ABSTRACT: Acoustic tweezers use sound radiation forces to manipulate matter without contact. They provide unique characteristics compared with the more established optical tweezers, such as higher trapping forces per unit input power and the ability to manipulate objects from the micrometer to the centimeter scale. They also enable the trapping of a wide range of sample materials in various media. A dramatic advancement in optical tweezers was the development of holographic optical tweezers (HOT) which enabled the independent manipulation of multiple particles leading to applications such as the assembly of 3D microstructures and the probing of soft matter. Now, 20 years after the development of HOT, we present the realization of holographic acoustic tweezers (HAT). We experimentally demonstrate a 40-kHz airborne HAT system implemented using two 256-emitter phased arrays and manipulate individually up to 25 millimetric particles simultaneously. We show that the maximum trapping forces are achieved once the emitting array satisfies Nyquist sampling and an emission phase discretization below ?/8 radians. When considered on the scale of a wavelength, HAT provides similar manipulation capabilities as HOT while retaining its unique characteristics. The examples shown here suggest the future use of HAT for novel forms of displays in which the objects are made of physical levitating voxels, assembly processes in the micrometer and millimetric scale, as well as positioning and orientation of multiple objects which could lead to biomedical applications.
Project description:Optical trapping has been implemented in many areas of physics and biology as a noncontact sample manipulation technique to study the structure and dynamics of nano- and mesoscale objects. It provides a unique approach for manipulating microscopic objects without inducing undesired changes in structure. Combining optical trapping with hard X-ray microscopy techniques, such as coherent diffraction imaging and crystallography, provides a nonperturbing environment where electronic and structural dynamics of an individual particle in solution can be followed in situ. It was previously shown that optical trapping allows the manipulation of micrometer-sized objects for X-ray fluorescence imaging. However, questions remain over the ability of optical trapping to position objects for X-ray diffraction measurements, which have stringent requirements for angular stability. Our work demonstrates that dynamic holographic optical tweezers are capable of manipulating single micrometer-scale anisotropic particles in a microfluidic environment with the precision and stability required for X-ray Bragg diffraction experiments-thus functioning as an "optical goniometer." The methodology can be extended to a variety of X-ray experiments and the Bragg coherent diffractive imaging of individual particles in solution, as demonstrated here, will be markedly enhanced with the advent of brighter, coherent X-ray sources.
Project description:Sound can levitate objects of different sizes and materials through air, water and tissue. This allows us to manipulate cells, liquids, compounds or living things without touching or contaminating them. However, acoustic levitation has required the targets to be enclosed with acoustic elements or had limited manoeuvrability. Here we optimize the phases used to drive an ultrasonic phased array and show that acoustic levitation can be employed to translate, rotate and manipulate particles using even a single-sided emitter. Furthermore, we introduce the holographic acoustic elements framework that permits the rapid generation of traps and provides a bridge between optical and acoustical trapping. Acoustic structures shaped as tweezers, twisters or bottles emerge as the optimum mechanisms for tractor beams or containerless transportation. Single-beam levitation could manipulate particles inside our body for applications in targeted drug delivery or acoustically controlled micro-machines that do not interfere with magnetic resonance imaging.
Project description:Optical tweezers are often applied to control the dynamics of objects by scanning light. However, there is a limitation that objects fail to track the scan when the drag exceeds the trapping force. In contrast, Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams can directly control the torque on objects and provide a typical model for nonequilibrium systems such as Brownian motion under external fields. Although stable "mid-water" trapping is essential for removing extrinsic hydrodynamic effects in such studies, three-dimensional trapping by LG beams has not yet been clearly established. Here we report the three-dimensional off-axis trapping of dielectric spheres using high-quality LG beams generated by a special holographic method. The trapping position was estimated as ~ half the wavelength behind the beam waist. These results establish the scientific groundwork of LG trapping and the technical basis of calibrating optical torque to provide powerful tools for studying energy-conversion mechanisms and the nonequilibrium nature of biological molecules under torque.
Project description:Nowadays, optical tweezers have undergone explosive developments in accordance with a great progress of lasers. In the last decade, a breakthrough brought optical tweezers into the nano-world, overcoming the diffraction limit. This is called plasmonic optical tweezers (POT). POT are powerful tools used to manipulate nanomaterials. However, POT has several practical issues that need to be overcome. First, it is rather difficult to fabricate plasmonic nanogap structures regularly and rapidly at low cost. Second, in many cases, POT suffers from thermal effects (Marangoni convection and thermophoresis). Here, we propose an alternative approach using a nano-structured material that can enhance the optical force and be applied to optical tweezers. This material is metal-free black silicon (MFBS), the plasma etched nano-textured Si. We demonstrate that MFBS-based optical tweezers can efficiently manipulate small particles by trapping and binding. The advantages of MFBS-based optical tweezers are: (1) simple fabrication with high uniformity over wafer-sized areas, (2) free from thermal effects detrimental for trapping, (3) switchable trapping between one and two - dimensions, (4) tight trapping because of no detrimental thermal forces. This is the NON-PLASMONIC optical tweezers.
Project description:Optical trapping has become an optimal choice for biological research at the microscale due to its non-invasive performance and accessibility for quantitative studies, especially on the forces involved in biological processes. However, reliable force measurements depend on the calibration of the optical traps, which is different for each experiment and hence requires high control of the local variables, especially of the trapped object geometry. Many biological samples have an elongated, rod-like shape, such as chromosomes, intracellular organelles (e.g., peroxisomes), membrane tubules, certain microalgae, and a wide variety of bacteria and parasites. This type of samples often requires several optical traps to stabilize and orient them in the correct spatial direction, making it more difficult to determine the total force applied. Here, we manipulate glass microcylinders with holographic optical tweezers and show the accurate measurement of drag forces by calibration-free direct detection of beam momentum. The agreement between our results and slender-body hydrodynamic theoretical calculations indicates potential for this force-sensing method in studying protracted, rod-shaped specimens.
Project description:Combining imaging and control of multiple micron-scaled objects in three dimensions opens up new experimental possibilities such as the fabrication of colloidal-based photonic devices, as well as high-throughput studies of single cell dynamics. Here we utilize the dual-objectives approach to combine 3D holographic optical tweezers with a spinning-disk confocal microscope. Our setup is capable of trapping multiple different objects in three dimensions with lateral and axial accuracy of 8 nm and 20 nm, and precision of 20 nm and 200 nm respectively, while imaging them in four different fluorescence channels. We demonstrate fabrication of ordered two-component and three dimensional colloidal arrays, as well as trapping of yeast cell arrays. We study the kinetics of the division of yeast cells within optical traps, and find that the timescale for division is not affected by trapping.
Project description:The ability of surface acoustic waves to trap and manipulate micrometer-scale particles and biological cells has led to many applications involving "acoustic tweezers" in biology, chemistry, engineering, and medicine. Here, we present 3D acoustic tweezers, which use surface acoustic waves to create 3D trapping nodes for the capture and manipulation of microparticles and cells along three mutually orthogonal axes. In this method, we use standing-wave phase shifts to move particles or cells in-plane, whereas the amplitude of acoustic vibrations is used to control particle motion along an orthogonal plane. We demonstrate, through controlled experiments guided by simulations, how acoustic vibrations result in micromanipulations in a microfluidic chamber by invoking physical principles that underlie the formation and regulation of complex, volumetric trapping nodes of particles and biological cells. We further show how 3D acoustic tweezers can be used to pick up, translate, and print single cells and cell assemblies to create 2D and 3D structures in a precise, noninvasive, label-free, and contact-free manner.
Project description:Optical microscopes and optical tweezers, which were invented to image and manipulate microscale objects, have revolutionized cellular and molecular biology. However, the optical resolution is hampered by the diffraction limit; thus, optical microscopes and optical tweezers cannot be directly used to image and manipulate nano-objects. The emerging plasmonic/photonic nanoscopes and nanotweezers can achieve nanometer resolution, but the high-index material structures will easily cause mechanical and photothermal damage to biospecimens. Here, we demonstrate subdiffraction-limit imaging and manipulation of nano-objects by a noninvasive device that was constructed by trapping a cell on a fiber tip. The trapped cell, acting as a biomagnifier, could magnify nanostructures with a resolution of 100 nm (λ/5.5) under white-light microscopy. The focus of the biomagnifier formed a nano-optical trap that allowed precise manipulation of an individual nanoparticle with a radius of 50 nm. This biomagnifier provides a high-precision tool for optical imaging, sensing, and assembly of bionanomaterials.
Project description:The vestibular system, which detects gravity and motion, is crucial to survival, but the neural circuits processing vestibular information remain incompletely characterised. In part, this is because the movement needed to stimulate the vestibular system hampers traditional neuroscientific methods. Optical trapping uses focussed light to apply forces to targeted objects, typically ranging from nanometres to a few microns across. In principle, optical trapping of the otoliths (ear stones) could produce fictive vestibular stimuli in a stationary animal. Here we use optical trapping in vivo to manipulate 55-micron otoliths in larval zebrafish. Medial and lateral forces on the otoliths result in complementary corrective tail movements, and lateral forces on either otolith are sufficient to cause a rolling correction in both eyes. This confirms that optical trapping is sufficiently powerful and precise to move large objects in vivo, and sets the stage for the functional mapping of the resulting vestibular processing.The neural circuits of the vestibular system, which detects gravity and motion, remain incompletely characterised. Here the authors use an optical trap to manipulate otoliths (ear stones) in zebrafish larvae, and elicit corrective tail movements and eye rolling, thus establishing a method for mapping vestibular processing.
Project description:Optical tweezers are a highly versatile tool for exploration of the mesoscopic world, permitting non-contact manipulation of nanoscale objects. However, direct illumination with intense lasers restricts their use with live biological specimens, and limits the types of materials that can be trapped. Here we demonstrate an indirect optical trapping platform which circumvents these limitations by using hydrodynamic forces to exert nanoscale-precision control over aqueous particles, without directly illuminating them. Our concept is based on optically actuated micro-robotics: closed-loop control enables highly localised flow-fields to be sculpted by precisely piloting the motion of optically-trapped micro-rotors. We demonstrate 2D trapping of absorbing particles which cannot be directly optically trapped, stabilise the position and orientation of yeast cells, and demonstrate independent control over multiple objects simultaneously. Our work expands the capabilities of optical tweezers platforms, and represents a new paradigm for manipulation of aqueous mesoscopic systems.