Altered composition and phenotype of mucosal-associated invariant T cells in early untreated rheumatoid arthritis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T cells that recognise bacterial metabolites presented by MHC class I-related protein 1 (MR1). Bacterial dysbiosis has been implicated in auto-inflammatory disease development. We investigated MAIT cells in early, untreated rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients. METHODS:Blood and synovial fluid mononuclear cells obtained from patients (SpA/RA) and controls were stimulated with fixed Escherichia coli to provide MAIT ligand. Cells were analysed by flow cytometry and MAIT cells were identified by MR1-5-OP-RU tetramers. Synovial biopsies were studied by confocal microscopy. RESULTS:Peripheral and synovial CD3+ MR1-tet+ MAIT cell frequencies were comparable in all groups. MAIT cells were detected in RA and SpA synovium based on CD3, CD161 and V?7.2 expression. Peripheral RA MAIT cells were mostly CD4+ (controls 8.3%, SpA 12.3%, RA 52.6%; p?
Project description:Gene expression of Va7.2+CD161+CD4-CD8+MAIT cells from two subsets (CD69+CD26++ and CD69-CD26+/-). Overall design: Human blood mononuclear cells were magnetically sorted to enrich MAIT cells, which were stimulated with M. bovis-incubated MR1-expressing cells or anti-CD3 antibody and further sorted to CD69+CD26++ and CD69-CD26+/- subsets from Va7.2+CD161+CD4-CD8+ -gated MAIT cells.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Fibromyalgia (FM) is defined as a widely distributed pain. While many rheumatologists and pain physicians have considered it to be a pain disorder, psychiatry, psychology, and general medicine have deemed it to be a syndrome (FMS) or psychosomatic disorder. The lack of concrete structural and/or pathological evidence has made patients suffer prejudice that FMS is a medically unexplained symptom, implying inauthenticity. Furthermore, FMS often exhibits comorbidity with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or spondyloarthritis (SpA), both of which show similar indications. In this study, disease specific biomarkers were sought in blood samples from patients to facilitate objective diagnoses of FMS, and distinguish it from RA and SpA.<h4>Methods</h4>Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients and healthy donors (HD) were subjected to multicolor flow cytometric analysis. The percentage of mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells in PBMCs and the mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) of cell surface antigen expression in MAIT cells were analyzed.<h4>Results</h4>There was a decrease in the MAIT cell population in FMS, RA, and SpA compared with HD. Among the cell surface antigens in MAIT cells, three chemokine receptors, CCR4, CCR7, and CXCR1, a natural killer (NK) receptor, NKp80, a signaling lymphocyte associated molecule (SLAM) family, CD150, a degrunulation marker, CD107a, and a coreceptor, CD8? emerged as potential biomarkers for FMS to distinguish from HD. Additionally, a memory marker, CD44 and an inflammatory chemokine receptor, CXCR1 appeared possible markers for RA, while a homeostatic chemokine receptor, CXCR4 deserved for SpA to differentiate from FMS. Furthermore, the drug treatment interruption resulted in alternation of the expression of CCR4, CCR5, CXCR4, CD27, CD28, inducible costimulatory molecule (ICOS), CD127 (IL-7 receptor ?), CD94, NKp80, an activation marker, CD69, an integrin family member, CD49d, and a dipeptidase, CD26, in FMS.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Combined with the currently available diagnostic procedures and criteria, analysis of MAIT cells offers a more objective standard for the diagnosis of FMS, RA, and SpA, which exhibit multifaceted and confusingly similar clinical manifestations.
Project description:Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are evolutionarily-conserved, innate-like lymphocytes which are abundant in human lungs and can contribute to protection against pulmonary bacterial infection. MAIT cells are also activated during human viral infections, yet it remains unknown whether MAIT cells play a significant protective or even detrimental role during viral infections in vivo. Using murine experimental challenge with two strains of influenza A virus, we show that MAIT cells accumulate and are activated early in infection, with upregulation of CD25, CD69 and Granzyme B, peaking at 5 days post-infection. Activation is modulated via cytokines independently of MR1. MAIT cell-deficient MR1-/- mice show enhanced weight loss and mortality to severe (H1N1) influenza. This is ameliorated by prior adoptive transfer of pulmonary MAIT cells in both immunocompetent and immunodeficient RAG2-/-γC-/- mice. Thus, MAIT cells contribute to protection during respiratory viral infections, and constitute a potential target for therapeutic manipulation.
Project description:Human mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are an important T cell subset that are enriched in tissues and possess potent effector functions. Typically such cells are marked by their expression of V?7.2-J?33/J?20/J?12 T cell receptors, and functionally they are major histocompatibility complex class I-related protein 1 (MR1)-restricted, responding to bacterially derived riboflavin synthesis intermediates. MAIT cells are contained within the CD161++ V?7.2+ T cell population, the majority of which express the CD8 receptor (CD8+), while a smaller fraction expresses neither CD8 or CD4 coreceptor (double negative; DN) and a further minority are CD4+. Whether these cells have distinct homing patterns, phenotype and functions have not been examined in detail. We used a combination of phenotypic staining and functional assays to address the similarities and differences between these CD161++ V?7.2+ T cell subsets. We find that most features are shared between CD8+ and DN CD161++ V?7.2+ T cells, with a small but detectable role evident for CD8 binding in tuning functional responsiveness. By contrast, the CD4+ CD161++ V?7.2+ T cell population, although showing MR1-dependent responsiveness to bacterial stimuli, display reduced T helper 1 effector functions, including cytolytic machinery, while retaining the capacity to secrete interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13. This was consistent with underlying changes in transcription factor (TF) expression. Although we found that only a proportion of CD4+ CD161++ V?7.2+ T cells stained for the MR1-tetramer, explaining some of the heterogeneity of CD4+ CD161++ V?7.2+ T cells, these differences in TF expression were shared with CD4+ CD161++ MR1-tetramer+ cells. These data reveal the functional diversity of human CD161++ V?7.2+ T cells and indicate potentially distinct roles for the different subsets <i>in vivo</i>.
Project description:Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells have a semi-invariant TCR V?-chain, and their optimal development is dependent upon commensal flora and expression of the nonpolymorphic MHC class I-like molecule MR1. MAIT cells are activated in an MR1-restricted manner by diverse strains of bacteria and yeast, suggesting a widely shared Ag. Recently, human and mouse MR1 were found to bind bacterial riboflavin metabolites (ribityllumazine [RL] Ags) capable of activating MAIT cells. In this study, we used MR1/RL tetramers to study MR1 dependency, subset heterogeneity, and protective effector functions important for tuberculosis immunity. Although tetramer(+) cells were detected in both MR1(+/+) and MR1(-/-) TCR V?19i-transgenic (Tg) mice, MR1 expression resulted in significantly increased tetramer(+) cells coexpressing TCR V?6/8, NK1.1, CD44, and CD69 that displayed more robust in vitro responses to IL-12 plus IL-18 and RL Ag, indicating that MR1 is necessary for the optimal development of the classic murine MAIT cell memory/effector subset. In addition, tetramer(+) MAIT cells expressing CD4, CD8, or neither developing in MR1(+/+) V?19i-Tg mice had disparate cytokine profiles in response to RL Ag. Therefore, murine MAIT cells are considerably more heterogeneous than previously thought. Most notably, after mycobacterial pulmonary infection, heterogeneous subsets of tetramer(+) V?19i-Tg MAIT cells expressing CXCR3 and ?4?1 were recruited into the lungs and afforded early protection. In addition, V?19iC?(-/-)MR(+/+) mice were significantly better protected than were V?19iC?(-/-)MR1(-/-), wild-type, and MR1(-/-) non-Tg mice. Overall, we demonstrate considerable functional diversity of MAIT cell responses, as well as that MR1-restricted MAIT cells are important for tuberculosis protective immunity.
Project description:Conventional T cells exhibit a delayed response to the initial priming of peptide antigens presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins. Unlike conventional T cells, mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells quickly respond to non-peptidic metabolite antigens presented by MHC-related protein 1 (MR1). To elucidate the MR1-dependent activation program of MAIT cells in response to mycobacterial infections, we determined the surface markers, transcriptomic profiles, and effector responses of activated human MAIT cells. Results revealed that mycobacterial-incubated antigen-presenting cells stimulated abundant human CD8+ MAIT cells to upregulate the co-expression of CD69 and CD26, as a combinatorial activation marker. Further transcriptomic analyses demonstrated that CD69+CD26++ CD8+MAIT cells highly expressed numerous genes for mediating anti-mycobacterial immune responses, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, cytolytic molecules, NK cell receptors, and transcription factors, in contrast to inactivated counterparts CD69+/-CD26+/- CD8+MAIT cells. Gene co-expression, enrichment, and pathway analyses yielded high statistical significance to strongly support that activated CD8+ MAIT cells shared gene expression and numerous pathways with NK and CD8+ T cells in activation, cytokine production, cytokine signaling, and effector functions. Flow cytometry detected that activated CD8+MAIT cells produced TNF?, IFN?, and granulysin to inhibit mycobacterial growth and fight mycobacterial infection. Together, results strongly support that the combinatorial activation marker CD69+CD26++ labels the activated CD8+MAIT cells that develop an innate-like activation program in anti-mycobacterial immune responses. We speculate that the rapid production of anti-mycobacterial effector molecules facilitates MAIT cells to fight early mycobacterial infection in humans.
Project description:Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are recently characterized as a novel subset of innate-like T cells that recognize microbial metabolites as presented by the MHC-1b-related protein MR1. The significance of MAIT cells in anti-bacterial defense is well-understood but not clear in viral infections such as SIV/HIV infection. Here we studied the phenotype, distribution, and function of MAIT cells and their association with plasma viral levels during chronic SHIV infection in rhesus macaques (RM). Two groups of healthy and chronic SHIV-infected macaques were characterized for MAIT cells in blood and mucosal tissues. Similar to human, we found a significant fraction of macaque T cells co-expressing MAIT cell markers CD161 and TCRV?-7.2 that correlated directly with macaque MR1 tetramer. These cells displayed memory phenotype and expressed high levels of IL-18R, CCR6, CD28, and CD95. During chronic infection, the frequency of MAIT cells are enriched in the blood but unaltered in the rectum; both blood and rectal MAIT cells displayed higher proliferative and cytotoxic phenotype post-SHIV infection. The frequency of MAIT cells in blood and rectum correlated inversely with plasma viral RNA levels and correlated directly with total CD4 T cells. MAIT cells respond to microbial products during chronic SHIV infection and correlated positively with serum immunoreactivity to flagellin levels. Tissue distribution analysis of MAIT cells during chronic infection showed significant enrichment in the non-lymphoid tissues (lung, rectum, and liver) compared to lymphoid tissues (spleen and LN), with higher levels of tissue-resident markers CD69 and CD103. Exogenous in vitro cytokine treatments during chronic SHIV infection revealed that IL-7 is important for the proliferation of MAIT cells, but IL-12 and IL-18 are important for their cytolytic function. Overall our results demonstrated that MAIT cells are enriched in blood but unaltered in the rectum during chronic SHIV infection, which displayed proliferative and functional phenotype that inversely correlated with SHIV plasma viral RNA levels. Treatment such as combined cytokine treatments could be beneficial for enhancing functional MAIT cells during chronic HIV infection in vivo.
Project description:Mucosal associated invariant T cells (MAIT) are innate T lymphocytes that detect a large variety of bacteria and yeasts. This recognition depends on the detection of microbial compounds presented by the evolutionarily conserved major-histocompatibility-complex (MHC) class I molecule, MR1. Here we show that MAIT cells display cytotoxic activity towards MR1 overexpressing non-hematopoietic cells cocultured with bacteria. The NK receptor, CD161, highly expressed by MAIT cells, modulated the cytokine but not the cytotoxic response triggered by bacteria infected cells. MAIT cells are also activated by and kill epithelial cells expressing endogenous levels of MRI after infection with the invasive bacteria Shigella flexneri. In contrast, MAIT cells were not activated by epithelial cells infected by Salmonella enterica Typhimurium. Finally, MAIT cells are activated in human volunteers receiving an attenuated strain of Shigella dysenteriae-1 tested as a potential vaccine. Thus, in humans, MAIT cells are the most abundant T cell subset able to detect and kill bacteria infected cells.
Project description:MR1-restricted T (MR1T) cells are defined by their recognition of metabolite antigens presented by the monomorphic MHC class 1-related molecule, MR1, the most highly conserved MHC class I related molecule in mammalian species. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are the predominant subset of MR1T cells expressing an invariant TCR ?-chain, TRAV1-2. These cells comprise a T cell subset that recognizes and mediates host immune responses to a broad array of microbial pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here, we sought to characterize development of circulating human MR1T cells as defined by MR1-5-OP-RU tetramer labeling and of the TRAV1-2+ MAIT cells defined by expression of TRAV1-2 and high expression of CD26 and CD161 (TRAV1-2+CD161++CD26++ cells). We analyzed postnatal expansion, maturation, and functionality of peripheral blood MR1-5-OP-RU tetramer+ MR1T cells in cohorts from three different geographic settings with different tuberculosis (TB) vaccination practices, levels of exposure to and infection with M. tuberculosis. Early after birth, frequencies of MR1-5-OP-RU tetramer+ MR1T cells increased rapidly by several fold. This coincided with the transition from a predominantly CD4+ and TRAV1-2- population in neonates, to a predominantly TRAV1-2+CD161++CD26++ CD8+ population. We also observed that tetramer+ MR1T cells that expressed TNF upon mycobacterial stimulation were very low in neonates, but increased ~10-fold in the first year of life. These functional MR1T cells in all age groups were MR1-5-OP-RU tetramer+TRAV1-2+ and highly expressed CD161 and CD26, markers that appeared to signal phenotypic and functional maturation of this cell subset. This age-associated maturation was also marked by the loss of naïve T cell markers on tetramer+ TRAV1-2+ MR1T cells more rapidly than tetramer+TRAV1-2- MR1T cells and non-MR1T cells. These data suggest that neonates have infrequent populations of MR1T cells with diverse phenotypic attributes; and that exposure to the environment rapidly and preferentially expands the MR1-5-OP-RU tetramer+TRAV1-2+ population of MR1T cells, which becomes the predominant population of functional MR1T cells early during childhood.
Project description:Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are an evolutionarily conserved antimicrobial MR1-restricted T-cell subset. MAIT cells are CD161(+), express a V7.2 TCR, are primarily CD8(+) and numerous in blood and mucosal tissues. However, their role in HIV-1 infection is unknown. In this study, we found levels of MAIT cells to be severely reduced in circulation in patients with chronic HIV-1 infection. Residual MAIT cells were highly activated and functionally exhausted. Their decline was associated with time since diagnosis, activation levels, and the concomitant expansion of a subset of functionally impaired CD161(+) V7.2(+) T cells. Such cells were generated in vitro by exposure of MAIT cells to Escherichia coli. Notably, whereas the function of residual MAIT cells was at least partly restored by effective antiretroviral therapy, levels of MAIT cells in peripheral blood were not restored. Interestingly, MAIT cells in rectal mucosa were relatively preserved, although some of the changes seen in blood were recapitulated in the mucosa. These findings are consistent with a model in which the MAIT-cell compartment, possibly as a result of persistent exposure to microbial material, is engaged, activated, exhausted, and progressively and persistently depleted during chronic HIV-1 infection.