Comparison and Identification for Rhizomes and Leaves of Paris yunnanensis Based on Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy Combined with Chemometrics.
ABSTRACT: Paris polyphylla, as a traditional herb with long history, has been widely used to treat diseases in multiple nationalities of China. Nevertheless, the quality of P. yunnanensis fluctuates among from different geographical origins, so that a fast and accurate classification method was necessary for establishment. In our study, the geographical origin identification of 462 P. yunnanensis rhizome and leaf samples from Kunming, Yuxi, Chuxiong, Dali, Lijiang, and Honghe were analyzed by Fourier transform mid infrared (FT-MIR) spectra, combined with partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), random forest (RF), and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) methods. The obvious cluster tendency of rhizomes and leaves FT-MIR spectra was displayed by principal component analysis (PCA). The distribution of the variable importance for the projection (VIP) was more uniform than the important variables obtained by RF, while PLS-DA models obtained higher classification abilities. Hence, a PLS-DA model was more suitably used to classify the different geographical origins of P. yunnanensis than the RF model. Additionally, the clustering results of different geographical origins obtained by HCA dendrograms also proved the chemical information difference between rhizomes and leaves. The identification performances of PLS-DA and the RF models of leaves FT-MIR matrixes were better than those of rhizomes datasets. In addition, the model classification abilities of combination datasets were higher than the individual matrixes of rhizomes and leaves spectra. Our study provides a reference to the rational utilization of resources, as well as a fast and accurate identification research for P. yunnanensis samples.
Project description:Origin traceability is important for controlling the effect of Chinese medicinal materials and Chinese patent medicines. Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis is widely distributed and well-known all over the world. In our study, two spectroscopic techniques (Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) and near-infrared (NIR)) were applied for the geographical origin traceability of 196 wild P. yunnanensis samples combined with low-, mid-, and high-level data fusion strategies. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and random forest (RF) were used to establish classification models. Feature variables extraction (principal component analysis-PCA) and important variables selection models (recursive feature elimination and Boruta) were applied for geographical origin traceability, while the classification ability of models with the former model is better than with the latter. FT-MIR spectra are considered to contribute more than NIR spectra. Besides, the result of high-level data fusion based on principal components (PCs) feature variables extraction is satisfactory with an accuracy of 100%. Hence, data fusion of FT-MIR and NIR signals can effectively identify the geographical origin of wild P. yunnanensis.
Project description:Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis is a famous medicinal plant distributed in some Asian countries. This species has attracted a great deal of attention and is often used as raw materials in traditional medicine practices. With the purpose of gaining insight into the geoherbalism of wild P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis, a total of 183 dried rhizome samples from eight different regions including 16 typical or nontypical natural habitats have been analyzed by multispectral information fusion based on ultraviolet and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies combined with partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and hierarchical cluster analysis. From the results, the use of multispectral information fusion strategy could improve the correct classification of samples, and good classification performances have been shown according to PLS-DA models. The discrimination of samples was obtained successfully with respect to the typical and nontypical natural habitats, different collection areas of typical natural habitats, and various sampling sites in nontypical natural habitats. Additionally, the similarities among samples were presented as well. Overall, the rhizome of wild P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis exhibited various regional dependence and individual differences according to the geographical origins, and the relatively appropriate growth region with better quality consistency of samples was preliminarily selected. This study also revealed that the developed multispectral information fusion method has the potential to be a reliable analytical methodology for capturing the geoherbalism differentiation in wild P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Furthermore, it could provide more chemical evidence for the critical supplement of quality evaluation on P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis.
Project description:Gentiana rigescens Franchet, which is famous for its bitter properties, is a traditional drug of chronic hepatitis and important raw materials for the pharmaceutical industry in China. In the study, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), coupled with diode array detector (DAD) and chemometrics, were used to investigate the chemical geographical variation of G. rigescens and to classify medicinal materials, according to their grown latitudes. The chromatographic fingerprints of 280 individuals and 840 samples from rhizomes, stems, and leaves of four different latitude areas were recorded and analyzed for tracing the geographical origin of medicinal materials. At first, HPLC fingerprints of underground and aerial parts were generated while using reversed-phase liquid chromatography. After the preliminary data exploration, two supervised pattern recognition techniques, random forest (RF) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), were applied to the three HPLC fingerprint data sets of rhizomes, stems, and leaves, respectively. Furthermore, fingerprint data sets of aerial and underground parts were separately processed and joined while using two data fusion strategies ("low-level" and "mid-level"). The results showed that classification models that are based OPLS-DA were more efficient than RF models. The classification models using low-level data fusion method built showed considerably good recognition and prediction abilities (the accuracy is higher than 99% and sensibility, specificity, Matthews correlation coefficient, and efficiency range from 0.95 to 1.00). Low-level data fusion strategy combined with OPLS-DA could provide the best discrimination result. In summary, this study explored the latitude variation of phytochemical of G. rigescens and developed a reliable and accurate identification method for G. rigescens that were grown at different latitudes based on untargeted HPLC fingerprint, data fusion, and chemometrics. The study results are meaningful for authentication and the quality control of Chinese medicinal materials.
Project description:Background:Nowadays, Radix Polygoni Multiflori (RPM, Heshouwu in Chinese) from different geographical origins were used in clinic. In order to characterize the chemical profiles of different geographical origins of RPM samples, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) combined with chemometrics (partial least squared discriminant analysis, PLS?DA) method was applied in the present study. Methods:The chromatography, chemical composition and MS information of RPM samples from 18 geographical origins were acquired and profiled by UPLC-QTOF/MS. The chemical markers contributing the differentiation of RPM samples were observed and characterized by supervised PLS?DA method of chemometrics. Results:The chemical composition differences of RPM samples derived from 18 different geographical origins were observed. Nine chemical markers were tentatively identified which could be used as specific chemical markers for the differentiation of geographical RPM samples. Conclusions:UPLC-QTOF/MS method coupled with chemometrics analysis has potential to be used for discriminating different geographical TCMs. Results will help to develop strategies for conservation and utilization of RPM samples.
Project description:American ginseng (<i>Panax quinquefolium</i>) has long been cultivated in China for the function food and medicine. Here, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography was coupled with electrospray ionization and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI<sup>-</sup>-TQ-MS) for simultaneous detection of 22 ginsenosides in American ginseng cultivated in Mudanjiang district of Heilongjiang. The extraction conditions also were optimized by a Box Behnken design experiment. The optimized result was 31.8 mL/g as ratio of liquid to raw materials, 20.3 min of extraction time, and 235.0 W of extraction powers. The quantitative MS parameters for these 22 compounds were rapidly optimized by single factor experiments employing UPLC-ESI<sup>-</sup>-multiple reaction monitoring or multiple ion monitoring (MRM/MIM) scans. Furthermore, the established UPLC-ESI<sup>-</sup>-MRM-MS method showed good linear relationships (<i>R</i>² > 0.99), repeatability (RSD < 3.86%), precision (RSD < 2.74%), and recovery (94?104%). This method determined 22 bioactive ginsenosides in different parts of the plant (main roots, hairy roots, rhizomes, leaves, and stems) and growth years (one year to four years) of <i>P. quinquefolium</i>. The highest total content of the 22 analytes was in the hairy roots (1.3 × 10? µg/g) followed by rhizomes (7.1 × 10? µg/g), main roots (6.5 × 10? µg/g), leaves (4.2 × 10? µg/g), and stems (2.4 × 10? µg/g). Finally, chemometric methods, hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLS-DA), were successfully used to classify and differentiate American ginseng attributed to different growth years. The proposed UPLC-ESI<sup>-</sup>-MRM-MS coupled with HCA and PLS-DA methods was elucidated to be a simple and reliable method for quality evaluation of American ginseng.
Project description:Honey is one of the food commodities most frequently affected by fraud. Although addition of extraneous sugars is the most common type of fraud, analytical methods are also needed to detect origin masking and misdescription of botanical variety. In this work, multivariate analysis of the content of certain macro- and trace elements, determined by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) without any type of sample treatment, were used to classify honeys according to botanical variety and geographical origin. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to create classification models for nine different botanical varieties-orange, robinia, lavender, rosemary, thyme, lime, chestnut, eucalyptus and manuka-and seven different geographical origins-Italy, Romania, Spain, Portugal, France, Hungary and New Zealand. Although characterised by 100% sensitivity, PCA models lacked specificity. The PLS-DA models constructed for specific combinations of botanical variety-country (BV-C) allowed the successful classification of honey samples, which was verified by external validation samples. Graphical abstract.
Project description:Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) in combination with chemometric analysis were applied to discriminate the geographical origin of grapevine leaves belonging to the variety "Touriga Nacional" during different vegetative stages. Leaves were collected from plants of two different wine regions in Portugal (Dão and Douro) over the grapes maturation period. A sampling plan was designed in order to obtain the most variability within the vineyards taking into account variables such as: solar exposition, land inclination, altitude and soil properties, essentially. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to extract relevant information from the spectral data and presented visible cluster trends. Results, both with NIRS and MIRS, demonstrate that it is possible to discriminate between the two geographical origins with an outstanding accuracy. Spectral patterns of grapevine leaves show significant differences during grape maturation period, with a special emphasis between the months of June and September. Additionally, the quantification of total chlorophyll and total polyphenol content from leaves spectra was attempted by both techniques. For this purpose, partial least squares (PLS) regression was employed. PLS models based on NIRS and MIRS, both demonstrate a statistically significant correlation for the total chlorophyll (R2P?=?0.92 and R2P?=?0.76, respectively). However, the PLS model for the total polyphenols, may only be considered as a screening method, because significant prediction errors, independently of resourcing on NIRS, MIRS or both techniques simultaneously, were obtained.
Project description:Due to the existence of Lingzhi adulteration, there is a growing demand for species classification of medicinal mushrooms by various techniques. The objective of this study was to explore a rapid and reliable way to distinguish between different Lingzhi species and compare the influence of data pretreatment methods on the recognition results. To this end, 120 fresh fruiting bodies of Lingzhi were collected, and all of them were analyzed by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVM) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) classification models were established for raw and pretreated second derivative (SD) spectral matrices to authenticate different Lingzhi species. The results of multivariate statistical analysis indicated that the SD preprocessing method displayed a higher classification ability, which may be attributed to the analysis of powder samples that requires removal of overlapping peaks and baseline shifts. Compared with RF, the results of the SVM and PLS-DA methods were more satisfying, and their accuracies for the test set were both 100%. Among SVM and PLS-DA, the training set and test set accuracy of PLS-DA were both 100%. In conclusion, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy data pretreated by SD combined with PLS-DA is a simple, rapid, non-destructive and relatively inexpensive method to discriminate between mushroom species and provide a good reference to quality assessment.
Project description:In order to achieve the target of deeper insight into the differentiation and comparison of Wolfiporia cocos, a total of 350 samples including distinct growth patterns, various collection regions and different medicinal parts were investigated using multi-spectral information fusion based on ultraviolet (UV) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopies coupled with chemometrics. From the results, the discrimination of samples was obtained successfully and good classification performances were shown according to partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models. Comparatively, the distinctness of chemical information in the two medicinal parts of W. cocos were much more than that in the same part with different growth patterns and collection areas. Meanwhile, an interesting finding suggested that growth patterns rather than geographical origins could be the dominant factor to effect the chemical properties of the same part samples, especially for the epidermis. Compared with the epidermis samples, there were better quality consistency for the inner part of W. cocos. Totally, this study demonstrated that the developed method proved to be reliable to perform comparative analysis of W. cocos. Moreover, it could provide more comprehensive chemical evidence for the critical supplement of quality assessment on the raw materials of W. cocos.
Project description:Soybean (Glycine max) is a major crop cultivated in various regions and consumed globally. The formation of volatile compounds in soybeans is influenced by the cultivar as well as environmental factors, such as the climate and soil in the cultivation areas. This study used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) to analyze the volatile compounds of soybeans cultivated in Korea, China, and North America. The multivariate data analysis of partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were then applied to GC-MS data sets. The soybeans could be clearly discriminated according to their geographical origins on the PLS-DA score plot. In particular, 25 volatile compounds, including terpenes (limonene, myrcene), esters (ethyl hexanoate, butyl butanoate, butyl prop-2-enoate, butyl acetate, butyl propanoate), aldehydes (nonanal, heptanal, (E)-hex-2-enal, (E)-hept-2-enal, acetaldehyde) were main contributors to the discrimination of soybeans cultivated in China from those cultivated in other regions in the PLS-DA score plot. On the other hand, 15 volatile compounds, such as 2-ethylhexan-1-ol, 2,5-dimethylhexan-2-ol, octanal, and heptanal, were related to Korean soybeans located on the negative PLS 2 axis, whereas 12 volatile compounds, such as oct-1-en-3-ol, heptan-4-ol, butyl butanoate, and butyl acetate, were responsible for North American soybeans. However, the multivariate statistical analysis (PLS-DA) was not able to clearly distinguish soybeans cultivated in Korea, except for those from the Gyeonggi and Kyeongsangbuk provinces.