significantly higher survival probability (log-rank P?=?0.038). CONCLUSIONS:The results suggest that there is a U-shaped association between the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio and all-cause mortality. Both lower and higher LDL-C/HDL-C ratios were associated with increased all-cause mortality in elderly hypertensive patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio associated with hypertension in adults. However, whether the TG/HDL-C ratio in adolescents predicts future hypertension remains unclear. Here, we evaluated the prospective association between the TG/HDL-C ratio in adolescents and hypertension in early adulthood. METHODS:The Kangwha Study is an ongoing prospective cohort study that has tracked the blood pressure of first grade elementary school students since 1986. We followed up 272 participants who completed health examinations at the age of 16 and 35 years. We excluded 27 participants with adolescent hypertension, defined as those whose blood pressures were above the age- and sex-specific 95th percentiles of the Korean population, and finally analysed 245 participants. We defined high and low TG/HDL-C ratio groups according to the age- and sex-specific 75th percentile of the TG/HDL-C ratio (1.04 for boys and 0.81 for girls) of the Korean population. Adult hypertension was defined by a systolic/diastolic blood pressure???140/90 mmHg or by taking antihypertensive medication at the age of 35 years. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between adolescent TG/HDL-C ratio and adult hypertension after adjusting for age at follow-up, sex, baseline systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and total cholesterol and fasting glucose levels. RESULTS:During the 20-year follow-up, 11 (18.3%) individuals developed hypertension in the high TG/HDL-C ratio group and 10 (5.4%) individuals developed hypertension in the low TG/HDL-C ratio group. The adjusted odds ratio for incident hypertension in the high TG/HDL-C ratio group, compared with the low TG/HDL-C ratio group, was 3.40 (95% confidence interval 1.24-9.31). CONCLUSIONS:High TG/HDL-C ratio in adolescence is associated with hypertension in early adulthood.
Project description:Although the inverse association between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been long established, it remains unclear whether low HDL-C remains a CVD risk factor when levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) are not elevated. This is a timely issue because recent studies have questioned whether HDL-C is truly an independent predictor of CVD.3590 men and women from the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort without known CVD were followed between 1987 and 2011. Low HDL-C (<40 mg/dL in men and <50 mg/dL in women) was defined as isolated if TG and LDL-C were both low (<100 mg/dL). We also examined higher thresholds for TG (150 mg/dL) and LDL-C (130 mg/dL) and compared low versus high HDL-C phenotypes using logistic regression analysis to assess association with CVD. Compared with isolated low HDL-C, CVD risks were higher when low HDL-C was accompanied by LDL-C ?100 mg/dL and TG <100 mg/dL (odds ratio 1.3 [1.0, 1.6]), TG ?100 mg/dL and LDL-C <100 mg/dL (odds ratio 1.3 [1.1, 1.5]), or TG and LDL-C ?100 mg/dL (odds ratio 1.6, [1.2, 2.2]), after adjustment for covariates. When low HDL-C was analyzed with higher thresholds for TG (?150 mg/dL) and LDL-C (?130 mg/dL), results were essentially the same. In contrast, compared with isolated low HDL-C, high HDL-C was associated with 20% to 40% lower CVD risk except when TG and LDL-C were elevated.CVD risk as a function of HDL-C phenotypes is modulated by other components of the lipid panel.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Data on the relationship between nontraditional lipid profiles [total cholesterol (TC)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, triglyceride (TG)/HDL-C ratio, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)/HDL-C ratio, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C)] and the risk of peripheral artery disease (PAD) are limited. The present study investigated the relationship of nontraditional lipid indices with PAD in hypertensive patients. METHODS:This cross-sectional study was performed among 10,900 adults with hypertension. Participants were diagnosed with PAD when their ankle-brachial index (ABI) was <?0.9. The association between nontraditional lipid profiles and PAD was examined using multivariate logistic regression analysis and the restricted cubic spline. RESULTS:All nontraditional lipid indices were independently and positively associated with PAD in a dose-response fashion. After multivariable adjustment, the per SD increments of the TC/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C ratios and non-HDL-C were all significantly associated with 37, 14, 40, and 24% higher risk for PAD, respectively. The adjusted ORs (95% CI) for PAD were 1.77 (1.31, 2.40), 1.71 (1.25, 2.34), 2.03 (1.50, 2.74), and 1.70 (1.25, 2.31) when comparing the highest tertile to the lowest tertile of the TC/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C ratios and non-HDL-C, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Among Chinese hypertensive adults, all nontraditional lipid indices were positively associated with PAD, and the LDL-C/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratios were better than the other nontraditional lipid indices for predicting PAD. These findings may improve the risk stratification of cardiovascular disease and dyslipidemia management. TRIAL REGISTRATION:CHiCTR, ChiCTR1800017274 . Registered 20 July 2018.
Project description:AIMS/INTRODUCTION:Dyslipidemia is commonly present in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Recently, the triglyceride : high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio, a novel parameter of lipid abnormality, has been seen as an independent predictor for incident diabetes. However, the correlation of the TG/HDL-C ratio with incident diabetes in the Chinese population and how this relationship is impacted by sex have been rarely studied. In the present study, the correlation of the TG/HDL-C ratio with incident diabetes is investigated between different sexes of the Chinese population. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 116,855 participants who were free of diabetes at baseline were enrolled in the study. The participants were grouped by the median value (0.82) of the TG/HDL-C ratio. Then, participants were further analyzed according to their sex. Cumulative incidence and person-years incidence were used to express the incidence rate. The predictive value of the TG/HDL-C ratio for incident diabetes was probed by the Cox regression proportional hazards model. RESULTS:The mean age of the participants was 44.1 ± 12.9 years, and 53% of participants (n = 62,868) were the men. A total of 2,685 incident diabetes cases occurred during the 3.1 years of the median follow-up period. The cumulative incidence in total incident diabetes patients, men and women was 2.30% (2.21-2.38%), 3.01% (2.87-3.14%) and 1.47% (1.37-1.57%), respectively. After the adjustment of multivariate factors, the multivariate Cox regression analysis results showed that a higher TG/HDL-C ratio was the independent predictive factor of incident diabetes in men (hazard ratio 1.30, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.64), compared with women (hazard ratio 0.85, 95% confidence interval 0.53-1.38). CONCLUSIONS:Among the Chinese population, the TG/HDL-C ratio is an independent predictor for incident diabetes in male patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C) ratio constitutes a strong risk predictor of cardiovascular events. However, the association between this ratio and cardiovascular death in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients is uncertain. The study aimed to investigate whether a high LDL-C/HDL-C ratio could predict both cardiovascular and all-cause mortalities in patients on PD. METHODS:A total of 1616 incident patients on PD included from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2013 were followed up with until 31 December 2018 in this single-center prospective cohort study. Participants were divided into three categories according to LDL-C/HDL-C ratio tertile. The primary endpoint was cardiovascular mortality; the secondary endpoint was all-cause mortality. RESULTS:The mean age of the study cohort was 47.5?years and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 21.6?kg/m2. During a median follow-up period of 47.6?months, 492 patients died, including 246 (50.0%) due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). A multivariate analysis revealed that the highest LDL-C/HDL-C ratio tertile was significantly associated with increased CVD mortality [hazard ratio (HR): 1.69, 95% CI: 1.24-2.29; P?= 0.001] and all-cause mortality (HR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.18-1.81; P?= 0.001) relative to the lowest tertile. After adjusting for covariates, the HRs of cardiovascular and all-cause mortalities were 1.84 (95% CI: 1.25-2.71; P = 0.002) and 1.35 (95% CI: 1.03-1.77; P = 0.032). Subgroup analysis showed that the risk of CVD death rose with a higher LDL-C/HDL-C ratio among PD patients who were female, younger than 65?years old, without being malnourished (BMI???18.5?kg/m2 or albumin ?35?g/L), and with a history of diabetes or CVD, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:A high LDL-C/HDL-C ratio is an independent risk factor for both cardiovascular and all-cause mortalities among PD patients.
Project description:PURPOSE:This study was conducted to investigate the distributions of the triglyceride (TG) to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio and total cholesterol (TC) to HDL-C ratio, and to explore their usefulness as markers of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean adolescents. METHODS:We obtained data for 2,721 adolescents (1,436 boys and 1,285 girls) aged 10-18 years who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 2008 to 2010. International Diabetes Federation criteria were used to define MetS. RESULTS:There were no significant gender-related differences in TG/HDL-C or TC/HDL-C ratios. These lipid ratios showed significant associations with homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and waist circumference. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve to identify MetS were 0.947 for TG/HDL-C and 0.924 for TC/HDL-C, which were higher than that of HOMA-IR (0.822). Optimal cutoff values (sensitivity, specificity) of TG/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratios for MetS prediction were 3.3 (85.7%, 89.9%), and 3.8 (92.9%, 82.8%), respectively. Odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for MetS in adolescents with TC/HDL-C ratio above the cutoff value was 14.8 (2.8-77.4), while that for TG/HDL-C ratio about the cutoff value was 30.6 (6.0-157.6). In adolescents who had both lipid ratios above the cutoff values, the OR (95% CI) for MetS was 36.2 (7.2-186.2). CONCLUSION:TG/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratios are useful markers of metabolic syndrome with high predictive value in Korean adolescents.
Project description:In the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), we evaluated associations of baseline levels of a lipoprotein-based insulin resistance (IR) index (LP-IR), IR-related lipoprotein particles, mean particle sizes, and lipids, with incident type 2 diabetes, independent of confounders, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR.Among 5,314 adults aged 45-84 years without baseline diabetes or cardiovascular disease, 656 cases of diabetes were identified during a mean follow-up of 7.7 years. Lipoprotein particle concentrations, size, and LP-IR were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of stored baseline plasma. Potential effect modification, by race/ethnicity, sex, baseline use of lipid-lowering medications or hormone therapy, or glucose strata (<90, 90-99, and ? 100 mg/dL), was also evaluated.Higher levels of LP-IR, large VLDL particles (VLDL-P), small LDL particles, triglycerides (TG), and TG-to-HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio and lower levels of large HDL particles, smaller HDL and LDL size, and larger VLDL size were significantly associated with incident diabetes adjusted for confounders and glucose or insulin. These also were similar by race/ethnicity, sex, and treatment group. Associations were similar for LP-IR, large VLDL-P, mean VLDL size, TG, and TG-to-HDL-C ratio; they persisted for LP-IR, large VLDL-P, or mean VLDL size adjusted for HOMA-IR or TG-to-HDL-C ratio and glucose but not for the TG-to-HDL-C ratio adjusted for LP-IR or for HOMA-IR or insulin if adjusted for LP-IR and glucose.Among ethnically diverse men and women, LP-IR, large VLDL-P, large VLDL size, TG, and TG-to-HDL-C ratio were associated with incident diabetes independent of established risk factors, glucose, insulin, or HOMA-IR, as well as the use of lipid-lowering medications or hormone therapy.
Project description:Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is substantially increased in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The Triglycerides (TG) to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio is an indirect measure of insulin resistance and an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. No study to date has been performed to evaluate whether the TG/HDL-C ratio predicts CVD risk in patients with CKD.A total of 197 patients (age 53±12 years) with CKD Stages 1 to 5, were enrolled in this longitudinal, observational, retrospective study. TG/HDL-C ratio, HOMA-IR indexes, serum asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, phosphorous, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and albumin levels were measured. Flow mediated vasodilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery was assessed by using high-resolution ultrasonography.A total of 11 cardiovascular (CV) deaths and 43 nonfatal CV events were registered in a mean follow-up period of 30 (range 9 to 35) months. Subjects with TG/HDL-C ratios above the median values (>3.29) had significantly higher plasma ADMA, PTH, and phosphorous levels (p=0.04, p=0.02, p=0.01 respectively) and lower eGFR and FMD values (p=0.03, p<0.001 respectively). The TG/HDL-C ratio was an independent determinant of FMD (?=-0.25 p=0.02) along with TG, HDL-C, hsCRP, serum albumin, phosphate levels, systolic blood pressure, PTH, eGFR and the presence of diabetes mellitus. The TG/HDL-C ratio was also a significant independent determinant of cardiovascular outcomes [HR: 1.36 (1.11-1.67) (p=0.003)] along with plasma ADMA levels [HR: 1.31 (1.13-1.52) (p<0.001)] and a history of diabetes mellitus [HR: 4.82 (2.80-8.37) (p<0.001)].This study demonstrates that the elevated TG/HDL-C ratio predicts poor CVD outcome in subjects with CKD. Being a simple, inexpensive, and reproducible marker of CVD risk, the TG/HDL-C ratio may emerge as a novel and reliable indicator among the many well-established markers of CVD risk in CKD.Clinical trial registration number and date: NCT02113462 / 10-04-2014.