Inhibition of Epstein-Barr Virus Replication in Human Papillomavirus-Immortalized Keratinocytes.
ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is implicated in the pathogenesis of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). EBV-associated cancers harbor a latent EBV infection characterized by a lack of viral replication and the expression of viral oncogenes. Cellular changes promoted by HPV are comparable to those shown to facilitate EBV latency, though whether HPV-positive cells support a latent EBV infection has not been demonstrated. Using a model of direct EBV infection into HPV16-immortalized tonsillar cells grown in organotypic raft culture, we showed robust EBV replication in HPV-negative rafts but little to no replication in HPV-immortalized rafts. The reduced EBV replication was independent of immortalization, as human telomerase-immortalized normal oral keratinocytes supported robust EBV replication. Furthermore, we observed reduced EBV lytic gene expression and increased expression of EBER1, a noncoding RNA highly expressed in latently infected cells, in the presence of HPV. The use of human foreskin keratinocyte rafts expressing the HPV16 E6 and/or E7 oncogene(s) (HPV E6 and E7 rafts) showed that E7 was sufficient to reduce EBV replication. EBV replication is dependent upon epithelial differentiation and the differentiation-dependent expression of the transcription factors KLF4 and PRDM1. While KLF4 and PRDM1 levels were unaltered, the expression levels of KLF4 transcriptional targets, including late differentiation markers, were reduced in HPV E6 and E7 rafts compared to their levels in parental rafts. However, the HPV E7-mediated block in EBV replication correlated with delayed expression of early differentiation markers. Overall, this study reveals an HPV16-mediated block in EBV replication, through E7, that may facilitate EBV latency and long-term persistence in the tumor context.IMPORTANCE Using a model examining the establishment of EBV infection in HPV-immortalized tissues, we showed an HPV-induced interruption of the normal EBV life cycle reminiscent of a latent EBV infection. Our data support the notion that a persistent EBV epithelial infection depends upon preexisting cellular alterations and suggest the ability of HPV to promote such changes. More importantly, these findings introduce a model for how EBV coinfection may influence HPV-positive (HPV-pos) OSCC pathogenesis. Latently EBV-infected epithelial cells, as well as other EBV-associated head-and-neck carcinomas, exhibit oncogenic phenotypes commonly seen in HPV-pos OSCC. Therefore, an HPV-induced shift in the EBV life cycle toward latency would not only facilitate EBV persistence but also provide additional viral oncogene expression, which can contribute to the rapid progression of HPV-pos OSCC. These findings provide a step toward defining a role for EBV as a cofactor in HPV-positive oropharyngeal tumors.
Project description:It is established that the host cell transcriptomes of natural lesions, organotypic rafts, and human papillomavirus (HPV)-immortalized keratinocytes are altered in the presence of HPV genomes. However, the establishment of HPV-harboring cell lines requires selection and immortalization, which makes it impossible to distinguish between alterations directly induced by HPV or indirectly by the need for immortalization or selection. To address direct effects of HPV infection on the host cell transcriptome, we have used our recently established infection model that allows efficient infection of primary keratinocytes with HPV16 virions. We observed only a small set of genes to be deregulated at the transcriptional level at 7 days postinfection (dpi), most of which fall into the category regulated by pocket proteins pRb, p107, and p130. Furthermore, cell cycle genes were not deregulated in cells infected with a virus lacking E7 despite the presence of episomal genome and viral transcripts. These findings imply that the majority of transcriptional changes are due to the E7 protein impairing pocket protein function. Additional pathways, such as the Fanconi anemia-BRCA pathway, became perturbed only after long-term culturing of infected cells. When grown as organotypic raft cultures, keratinocytes infected with wild-type but not E7 mutant virus had perturbed transcriptional regulation of pathways previously identified in natural lesions and in rafts derived from immortalized keratinocytes. We conclude that the HPV infection model provides a valuable tool to distinguish immediate transcriptional alterations from those induced by persistent infection and the need for selection and immortalization.IMPORTANCE To establish infection and complete the viral life cycle, human papillomavirus (HPV) needs to alter the transcriptional program of host cells. Until recently, studies were restricted to keratinocyte-derived cell lines immortalized by HPV due to the lack of experimental systems to efficiently infect primary keratinocytes. Need for selection and immortalization made it impossible to distinguish between alterations induced by HPV and secondary adaptation due to selection and immortalization. With our recent establishment of an extracellular matrix (ECM)-to-cell transfer system allowing efficient infection of primary keratinocytes, we were able to identify transcriptional changes attributable to HPV16 infection. Most perturbed genes fall into the class of S-phase genes, which are regulated by pocket proteins. Indeed, infection with viruses lacking E7 abrogated most transcriptional changes. It is important to note that many transcriptional alterations thought to be important for the HPV life cycle are actually late events that may reflect immortalization and, possibly, disease progression.
Project description:Peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2) is upregulated in various cancers including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). It is a known tumor promoter in some cancers, but its role in OSCC is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of arecoline, an alkaloid of the betel nut, and human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E6/E7 oncoproteins on induction of PRDX2 expression, and also the effects of PRDX2 overexpression in oral cell lines. Levels of PRDX2 protein were determined using western blot analysis of samples of exfoliated normal oral cells (n = 75) and oral lesion cells from OSCC cases (n = 75). Some OSCC cases were positive for HPV infection and some patients had a history of betel quid chewing. To explore the level of PRDX2 by western blot, the proteins were extracted from oral cell lines that were treated with arecoline or retroviruses containing HPV16 E6 gene and HPV16 E6/E7 expressing vector. For analysis of PRDX2 functions, cell proliferation, cell-cycle progression, apoptosis and migration was compared between oral cells overexpressing PRDX2 and cells with PRDX2-knockdown. PRDX2 expression levels tended to be higher in OSCC samples that were positive for HPV infection and had history of betel quid chewing. Arecoline treatment in vitro at low concentrations and overexpression of HPV16 E6 or E6/E7 in oral cells induced PRDX2 overexpression. Interestingly, in oral cells, PRDX2 promoted cell proliferation, cell-cycle progression (G2/M phase), cell migration and inhibited apoptosis. Upregulation of PRDX2 in oral cells was induced by arecoline and HPV16 oncoproteins and promoted growth of OSCC cells.
Project description:Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 is an independent risk factor for the development of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). However, it is unclear whether viral integration is an essential hallmark in the carcinogenic process of OSCC and whether HPV integration correlates with the level of viral gene transcription and influences the expression of disrupted host genes. We analyzed 75 patients with OSCC. HPV16-positivity was proven by p16(INK4A) immunohistochemistry, PCR and FISH. Viral integration was examined using DIPS- as well as APOT-PCR. Viral E2, E6 and E7 gene expression levels were quantified by quantitative reverse transcriptase (RT-q)PCR. Expression levels of 7 human genes disrupted by the virus were extracted from mRNA expression profiling data of 32 OSCCs. Viral copy numbers were assessed by qPCR in 73 tumors. We identified 37 HPV16-human fusion products indicating viral integration in 29 (39%) OSCC. In the remaining tumors (61%) only episome-derived PCR products were detected. When comparing OSCC with or without an integration-derived fusion product, we did not find significant differences in the mean RNA expression of viral genes E2, E6 and E7 or the viral copy numbers per cell, nor did the RNA expression of the HPV-disrupted genes differ from either group of OSCC. In conclusion, our data do not support the hypothesis that integration affects the levels of viral and/or HPV-disrupted human gene transcripts. Thus constitutive, rather than a high level, of expression of oncogene transcripts appears to be required in HPV-related OSCC.
Project description:Patients with human papillomavirus related (HPV+) head and neck cancers (HNCs) demonstrate improved clinical outcomes compared to traditional HPV negative (HPV-) HNC patients. We have recently shown that HPV+ HNC cells are more sensitive to radiation than HPV- HNC cells. However, roles of HPV oncogenes in regulating the response of DNA damage repair remain unknown.Using immortalized normal oral epithelial cell lines, HPV+ HNC derived cell lines, and HPV16 E7-transgenic mice we assessed the repair of DNA damage using ?-H2AX foci, single and split dose clonogenic survival assays, and immunoblot. The ability of E7 to modulate expression of proteins associated with DNA repair pathways was assessed by immunoblot.HPV16 E7 increased retention of ?-H2AX nuclear foci and significantly decreased sublethal DNA damage repair. While phospho-ATM, phospho-ATR, Ku70, and Ku80 expressions were not altered by E7, Rad51 was induced by E7. Correspondingly, HPV+ HNC cell lines showed retention of Rad51 after ?-radiation.Our findings provide further understanding as to how HPV16 E7 manipulates cellular DNA damage responses that may underlie its oncogenic potential and influence the altered sensitivity to radiation seen in HPV+ HNC as compared to HPV- HNC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an established risk factor for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The aim was to establish cell lines from HPV-positive tonsil carcinomas to be used for treatment development. METHODS:Fresh samples from 23 HPV-positive tonsil carcinomas were cultivated in vitro. The established cell line was analyzed for viral characteristics, cell karyotype, TP53 status, and growth capabilities in nude mice. In vitro studies of sensitivities to radiation, cisplatin and cetuximab were performed. RESULTS:After 19 months (eight passages), one cell line, LU-HNSCC-26, was established in vitro and also grew as xenografts. The tumor was from a 48 year old non-smoking man with non-keratinizing, p16 positive tonsil OSCC, stage T2N0M0 with HPV16. It contained 19.5 (CV% 3.7) HPV16 copies/cell (passage 8). The complete HPV16 genome sequence was obtained. Episomal HPV16 was present with an E2/E7 ratio of 1.1 (CV% 2.6). In addition, HPV16 mRNA specific for the intact E2 gene was detected. The viral expression manifested 1.0 (CV% 0.1) E7 mRNA copies per HPV16 genome. The karyotype was determined and the cell line demonstrated wild type TP53. The ID50 for radiation was 0.90 Gy and the IC50 for cisplatin was 0.99 μmol/L. The cell line was inhibited to a maximum of 18% by cetuximab. CONCLUSIONS:We established an in vitro tonsil carcinoma cell line containing episomal HPV16. This is an important step towards efficient treatment development.
Project description:Different types of cells infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can release exosomes containing viral components that functionally affect neighboring cells. Previously, we found that EBV was localized mostly in infiltrating lymphocytes within the stromal layer of cervical lesions. In this study, we aimed to determine effects of exosome-transferred EBV-encoded RNAs (EBERs) on keratinocytes expressing human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E6/E7 (DonorI-HPV16 HFKs). Lipid transfection of in vitro-transcribed EBER1 molecules (ivt EBER1) into DonorI-HPV16 HFKs caused strong induction of interferon (IFN)-related genes and interleukin 6 (IL-6). To gain insights into the physiological situation, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs), low passage DonorI-HPV16 HFKs and primary keratinocytes were used as recipient cells for internalization of exosomes from wild-type EBV (wt EBV) or B95-8 EBV-infected lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). qRT-PCR was used to determine the expression of EBER1, HPV16 E6/E7, IFN-related genes and IL-6 in recipient cells. The secretion of inflammatory cytokines was investigated using cytometric bead array. Wt EBV-modified exosomes induced both IFN-related genes and IL-6 upon uptake into moDCs, while exosomes from B95-8 EBV LCLs induced only IL-6 in moDCs. Internalization of EBV-modified exosomes was demonstrated in DonorI-HPV16 HFKs, yielding only EBER1 but not EBER2. However, EBER1 transferred by exosomes did not induce IFN-related genes or IL-6 expression and inflammatory cytokine secretion in DonorI-HPV16 HFKs and primary keratinocytes. EBER1 copy numbers in exosomes from wt EBV-infected LCLs were 10-fold higher than in exosomes from B95-8 LCLs (equal cell equivalent), whereas ivt EBER1 was used at approximately 100-fold higher concentration than in exosomes. These results demonstrated that the induction of IFN-related genes and IL-6 by EBER1 depends on quantity of EBER1 and type of recipient cells. High levels of EBER1 in cervical cells or infiltrating dendritic cells may play a role in the inflammation-to-oncogenesis transition of HPV-associated cervical cancer through modulation of innate immune signals.
Project description:Human papillomaviruses (HPV) 16 is a DNA virus encoding three oncogenes--E5, E6, and E7. The E6 and E7 proteins have well-established roles as inhibitors of tumor suppression, but the contribution of E5 to malignant transformation is controversial. Using spontaneously immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells), we demonstrate that expression of HPV16 E5 is necessary and sufficient for the formation of bi-nucleated cells, a common characteristic of precancerous cervical lesions. Expression of E5 from non-carcinogenic HPV6b does not produce bi-nucleate cells. Video microscopy and biochemical analyses reveal that bi-nucleates arise through cell-cell fusion. Although most E5-induced bi-nucleates fail to propagate, co-expression of HPV16 E6/E7 enhances the proliferation of these cells. Expression of HPV16 E6/E7 also increases bi-nucleated cell colony formation. These findings identify a new role for HPV16 E5 and support a model in which complementary roles of the HPV16 oncogenes lead to the induction of carcinogenesis.
Project description:Herein, we describe a novel infection model that achieves highly efficient infection of primary keratinocytes with human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16). This cell culture model does not depend on immortalization and is amenable to extensive genetic analyses. In monolayer cell culture, the early but not late promoter was active and yielded a spliced viral transcript pattern similar to HPV16-immortalized keratinocytes. However, relative levels of the E8^E2 transcript increased over time post infection suggesting the expression of this viral repressor is regulated independently of other early proteins and that it may be important for the shift from the establishment to the maintenance phase of the viral life cycle. Both the early and the late promoter were strongly activated when infected cells were subjected to differentiation by growth in methylcellulose. When grown as organotypic raft cultures, HPV16-infected cells expressed late E1^E4 and L1 proteins and replication foci were detected, suggesting that they supported the completion of the viral life cycle. As a proof of principle that the infection system may be used for genetic dissection of viral factors, we analyzed E1, E6 and E7 translation termination linker mutant virus for establishment of infection and genome maintenance. E1 but not E6 and E7 was essential to establish infection. Furthermore, E6 but not E7 was required for episomal genome maintenance. Primary keratinocytes infected with wild type HPV16 immortalized, whereas keratinocytes infected with E6 and E7 knockout virus began to senesce 25 to 35 days post infection. The novel infection model provides a powerful genetic tool to study the role of viral proteins throughout the viral life cycle but especially for immediate early events and enables us to compare low- and high-risk HPV types in the context of infection.
Project description:Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are epithelial tropic viruses that link their productive life cycles to the differentiation of infected host keratinocytes. A subset of the over 200 HPV types, referred to as high-risk, are the causative agents of most anogenital malignancies. HPVs infect cells in the basal layer, but restrict viral genome amplification, late gene expression, and capsid assembly to highly differentiated cells that are active in the cell cycle. In this study, we demonstrate that HPV proteins regulate the expression and activities of a critical cellular transcription factor, KLF4, through post-transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. Our studies show that KLF4 regulates differentiation as well as cell cycle progression, and binds to sequences in the upstream regulatory region (URR) to regulate viral transcription in cooperation with Blimp1. KLF4 levels are increased in HPV-positive cells through a post-transcriptional mechanism involving E7-mediated suppression of cellular miR-145, as well as at the post-translational level by E6-directed inhibition of its sumoylation and phosphorylation. The alterations in KLF4 levels and functions results in activation and suppression of a subset of KLF4 target genes, including TCHHL1, VIM, ACTN1, and POT1, that is distinct from that seen in normal keratinocytes. Knockdown of KLF4 with shRNAs in cells that maintain HPV episomes blocked genome amplification and abolished late gene expression upon differentiation. While KLF4 is indispensable for the proliferation and differentiation of normal keratinocytes, it is necessary only for differentiation-associated functions of HPV-positive keratinocytes. Increases in KLF4 levels alone do not appear to be sufficient to explain the effects on proliferation and differentiation of HPV-positive cells indicating that additional modifications are important. KLF4 has also been shown to be a critical regulator of lytic Epstein Barr virus (EBV) replication underscoring the importance of this cellular transcription factor in the life cycles of multiple human cancer viruses.
Project description:We used freshly established immortalized human keratinocytes with a well-defined HPV16 E6 E7 expression cassette to get a more complete and less biased overview about global changes induced by HPV16 using RNA-seq. We identified novel factors regulated by HPV oncogenes that could serve an essential role in cancer development. Overall design: mRNA profiles of human Keratinocytes transduced with HPV16-E6/E7 constructs and empty vectors in triplicates, sequenced with Illumina Hiseq 2000.