Improving Detection of Early Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
ABSTRACT: Despite being a major cause of morbidity and mortality, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequently undiagnosed. Yet the burden of disease among the undiagnosed is significant, as these individuals experience symptoms, exacerbations, and excess mortality compared to those without COPD. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine screening of asymptomatic individuals with spirometry. Hence, case-finding approaches are needed. A recently developed instrument, the five-item COPD Assessment in Primary Care to Identify Undiagnosed Respiratory Disease and Exacerbation Risk questionnaire plus peak expiratory flow, demonstrates good sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing cases from control subjects and is being studied prospectively in primary care settings to determine its impact on patient outcomes. However, finding the undiagnosed is only half the battle. Mounting evidence suggests significant COPD-like respiratory burden among individuals without airflow obstruction. Many experience dyspnea, mucus production, and exacerbation events and have emphysema and airway abnormalities on computed tomographic (CT) imaging of the chest. However, it is still unclear how to best treat these individuals and which individuals go on to develop spirometric obstruction. These challenges underline the importance of defining what constitutes "early disease." A recently proposed definition characterizes early COPD as either: 1) airflow limitation, 2) compatible CT imaging abnormalities, or 3) accelerated forced expiratory volume in 1 second decline in persons younger than 50 years and with greater than a 10 pack-year smoking history. Although it is recognized that this definition does not encompass all individuals who will develop COPD, it is an attempt to identify a group of individuals with most rapid decline to better understand mechanisms of disease development and where disease-modifying interventions are most likely to be successful. Ultimately, leveraging tools such as chest CT imaging, the electronic medical record, and machine learning algorithms may aid in the identification of such individuals.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To determine the correlation between CT measurements of emphysema or peripheral airways and airflow obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).<h4>Methods</h4>PubMed, Embase and Web of Knowledge were searched from 1976 to 2011. Two reviewers independently screened 1,763 citations to identify articles that correlated CT measurements to airflow obstruction parameters of the pulmonary function test in COPD patients, rated study quality and extracted information. Three CT measurements were accessed: lung attenuation area percentage?<?-950 Hounsfield units, mean lung density and airway wall area percentage. Two airflow obstruction parameters were accessed: forced expiratory volume in the first second as percentage from predicted (FEV(1) %pred) and FEV(1) divided by the forced volume vital capacity.<h4>Results</h4>Seventy-nine articles (9,559 participants) were included in the systematic review, demonstrating different methodologies, measurements and CT airflow obstruction correlations. There were 15 high-quality articles (2,095 participants) in the meta-analysis. The absolute pooled correlation coefficients ranged from 0.48 (95 % CI, 0.40 to 0.54) to 0.65 (0.58 to 0.71) for inspiratory CT and 0.64 (0.53 to 0.72) to 0.73 (0.63 to 0.80) for expiratory CT.<h4>Conclusions</h4>CT measurements of emphysema or peripheral airways are significantly related to airflow obstruction in COPD patients. CT provides a morphological method to investigate airway obstruction in COPD.<h4>Key points</h4>• Computed tomography is widely performed in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) • CT provides quantitative morphological methods to investigate airflow obstruction in COPD • CT measurements correlate significantly with the degree of airflow obstruction in COPD • Expiratory CT measurements correlate more strongly with airflow obstruction than inspiratory CT • Low-dose CT decreases the radiation dose for diagnosis and quantitative emphysema evaluation.
Project description:Background:COPD Assessment in Primary Care To Identify Undiagnosed Respiratory Disease and Exacerbation Risk (CAPTURE™) uses five questions and peak expiratory flow (PEF) thresholds (males ?350 L/min; females ?250 L/min) to identify patients with a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) <0.70 and FEV1 <60% predicted or exacerbation risk requiring further evaluation for COPD. This study tested CAPTURE's ability to identify symptomatic patients with mild-to-moderate COPD (FEV1 60%-80% predicted) who may also benefit from diagnosis and treatment. Methods:Data from the CAPTURE development study were used to test its sensitivity (SN) and specificity (SP) differentiating mild-to-moderate COPD (n=73) from no COPD (n=87). SN and SP for differentiating all COPD cases (mild to severe; n=259) from those without COPD (n=87) were also estimated. The modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale and COPD Assessment Test (CAT™) were used to evaluate symptoms and health status. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT01880177, https://ClinicalTrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01880177?term=NCT01880177&rank=1. Results:Mean age (+SD): 61 (+10.5) years; 41% male. COPD: FEV1/FVC=0.60 (+0.1), FEV1% predicted=74% (+12.4). SN and SP for differentiating mild-to-moderate and non-COPD patients (n=160): Questionnaire: 83.6%, 67.8%; PEF (?450 L/min; ?350 L/min): 83.6%, 66.7%; CAPTURE (Questionnaire+PEF): 71.2%, 83.9%. COPD patients whose CAPTURE results suggested that diagnostic evaluation was warranted (n=52) were more likely to be symptomatic than patients whose results did not (n=21) (mMRC >2: 37% vs 5%, p<0.01; CAT>10: 86% vs 57%, p<0.01). CAPTURE differentiated COPD from no COPD (n=346): SN: 88.0%, SP: 83.9%. Conclusion:CAPTURE (450/350) may be useful for identifying symptomatic patients with mild-to-moderate airflow obstruction in need of diagnostic evaluation for COPD.
Project description:Airflow obstruction on spirometry is universally used to define chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and current or former smokers without airflow obstruction may assume that they are disease free.To identify clinical and radiologic evidence of smoking-related disease in a cohort of current and former smokers who did not meet spirometric criteria for COPD, for whom we adopted the discarded label of Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 0.Individuals from the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) cross-sectional observational study completed spirometry, chest computed tomography (CT) scans, a 6-minute walk, and questionnaires. Participants were recruited from local communities at 21 sites across the United States. The GOLD 0 group (n?=?4388) (ratio of forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration [FEV1] to forced vital capacity >0.7 and FEV1 ?80% predicted) from the COPDGene study was compared with a GOLD 1 group (n?=?794), COPD groups (n?=?3690), and a group of never smokers (n?=?108). Recruitment began in January 2008 and ended in July 2011.Physical function impairments, respiratory symptoms, CT abnormalities, use of respiratory medications, and reduced respiratory-specific quality of life.One or more respiratory-related impairments were found in 54.1% (2375 of 4388) of the GOLD 0 group. The GOLD 0 group had worse quality of life (mean [SD] St George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score, 17.0 [18.0] vs 3.8 [6.8] for the never smokers; P?<?.001) and a lower 6-minute walk distance, and 42.3% (127 of 300) of the GOLD 0 group had CT evidence of emphysema or airway thickening. The FEV1 percent predicted distribution and mean for the GOLD 0 group were lower but still within the normal range for the population. Current smoking was associated with more respiratory symptoms, but former smokers had greater emphysema and gas trapping. Advancing age was associated with smoking cessation and with more CT findings of disease. Individuals with respiratory impairments were more likely to use respiratory medications, and the use of these medications was associated with worse disease.Lung disease and impairments were common in smokers without spirometric COPD. Based on these results, we project that there are 35 million current and former smokers older than 55 years in the United States who may have unrecognized disease or impairment. The effect of chronic smoking on the lungs and the individual is substantially underestimated when using spirometry alone.
Project description:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been classically divided into blue bloaters and pink puffers. The utility of these clinical subtypes is unclear. However, the broader distinction between airway-predominant and emphysema-predominant COPD may be clinically relevant. The objective was to define clinical features of emphysema-predominant and non-emphysematous COPD patients.Current and former smokers from the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD Study (COPDGene) had chest computed tomography (CT) scans with quantitative image analysis. Emphysema-predominant COPD was defined by low attenuation area at -950 Hounsfield Units (LAA-950) ?10%. Non-emphysematous COPD was defined by airflow obstruction with minimal to no emphysema (LAA-950?<?5%).Out of 4197 COPD subjects, 1687 were classified as emphysema-predominant and 1817 as non-emphysematous; 693 had LAA-950 between 5-10% and were not categorized. Subjects with emphysema-predominant COPD were older (65.6 vs 60.6 years, p?<?0.0001) with more severe COPD based on airflow obstruction (FEV1 44.5 vs 68.4%, p?<?0.0001), greater exercise limitation (6-minute walk distance 1138 vs 1331 ft, p?<?0.0001) and reduced quality of life (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire score 43 vs 31, p?<?0.0001). Self-reported diabetes was more frequent in non-emphysematous COPD (OR 2.13, p?<?0.001), which was also confirmed using a strict definition of diabetes based on medication use. The association between diabetes and non-emphysematous COPD was replicated in the ECLIPSE study.Non-emphysematous COPD, defined by airflow obstruction with a paucity of emphysema on chest CT scan, is associated with an increased risk of diabetes. COPD patients without emphysema may warrant closer monitoring for diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia and vice versa.Clinicaltrials.gov identifiers: COPDGene NCT00608764, ECLIPSE NCT00292552.
Project description:In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, both smaller and larger airways are affected. FEV1 mainly reflects large airways obstruction, while the later fraction of forced exhalation reflects reduction in terminal expiratory flow. In this study, the objective was to evaluate the relationship between spirometric ratios, including the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 3 and 6 seconds (FEV3/FEV6), and small airways measures and gas trapping at quantitative chest CT scanning, and clinical outcomes in the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) cohort.Seven thousand eight hundred fifty-three current and ex-smokers were evaluated for airflow obstruction by using recently defined linear iteratively derived equations of Hansen et al to determine lower limit of normal (LLN) equations for prebronchodilator FEV1/FVC, FEV1/FEV6, FEV3/FEV6, and FEV3/FVC. General linear and ordinal regression models were applied to the relationship between prebronchodilator spirometric and radiologic and clinical data.Of the 10,311 participants included in the COPDGene phase I study, participants with incomplete quantitative CT scanning or relevant spirometric data were excluded, resulting in 7,853 participants in the present study. Of 4,386 participants with FEV1/FVC greater than or equal to the LLN, 15.4% had abnormal FEV3/FEV6. Compared with normal FEV3/FEV6 and FEV1/FVC, abnormal FEV3/FEV6 was associated with significantly greater gas trapping; St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire score; modified Medical Research Council dyspnea score; and BMI, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise index and with shorter 6-min walking distance (all P < .0001) but not with CT scanning evidence of emphysema.Current and ex-smokers with prebronchodilator FEV3/FEV6 less than the LLN as the sole abnormality identifies a distinct population with evidence of small airways disease in quantitative CT scanning, impaired indexes of physical function and quality of life otherwise deemed normal by using the current spirometric definition.
Project description:RATIONALE:This study is part of a larger, multi-method project to develop a questionnaire for identifying undiagnosed cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in primary care settings, with specific interest in the detection of patients with moderate to severe airway obstruction or risk of exacerbation. OBJECTIVES:To examine 3 existing datasets for insight into key features of COPD that could be useful in the identification of undiagnosed COPD. METHODS:Random forests analyses were applied to the following databases: COPD Foundation Peak Flow Study Cohort (N=5761), Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) Kentucky site (N=508), and COPDGene® (N=10,214). Four scenarios were examined to find the best, smallest sets of variables that distinguished cases and controls:(1) moderate to severe COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] <50% predicted) versus no COPD; (2) undiagnosed versus diagnosed COPD; (3) COPD with and without exacerbation history; and (4) clinically significant COPD (FEV1<60% predicted or history of acute exacerbation) versus all others. RESULTS:From 4 to 8 variables were able to differentiate cases from controls, with sensitivity ?73 (range: 73-90) and specificity >68 (range: 68-93). Across scenarios, the best models included age, smoking status or history, symptoms (cough, wheeze, phlegm), general or breathing-related activity limitation, episodes of acute bronchitis, and/or missed work days and non-work activities due to breathing or health. CONCLUSIONS:Results provide insight into variables that should be considered during the development of candidate items for a new questionnaire to identify undiagnosed cases of clinically significant COPD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The identification of smoking-related lung disease in current and former smokers with normal FEV1 is complex, leading to debate regarding using a ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) of less than 0.70 versus the predicted lower limit of normal (LLN) for diagnosis of airflow obstruction. We hypothesized that the discordant group of ever-smokers with FEV1/FVC between the LLN and 0.70 is heterogeneous, and aimed to characterize the burden of smoking-related lung disease in this group. METHODS:We compared spirometry, chest CT characteristics, and symptoms between 161 ever-smokers in the discordant group and 940 ever-smokers and 190 never-smokers with normal FEV1 and FEV1/FVC?>?0.70 in the SPIROMICS cohort. We also estimated sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing objective radiographic evidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using different FEV1/FVC criteria thresholds. RESULTS:The discordant group had more CT defined emphysema and non-emphysematous gas trapping, lower post-bronchodilator FEV1 and FEF25-75, and higher respiratory medication use compared with the other two groups. Within the discordant group, 44% had radiographic CT evidence of either emphysema or non-emphysematous gas trapping; an FEV1/FVC threshold of 0.70 has greater sensitivity but lower specificity compared with LLN for identifying individuals with CT abnormality. CONCLUSIONS:Ever-smokers with normal FEV1 and FEV1/FVC?<? 0.70 but > LLN are a heterogeneous group that includes significant numbers of individuals with and without radiographic evidence of smoking-related lung disease. These findings emphasize the limitations of diagnosing COPD based on spirometric criteria alone.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The reported prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) varies widely. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of airflow obstruction and COPD in unselected PLWHIV and identify characteristics that increase the risk of nonreversible airflow obstruction in order to guide case finding strategies for COPD. METHODS:All adults attending the Chronic Viral Illness Service were invited to participate in the study, regardless of smoking status or history of known COPD/asthma. Individuals underwent spirometric testing both before and after use of a salbutamol bronchodilator. Airflow obstruction was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 )/forced vital capacity (FVC) < 0.7 post-bronchodilation, whereas COPD was defined as FEV1 /FVC < 0.7 post-bronchodilation and Medical Research Council (MRC) score > 2. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate risk factors associated with airflow obstruction, reported as adjusted odds ratios (aORs). RESULTS:Five hundred and three participants successfully completed spirometry testing. The median (Q1; Q3) age was 52 (44; 58) years. The median (Q1; Q3) CD4 count was 598 (438; 784) cells/?L and the median (Q1; Q3) nadir CD4 count was 224 (121; 351) cells/?L. There were 119 (24%) current smokers and 145 (29%) former smokers. Among those screened, 54 (11%) had airflow obstruction whereas three (1%) of the participants had COPD. Factors that were associated with airflow obstruction included a history of smoking [aOR 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1; 4.7], older age (aOR 1.6; 95% CI 1.2; 2.2), and lower CD4 count (aOR 0.8; 95% CI 0.7; 1.0). CONCLUSIONS:Airflow obstruction was relatively uncommon. Our findings suggest that PLWHIV who are ?50 years old, smokers and those with nadir CD4 counts ? 200 cells/?L could be targeted to undergo spirometry to diagnose chronic airflow obstruction.
Project description:Background:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Present-day diagnostic criteria are largely based solely on spirometric criteria. Accumulating evidence has identified a substantial number of individuals without spirometric evidence of COPD who suffer from respiratory symptoms and/or increased morbidity and mortality. There is a clear need for an expanded definition of COPD that is linked to physiologic, structural (computed tomography [CT]) and clinical evidence of disease. Using data from the COPD Genetic Epidemiology study (COPDGene®), we hypothesized that an integrated approach that includes environmental exposure, clinical symptoms, chest CT imaging and spirometry better defines disease and captures the likelihood of progression of respiratory obstruction and mortality. Methods:Four key disease characteristics - environmental exposure (cigarette smoking), clinical symptoms (dyspnea and/or chronic bronchitis), chest CT imaging abnormalities (emphysema, gas trapping and/or airway wall thickening), and abnormal spirometry - were evaluated in a group of 8784 current and former smokers who were participants in COPDGene® Phase 1. Using these 4 disease characteristics, 8 categories of participants were identified and evaluated for odds of spirometric disease progression (FEV1 > 350 ml loss over 5 years), and the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was examined. Results:Using smokers without symptoms, CT imaging abnormalities or airflow obstruction as the reference population, individuals were classified as Possible COPD, Probable COPD and Definite COPD. Current Global initiative for obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria would diagnose 4062 (46%) of the 8784 study participants with COPD. The proposed COPDGene® 2019 diagnostic criteria would add an additional 3144 participants. Under the new criteria, 82% of the 8784 study participants would be diagnosed with Possible, Probable or Definite COPD. These COPD groups showed increased risk of disease progression and mortality. Mortality increased in patients as the number of their COPD characteristics increased, with a maximum hazard ratio for all cause-mortality of 5.18 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.15-6.48) in those with all 4 disease characteristics. Conclusions:A substantial portion of smokers with respiratory symptoms and imaging abnormalities do not manifest spirometric obstruction as defined by population normals. These individuals are at significant risk of death and spirometric disease progression. We propose to redefine the diagnosis of COPD through an integrated approach using environmental exposure, clinical symptoms, CT imaging and spirometric criteria. These expanded criteria offer the potential to stimulate both current and future interventions that could slow or halt disease progression in patients before disability or irreversible lung structural changes develop.
Project description:It has been reported that the prevalence of kidney dysfunction may be increased in patients exposed to tobacco with airflow obstruction. We hypothesized that kidney dysfunction would associate with emphysema rather than with airflow obstruction measured by the FEV₁.Five hundred eight current and former smokers completed a chest CT scan, pulmonary function tests, medical questionnaires, and measurement of serum creatinine. Glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) were estimated using the method of the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration. Quantitative determinants of emphysema and airway dimension were measured from multidetector chest CT scans.The mean age was 66 ± 7 years, and mean eGFR was 101 ± 22 mL/min/1.73 m². Univariate and multivariate analysis showed a significant association between radiographically measured emphysema and eGFR: Participants with 10% more emphysema had an eGFR that was lower by 4.4 mL/min/1.73 m² (P = .01), independent of airflow obstruction (FEV₁), age, sex, race, height, BMI, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, patient-reported dyspnea, pack-years of smoking, and current smoking. There was no association between eGFR and either FEV₁ or quantitative CT scan measures of airway dimension.More severe emphysema, rather than airflow obstruction, is associated with kidney dysfunction in tobacco smokers, independent of common risk factors for kidney disease. This finding adds to recent observations of associations between emphysema and comorbidities of COPD, including osteoporosis and lung cancer, which are independent of the traditional measure of reduced FEV₁. The mechanisms and clinical implications of kidney dysfunction in patients with emphysema need further investigation.