Cytisine-Pterocarpan-Derived Compounds: Biomimetic Synthesis and Apoptosis-Inducing Activity in Human Breast Cancer Cells.
ABSTRACT: Cytisine-pterocarpan-derived compounds were biomimetically synthesized with (-)-cytisine and (-)-maackiain via a N,N-4-dimethyl-4-aminopyridine (DMAP)-mediated synthetic strategy in a mild manner. In the present study, tonkinensine B (4) was elaborated in good and high yields with the optimized reaction conditions. The in vitro cytotoxicity of compound 4 was evaluated against breast cancer cell lines and showed that 4 had a better cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 cells (IC50 = 19.2 ?M). Depending on the research on cytotoxicities of 4 against RAW 264.7 and BV2 cells, it was suggested that 4 produced low cytotoxic effects on the central nervous system. Further study indicated that 4 demonstrated cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 cells and the cytotoxic activity was induced by apoptosis. The results implied that the apoptosis might be induced by mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis via regulating the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and promoting the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondrion to the cytoplasm in MDA-MB-231 cells.
Project description:Background:Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) is a widely distributed natural flavonoid found in many plant extracts, honey and propolis. Several studies revealed that chrysin possesses multiple biological activities including anti-cancer effects. It has been established that activation of apoptosis is the key molecular mechanism responsible for the cytotoxic potential of chrysin. The objective of this study was to design and synthesize potent chrysin analogues as potential cytotoxic agents. Methods:A series of chrysin derivatives (3a-m) bearing N'-alkylidene/arylideneacetohydrazide moiety were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity against two human breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 by applying the MTT colorimetric assay. Selected compounds were tested for their ability to induce apoptosis through caspase 3/7 activation in MDA-MB-231 cells only since MCF-7 cells lack procaspase 3. Results:Compounds (3a-m) were obtained as geometrical isomers (E/Z isomers) in good yields upon treatment of hydrazide 5 with different aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes. Most of the synthesized compounds demonstrated moderate-to-good activity against both cell lines. The cytotoxicity results revealed the importance of lipophilic moieties at C-4 position of ring D in imparting the cytotoxic activities to the compounds. Compound 3e with 4-benzyloxy substituent was found to be the most active among the synthesized compounds with IC50 3.3 µM against MDA-MB-231 and 4.2 µM against MCF-7 cell lines. The cytotoxic potential of compound 3e is comparable to that of the well-known anti-cancer agent doxorubicin. In addition, compounds substituted with fluoro (3b), nitro (3h), and dimethylamino (3j) exhibited good cytotoxicity with IC50 <6.5 µM against MDA-MB-231 and <12 µM against MCF-7. Selected compounds were able to induce apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells as indicated by caspase-3 and/or -7 activation. Conclusion:Our results show that the newly designed chrysin derivatives exert anticancer activity in human breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. Therefore, they can be considered as leads for further development of more potent and selective cytotoxic agents.
Project description:A new series of quinazolinone compounds 16-34 incorporating isatin moieties was synthesized. The antitumor efficacy of the compounds against MDA-MB-231, a breast cancer cell line, and LOVO, a colon cancer cell line, was assessed. Compounds 20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, and 34 displayed potent antitumor activity against MDA-MB-231 and LOVO cells (IC50: 10.38-38.67 μM and 9.91-15.77 μM, respectively); the comparative IC50 values for 5-fluorouracil and erlotinib in these cells lines were 70.28 μM, 22.24 μM and 15.23 μM, 25.31 μM respectively. The EGFR-TK assay and induction of apoptosis for compound 31 were investigated to assess its potential cytotoxic activity as a representative example of the novel synthesized compounds. At a concentration of 10 μM, compound 31 exhibited efficient inhibitory effect against EGFR-TK and induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, a molecular docking study for compound 31 and erlotinib was performed to verify the binding mode toward the EGFR kinase enzyme, and showed a similar interaction as that with erlotinib alone. Graphical Abstract: Compound 31 showed potent antitumor activity and efficient inhibitory effect against EGFR-TK and induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells at a concentration of 10 μM.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The existing evidence that nanobacteria (NB) are closely associated with human disease is overwhelming. However, their potential toxicity against cancer cells has not yet been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects of NB and nanohydroxyapatites (nHAPs) against human breast cancer cells and to elucidate the mechanisms of action underlying their cytotoxicity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: NB were isolated from calcified placental tissue, and nHAPs were artificially synthesized. The viability of the MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line was tested by using the Kit-8 cell counting kit assay. Apoptosis was examined by transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry. The endocytosis of NB and nHAPs by MDA-MB-231 cells was initially confirmed by microscopy. Although both NB and nHAPs significantly decreased MDA-MB-231 cell viability and increased the population of apoptotic cells, NB were more potent than nHAPs. After 72 hours, NB also caused ultrastructural changes typical of apoptosis, such as chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, nuclear dissolution, mitochondrial swelling, and the formation of apoptotic bodies. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, NB and nHAPs exerted cytotoxic effects that were associated with the induction of apoptosis. The effects exerted by NB were more potent than those induced by nHAPs. NB cytotoxicity probably emerged from toxic metabolites or protein components, rather than merely the hydroxyapatite shells. NB divided during culturing, and similar to cells undergoing binary fission, many NB particles were observed in culture by transmission electron microscopy, suggesting they are live microorganisms.
Project description:Halogenated thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidines exhibit antiproliferative activity against a variety of cancer cell models, such as the mouse lymphocytic leukemia cell line L1210 in which they induce apoptosis independent of cell cycle arrest. Here we assessed these activities on MDA-MB-231 cells, a well-established model of aggressive, metastatic breast cancer. While 2,4-dichloro[3,2-d]pyrimidine was less toxic to MDA-MB-231 cells than previously observed in the L1210 model, flow cytometry analysis showed that MDA-MB-231 cell death involved arrest at the G2/M stage of the cell cycle. Conversely, the introduction of bromine at C7 of the 2,4-dichloro[3,2-d]pyrimidine eliminated cell type-dependent differences in cytotoxicity or cell cycle status. Together, these data indicate that a substituent at C7 can profoundly modify the cytotoxic mechanism of halogenated thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidines in a cell type-specific manner.
Project description:Berberine is reported to have multiple biological effects, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities, and 13-alkyl-substituted berberines show higher activity than berberine against certain bacterial species and human cancer cell lines. In particular, 13-ethylberberine (13-EBR) was reported to have anti-inflammatory effects in endotoxin-activated macrophage and septic mouse models. Thus, in this study, we aimed to examine the anticancer effects of 13-EBR and its mechanisms in radiotherapy-resistant (RT-R) MDA-MB-231 cells derived from the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. When we compared the gene expression between MDA-MB-231 and RT-R MDA-MB-231 cells with an RNA microarray, RT-R MDA-MB-231 showed higher levels of anti-apoptotic genes and lower levels of pro-apoptotic genes compared to MDA-MB-231 cells. Accordingly, we examined the effect of 13-EBR on the induction of apoptosis in RT-R MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The results showed that 13-EBR reduced the proliferation and colony-forming ability of both MDA-MB-231 and RT-R MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, 13-EBR induced apoptosis by promoting both intracellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and by regulating the apoptosis-related proteins involved in the intrinsic pathway, not in the extrinsic pathway. These results suggest that 13-EBR has pro-apoptotic effects in RT-R MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-231 cells by inducing mitochondrial ROS production and activating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, providing useful insights into new potential therapeutic strategies for RT-R breast cancer treatment.
Project description:Eupatorin has been reported with in vitro cytotoxic effect on several human cancer cells. However, reports on the mode of action and detail mechanism of eupatorin in vitro in breast cancer disease are limited. Hence, eupatorin's effect on the human breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 was investigated. MTT assay showed that eupatorin had cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells but was non-toxic to the normal cells of MCF-10a in a time-dose dependent manner. At 24?h, the eupatorin showed mild cytotoxicity on both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 values higher than 20??g/mL. After 48?h, eupatorin at 5??g/mL inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells by 50% while the IC50 of MCF-10a was significantly (p?<?0.05) high with 30??g/mL. The concentration of eupatorin at 5??g/mL induced apoptosis mainly through intrinsic pathway by facilitating higher fold of caspase 9 compared to caspase 8 at 48?h. The cell cycle profile also showed that eupatorin (5??g/mL) exerted anti-proliferation activity with the cell cycle arrest of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells at sub G?/G1 in a time-dependent manner. In addition, wound healing assay showed an incomplete wound closure of scratched MDA-MB-231 cells, and more than 60% of the MDA-MB-231 cells were prevented to migrate and invade the membrane in the Boyden chamber after 24?h. Eupatorin also inhibited angiogenic sprouting of new blood vessels in ex vivo mouse aorta ring assay. In gene expression assay, eupatorin up-regulated pro-apoptotic genes such as Bak1, HIF1A, Bax, Bad, cytochrome c and SMAC/Diablo and blocked the Phospho-Akt pathway. In conclusion, eupatorin is a potent candidate to induce apoptosis and concurrently inhibit the invasion, migration and angiogenesis of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells through inhibition of Phospho-Akt pathway and cell cycle blockade.
Project description:The efficiency of cancer chemotherapy is seriously hampered by the development of resistance of neoplastic cells to cytotoxic agents. In the present investigation, the cytotoxicity of the dichloromethane-methanol (1:1) extract of Acacia sieberiana (ASL), fractions (ASLa-c) from the leaves and isolated compounds: chrysoeriol-7-O-rutinoside (1), luteolin-7-O-rutinoside (2), chrysoeriol-7-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (3), Apigenin-7-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (4), luteolin-3',4'-dimethoxylether-7-O-?-D-glucoside (5) and luteolin (6) was investigated. The study was extended to the assessment of the mode of induction of apoptosis by ASL. The resazurin reduction assay (RRA) was used for cytotoxicity studies. Assessments of cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were performed by flow cytometry. A caspase-Glo assay was used to evaluate caspase activities. Botanicals ASL, ASLb and ASLc as well as doxorubicin displayed observable IC50 values towards the nine tested cancer cell lines while ASLa and compounds 1-7 had selective activities. The IC50 values ranged from 13.45 ?g/mL (in CCRF-CEM leukemia cells) to 33.20 ?g/mL (against MDA-MB-231-BCRP breast adenocarcinoma cells) for ASL, from 16.42 ?g/mL (in CCRF-CEM cells) to 29.64 ?g/mL (against MDA-MB-231-pcDNA cells) for ASLc, and from 22.94 ?g/mL (in MDA-MB-231-BCRP cells) to 40.19 ?g/mL (against HCT116 (p53-/-) colon adenocarcinoma cells) for ASLb (Table 1), and from 0.02 ?M (against CCRF-CEM cells) to 122.96 ?M (against CEM/ADR5000 cells) for doxorubicin. ASL induced apoptosis in CCRF-CEM cells, mediated by ROS production. Acacia sieberiana is a good cytotoxic plant and should be further explored to develop an anticancer phytomedicine to combat both sensitive and drug resistant phenotypes.
Project description:Alkaloids have protective functions for plants and can play an important role in living organisms. Alkaloids may have a wide range of pharmacological activities. Many of them have cytotoxic activity. Nowadays, cancer has become a serious public health problem. Searching for effective drugs with anticancer activity is one of the most significant challenges of modern scientific research. The aim of this study was the investigation of cytotoxic activity of extracts obtained from Corydalis lutea root and herb, Dicentra spectabilis root and herb, Fumaria officinalis, Macleaya cordata leaves and herb, Mahonia aquifolia leaves and cortex, Meconopsis cambrica root and herb on FaDu, SCC-25, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231 cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic activity of these extracts has not been previously tested for these cell lines. The aim was also to quantify selected alkaloids in the investigated extracts by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The analyses of alkaloid content were performed using HPLC in reversed phase (RP) mode using Polar RP column and mobile phase containing acetonitrile, water and ionic liquid (IL). Cytotoxic effect of the tested plant extracts and respective alkaloid standards were examined using human pharyngeal squamous carcinoma cells (FaDu), human tongue squamous carcinoma cells (SCC-25), human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7), human triple-negative breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MDA-MB-231). All investigated plant extracts possess cytotoxic activity against tested cancer cell lines: FaDu, SCC-25, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231. The highest cytotoxic activity against FaDu, SCC-25, and MCF-7 cell lines was estimated for Macleaya cordata leaf extract, while the highest cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 cell line was obtained for Macleaya cordata herb extract. Differences in cytotoxic activity were observed for extracts obtained from various parts of investigated plants. In almost all cases the cytotoxic activity of investigated plant extracts, especially at the highest concentration against tested cell lines was significantly higher than the activity of anticancer drug etoposide. Our investigations exhibit that these plant extracts can be recommended for further in vivo experiments to confirm their anticancer activity.
Project description:Despite recent advances in our understanding of the biological processes leading to the development and progression of cancer, there is still a need for new and effective agents to treat this disease. Phytoprostanes (PhytoPs) and phytofurans (PhytoFs) are non-enzymatically oxidized products of ?-linolenic acid that are present in seeds and vegetable oils. They have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and apoptosis-promoting activities in macrophages and leukemia cells, respectively. In this work, seven PhytoPs (PP1-PP7) and one PhytoFs (PF1) were evaluated for their cytotoxic, chemosensitization, and anti-migratory activities using the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. Among the tested compounds, only three PhytoPs had a significant effect on cell viability compared to the control group: Ent-9-L1-PhytoP (PP6) decreased cell viability in both cell lines, while 16-F1t-PhytoP (PP1) and 9-L1-PhytoP (PP5) decreased viability of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively. When combined with a sub-cytotoxic dose of doxorubicin, these three PhytoPs displayed significantly enhanced cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 cells while the chemotherapeutic drug alone had no effect. In cellular motility assays, Ent-9-(RS)-12-epi-ST-?10-13-PhytoF could significantly inhibit cellular migration of MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, Ent-9-(RS)-12-epi-ST-?10-13-PhytoF also enhanced cellular adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells.
Project description:Herein we present a library of fully characterized ?-diketonate and ?-ketoiminate compounds that are functionalized with a ferrocenyl moiety. Their cytotoxic potential has been determined by screening against human breast adenocarcinomas (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231), human colorectal carcinoma p53 wild type (HCT116 p53+/+ ) and normal human prostate (PNT2) cell lines. The ferrocenyl ?-diketonate compounds are more than 18 times more cytotoxic than the ferrocenyl ?-ketoiminate analogues. Against MCF-7, compounds functionalized at the meta position are up to nine times more cytotoxic than when functionalized at the para position. The ferrocenyl ?-diketonate compounds have increased selectivity towards MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, with several complexes having selectivity index (SI) values that are more than nine times (MCF-7) and more than six times (MDA-MB-231) that of carboplatin. The stability of these compounds in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and dimethylformamide (DMF) has been assessed by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry studies, and the compounds show no oxidation of the iron center from FeII to FeIII . Cytotoxicity screening was performed in both DMSO and DMF, with no significant differences observedin their potency.