Identification of a Siglec-F+ granulocyte-macrophage progenitor.
ABSTRACT: In recent years multi-parameter flow cytometry has enabled identification of cells at major stages in myeloid development; from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells, through populations with increasingly limited developmental potential (common myeloid progenitors and granulocyte-macrophage progenitors), to terminally differentiated mature cells. Myeloid progenitors are heterogeneous, and the surface markers that define transition states from progenitors to mature cells are poorly characterized. Siglec-F is a surface glycoprotein frequently used in combination with IL-5 receptor alpha (IL5R?) for the identification of murine eosinophils. Here, we describe a CD11b+ Siglec-F+ IL5R?- myeloid population in the bone marrow of C57BL/6 mice. The CD11b+ Siglec-F+ IL5R?- cells are retained in eosinophil deficient PHIL mice, and are not expanded upon overexpression of IL-5, indicating that they are upstream or independent of the eosinophil lineage. We show these cells to have GMP-like developmental potential in vitro and in vivo, and to be transcriptionally distinct from the classically described GMP population. The CD11b+ Siglec-F+ IL5R?- population expands in the bone marrow of Myb mutant mice, which is potentially due to negative transcriptional regulation of Siglec-F by Myb. Lastly, we show that the role of Siglec-F may be, at least in part, to regulate GMP viability.
Project description:The differentiation of myeloid progenitors to mature, terminally differentiated cells is a highly regulated process. Here, we showed that conditional disruption of the c-myb proto-oncogene in adult mice resulted in dramatic reductions in CMP, GMP and MEP myeloid progenitors, leading to a reduction of neutrophils, basophils, monocytes and platelets in peripheral blood. In addition, c-myb plays a critical role at multiple stages of myeloid development, from multipotent CMP and bipotent GMP to unipotent CFU-G and CFU-M progenitor cells. c-myb controls the differentiation of these cells and is required for the proper commitment, maturation and normal differentiation of CMPs and GMPs. Specifically, c-myb regulates the precise commitment to the megakaryocytic and granulo-monocytic pathways and governs the granulocytic-monocytic lineage choice. c-myb is also required for the commitment along the granulocytic pathway for early myeloid progenitor cells and for the maturation of committed precursor cells along this pathway. On the other hand, disruption of the c-myb gene favors the commitment to the monocytic lineage, although monocytic development was abnormal with cells appearing more mature with atypical CD41 surface markers. These results demonstrate that c-myb plays a pivotal role in the regulation of multiple stages in adult myelogenesis.
Project description:Spleen is known to contain multiple dendritic and myeloid cell subsets, distinguishable on the basis of phenotype, function and anatomical location. As a result of recent intensive flow cytometric analyses, splenic dendritic cell (DC) subsets are now better characterized than other myeloid subsets. In order to identify and fully characterize a novel splenic subset termed "L-DC" in relation to other myeloid cells, it was necessary to investigate myeloid subsets in more detail. In terms of cell surface phenotype, L-DC were initially characterized as a CD11b(hi)CD11c(lo)MHCII(-)Ly6C(-)Ly6G(-) subset in murine spleen. Their expression of CD43, lack of MHCII, and a low level of CD11c was shown to best differentiate L-DC by phenotype from conventional DC subsets. A complete analysis of all subsets in spleen led to the classification of CD11b(hi)CD11c(lo)MHCII(-)Ly6C(lo)Ly6G(-) cells as monocytes expressing CX3CR1, CD43 and CD115. Siglec-F expression was used to identify a specific eosinophil population, distinguishable from both Ly6C(lo) and Ly6C(hi) monocytes, and other DC subsets. L-DC were characterized as a clear subset of CD11b(hi)CD11c(lo)MHCII(-)Ly6C(-)Ly6G(-) cells, which are CD43(+), Siglec-F(-) and CD115(-). Changes in the prevalence of L-DC compared to other subsets in spleens of mutant mice confirmed the phenotypic distinction between L-DC, cDC and monocyte subsets. L-DC development in vivo was shown to occur independently of the BATF3 transcription factor that regulates cDC development, and also independently of the FLT3L and GM-CSF growth factors which drive cDC and monocyte development, so distinguishing L-DC from these commonly defined cell types.
Project description:Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and their adaptive counterpart type 2 T helper (TH2) cells respond to interleukin-33 (IL-33) by producing IL-5, which is a crucial cytokine for eosinophil development in the bone marrow. The aim of this study was to determine if bone marrow ILC2s, TH cells, and eosinophils are locally regulated by IL-33 in terms of number and activation upon exposure to the common aeroallergen house dust mite (HDM). Mice that were sensitized and challenged with HDM by intranasal exposures induced eosinophil development in the bone marrow with an initial increase of IL5R?+ eosinophil progenitors, following elevated numbers of mature eosinophils and the induction of airway eosinophilia. Bone marrow ILC2s, TH2, and eosinophils all responded to HDM challenge by increased IL-33 receptor (ST2) expression. However, only ILC2s, but not TH cells, revealed increased ST2 expression at the onset of eosinophil development, which significantly correlated with the number of eosinophil progenitors. In summary, our findings suggest that airway allergen challenges with HDM activates IL-33-responsive ILC2s, TH cells, and eosinophils locally in the bone marrow. Targeting the IL-33/ST2 axis in allergic diseases including asthma may be beneficial by decreasing eosinophil production in the bone marrow.
Project description:In many types of cancer, presence of eosinophils in tumors correlate with an improved disease outcome. In line with this, activated eosinophils have been shown to reduce tumor growth in colorectal cancer (CRC). Interleukin (IL)-33 has recently emerged as a cytokine that is able to inhibit the development of tumors through eosinophils and other cells of the tumor microenvironment thereby positively influencing disease progress. Here, we asked whether eosinophils are involved in the effects of IL-33 on tumor growth in CRC.In models of CT26 cell engraftment and colitis-associated CRC, tumor growth was reduced after IL-33 treatment. The growth reduction was absent in eosinophil-deficient ?dblGATA-1 mice but was restored by adoptive transfer of ex vivo-activated eosinophils indicating that the antitumor effect of IL-33 depends on the presence of eosinophils. In vitro, IL-33 increased the expression of markers of activation and homing in eosinophils, such as CD11b and Siglec-F, and the degranulation markers CD63 and CD107a. Increased expression of Siglec-F, CD11b and CD107a was also seen in vivo in eosinophils after IL-33 treatment. Viability and cytotoxic potential of eosinophils and their migration properties toward CCL24 were enhanced indicating direct effects of IL-33 on eosinophils. IL-33 treatment led to increased levels of IL-5 and CCL24 in tumors.Our data show that the presence of eosinophils is mandatory for IL-33-induced tumor reduction in models of CRC and that the mechanisms include eosinophil recruitment, activation and degranulation. Our findings also emphasize the potential use of IL-33 as an adjuvants in CRC immunotherapy. Abbreviations:AOM: azoxymethane; bmRPMI: bone marrow RPMI; CRC: colorectal cancer; CFSE: carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester; DSS: dextran sulfate sodium; EPX: eosinophil peroxidase; INF-?: interferon gamma; ILC: innate lymphoid cell; IL-33: interleukin-33; IL-5: interleukin-5; MDSC: myeloid derived suppressor cells; NK cells: natural killer cells; P/S: penicillin/streptomycin; rm: recombinant mouse; T regs: regulatory T cells; TATE: tumor associated tissue eosinophilia; TNF-?: tumor necrosis factor alpha.
Project description:Eosinophils are important in fighting parasitic infections and are implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and allergy. Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is a critical regulator of eosinophil development, controlling proliferation, differentiation and maturation of the lineage. Mice that constitutively express IL-5 have more than 10 fold more eosinophils in the haematopoietic organs than their wild type counterparts. We have identified that much of this expansion is in a population of Siglec-F high eosinophils, which are rare in wild type mice. In this study we assessed transcription in myeloid progenitors, eosinophil precursors and Siglec-F medium and Siglec-F high eosinophils from IL-5 transgenic mice and in doing so have created a useful resource for eosinophil biologists. We have then utilised these populations to construct an eosinophil trajectory based on gene expression and to identify gene sets that are associated with eosinophil lineage progression. Cell cycle genes were significantly associated with the trajectory, and we experimentally demonstrate an increasing trend towards quiescence along the trajectory. Additionally we found gene expression changes associated with constitutive IL-5 signalling in eosinophil progenitors, many of which were not observed in eosinophils. Overall design: Total RNA was obtained from Eosinophil progenitors and subsets on a wild type and interleukin-5 transgenic background
Project description:Gliomas appear to be highly immunosuppressive tumors, with a strong myeloid component. This includes MDSCs, which are a heterogeneous, immature myeloid cell population expressing myeloid markers Siglec-3 (CD33) and CD11b and lacking markers of mature myeloid cells including MHC II. Siglec-3 is a member of the sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec) family and has been suggested to promote MDSC expansion and suppression. Siglecs form a recently defined family of receptors with potential immunoregulatory functions but only limited insight in their expression on immune regulatory cell subsets, prompting us to investigate Siglec expression on MDSCs. We determined the expression of different Siglec family members on monocytic-MDSCs (M-MDSCs) and polymorphnuclear-MDSCs (PMN-MDSCs) from blood of glioma patients and healthy donors, as well as from patient-derived tumor material. Furthermore, we investigated the presence of sialic acid ligands for these Siglecs on MDSCs and in the glioma tumor microenvironment. Both MDSC subsets express Siglec-3, -5, -7 and -9, with higher levels of Siglec-3, -7 and -9 on M-MDSCs and higher Siglec-5 levels on PMN-MDSCs. Similar Siglec expression profiles were found on MDSCs from healthy donors. Furthermore, the presence of Siglec-5 and -9 was also confirmed on PMN-MDSCs from glioma tissue. Interestingly, freshly isolated glioma cells predominantly expressed sialic acid ligands for Siglec-7 and -9, which was confirmed in situ. In conclusion, our data show a distinct Siglec expression profile for M- and PMN-MDSCs and propose possible sialic acid-Siglec interactions between glioma cells and MDSCs in the tumor microenvironment.
Project description:Mechanisms underlying the progression of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) from chronic phase to myeloid blast crisis are poorly understood. Our previous studies have suggested that overexpression of SETBP1 can drive this progression by conferring unlimited self-renewal capability to granulocyte macrophage progenitors (GMPs). Here we show that overexpression of Hoxa9 or Hoxa10, both transcriptional targets of Setbp1, is also sufficient to induce self-renewal of primary myeloid progenitors, causing their immortalization in culture. More importantly, both are able to cooperate with BCR/ABL to consistently induce transformation of mouse GMPs and development of aggressive leukemias resembling CML myeloid blast crisis, suggesting that either gene can drive CML progression by promoting the self-renewal of GMPs. We further identify Myb as a common critical target for Hoxa9 and Hoxa10 in inducing self-renewal of myeloid progenitors as Myb knockdown significantly reduced colony-forming potential of myeloid progenitors immortalized by the expression of either gene. Interestingly, Myb is also capable of immortalizing primary myeloid progenitors in culture and cooperating with BCR/ABL to induce leukemic transformation of mouse GMPs. Significantly increased levels of MYB transcript also were detected in all human CML blast crisis samples examined over chronic phase samples, further suggesting the possibility that MYB overexpression may play a prevalent role in driving human CML myeloid blast crisis development. In summary, our results identify overexpression of HOXA9, HOXA10, and MYB as critical drivers of CML progression, and suggest MYB as a key therapeutic target for inhibiting the self-renewal of leukemia-initiating cells in CML myeloid blast crisis patients.
Project description:The B-myb (MYBL2) gene is a member of the MYB family of transcription factors and is involved in cell cycle regulation, DNA replication, and maintenance of genomic integrity. However, its function during adult development and hematopoiesis is unknown. We show here that conditional inactivation of B-myb in vivo results in depletion of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) pool, leading to profound reductions in mature lymphoid, erythroid, and myeloid cells. This defect is autonomous to the bone marrow and is first evident in stem cells, which accumulate in the S and G2/M phases. B-myb inactivation also causes defects in the myeloid progenitor compartment, consisting of depletion of common myeloid progenitors but relative sparing of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors. Microarray studies indicate that B-myb-null LSK(+) cells differentially express genes that direct myeloid lineage development and commitment, suggesting that B-myb is a key player in controlling cell fate. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that B-myb is essential for HSC and progenitor maintenance and survival during hematopoiesis.
Project description:The c-Myb gene encodes a transcription factor required for proliferation and survival of normal myeloid progenitors and leukemic blast cells. Targeting of c-Myb by antisense oligodeoxynucleotides has suggested that myeloid leukemia blasts (including chronic myelogenous leukemia [CML]-blast crisis cells) rely on c-Myb expression more than normal progenitors, but a genetic approach to assess the requirement of c-Myb by p210(BCR/ABL)-transformed hematopoietic progenitors has not been taken. We show here that loss of a c-Myb allele had modest effects (20%-28% decrease) on colony formation of nontransduced progenitors, while the effect on p210(BCR/ABL)-expressing Lin(-) Sca-1(+) and Lin(-) Sca-1(+)Kit(+) cells was more pronounced (50%-80% decrease). Using a model of CML-blast crisis, mice (n = 14) injected with p210(BCR/ABL)-transduced p53(-/-)c-Myb(w/w) marrow cells developed leukemia rapidly and had a median survival of 26 days, while only 67% of mice (n = 12) injected with p210(BCR/ABL)-transduced p53(-/-)c-Myb(w/d) marrow cells died of leukemia with a median survival of 96 days. p210(BCR/ABL)-transduced c-Myb(w/w) and c-Myb(w/d) marrow progenitors expressed similar levels of the c-Myb-regulated genes c-Myc and cyclin B1, while those of Bcl-2 were reduced. However, ectopic Bcl-2 expression did not enhance colony formation of p210(BCR/ABL)-transduced c-Myb(w/d) Lin(-)Sca-1(+)Kit(+) cells. Together, these studies support the requirement of c-Myb for p210(BCR/ABL)-dependent leukemogenesis.
Project description:Mice overexpressing TLR7 (TLR7.1 mice) are a model of systemic lupus erythematosus pathogenesis and exhibit peripheral myeloid expansion. We show that TLR7.1 mice have a dramatic expansion of splenic cells that derive from granulocyte/macrophage progenitors (GMP) compared with wild-type mice. In the bone marrow, TLR7.1 mice exhibited hallmarks of emergency myelopoiesis and contained a discrete population of Sca-1(+) GMP, termed emergency GMP, which are more proliferative and superior myeloid precursors than classical Sca-1(-) GMP. The emergency myelopoiesis and peripheral myeloid expansion in TLR7.1 mice was dependent on type I IFN signaling. TLR7 agonist administration to nontransgenic mice also drove type I IFN-dependent emergency myelopoiesis. TLR7.1 plasmacytoid dendritic cells were cell-intrinsically activated by TLR7 overexpression and constitutively produced type I IFN mRNA. This study shows that type I IFN can act upon myeloid progenitors to promote the development of emergency GMP, which leads to an expansion of their progeny in the periphery.