Potential roles of HDAC inhibitors in mitigating ischemia-induced brain damage and facilitating endogenous regeneration and recovery.
ABSTRACT: Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, with few available treatment options. The pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia involves both early phase tissue damage, characterized by neuronal death, inflammation, and blood-brain barrier breakdown, followed by late phase neurovascular recovery. It is becoming clear that any promising treatment strategy must target multiple points in the evolution of ischemic injury to provide substantial therapeutic benefit. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are a class of drugs that increase the acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins to activate transcription, enhance gene expression, and modify the function of target proteins. Acetylation homeostasis is often disrupted in neurological conditions, and accumulating evidence suggests that HDAC inhibitors have robust protective properties in many preclinical models of these disorders, including ischemic stroke. Specifically, HDAC inhibitors such as trichostatin A, valproic acid, sodium butyrate, sodium 4-phenylbutyrate, and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid have been shown to provide robust protection against excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, ER stress, apoptosis, inflammation, and bloodbrain barrier breakdown. Concurrently, these agents can also promote angiogenesis, neurogenesis and stem cell migration to dramatically reduce infarct volume and improve functional recovery after experimental cerebral ischemia. In the following review, we discuss the mechanisms by which HDAC inhibitors exert these protective effects and provide evidence for their strong potential to ultimately improve stroke outcome in patients.
Project description:Background:Cerebral ischemic stroke is one of the severe diseases with a pathological condition that leads to nerve cell dysfunction with seldom available therapy options. Currently, there are few proven effective treatments available for improving cerebral ischemic stroke outcome. However, recently, there is increasing evidence that inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity exerts a strong protective effect in in vivo and vitro models of ischemic stroke. Review Summary. HDAC is a posttranslational modification that is negatively regulated by histone acetyltransferase (HATS) and histone deacetylase. Based on function and DNA sequence similarity, histone deacetylases (HDACs) are organized into four different subclasses (I-IV). Modifications of histones play a crucial role in cerebral ischemic affair development after translation by modulating disrupted acetylation homeostasis. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) mainly exert neuroprotective effects by enhancing histone and nonhistone acetylation levels and enhancing gene expression and protein modification functions. This article reviews HDAC and its inhibitors, hoping to find meaningful therapeutic targets. Conclusions:HDAC may be a new biological target for cerebral ischemic stroke. Future drug development targeting HDAC may make it a potentially effective anticerebral ischemic stroke drug.
Project description:Androgens within physiological ranges protect castrated male mice from cerebral ischemic injury. Yet, underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we report that, after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), salt-induced kinase 1 (SIK1) was induced by a potent androgen-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) at protective doses. To investigate whether SIK1 contributes to DHT neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia, we constructed lentivirus-expressing small interference RNA (siRNA) against SIK1. The SIK1 knockdown by siRNA exacerbated oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced cell death in primary cortical neurons, suggesting that SIK1 is an endogenous neuroprotective gene against cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, lentivirus-mediated SIK1 knockdown increased both cortical and striatal infarct sizes in castrated mice treated with a protective dose of DHT. Earlier studies show that SIK1 inhibits histone deacetylase (HDAC) activities by acting as a class IIa HDAC kinase. We observed that SIK1 knockdown decreased histone H3 acetylation in primary neurons. The SIK1 siRNA also exacerbated OGD-induced neuronal death in the presence of trichostatin A (TSA), an HDAC inhibitor, and decreased histone H3 acetylation at 4 hours reoxygenation in TSA-treated neurons. Finally, we showed that DHT at protective doses prevented ischemia-induced histone deacetylation after MCAO. Our finding suggests that SIK1 contributes to neuroprotection by androgens within physiological ranges by inhibiting histone deacetylation.
Project description:Aging increases the vulnerability of aging white matter to ischemic injury. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors preserve young adult white matter structure and function during ischemia by conserving ATP and reducing excitotoxicity. In isolated optic nerve from 12-month-old mice, deprived of oxygen and glucose, we show that pan- and Class I-specific HDAC inhibitors promote functional recovery of axons. This protection correlates with preservation of axonal mitochondria. The cellular expression of HDAC 3 in the central nervous system (CNS), and HDAC 2 in optic nerve considerably changed with age, expanding to more cytoplasmic domains from nuclear compartments, suggesting that changes in glial cell protein acetylation may confer protection to aging axons. Our results indicate that manipulation of HDAC activities in glial cells may have a universal potential for stroke therapy across age groups.
Project description:High salt diet (HSD) is one of the most important risk factors that contribute to many vascular diseases including ischemic stroke. One proposed mechanism underlying the disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB) mediated by HSD is indirectly through enhancing blood pressure. The direct role of HSD on BBB integrity is unclear. Our purpose is to determine whether and how HSD might be involved in BBB breakdown during ischemia. To test that, we induced model of cerebral ischemia by permanent middle cerebral artery ligation (pMCAL) in either normal diet or HSD fed mice. We observed that HSD significantly enhanced ischemic brain damage which was associated with enhanced BBB disruption, increased leukocytes infiltration and loss of tight junction (TJ) proteins expression without apparently altering blood pressure. Our in vitro experiment also revealed that sodium chloride (NaCl) treatment down-regulated TJ protein expression by endothelial cells and substantially increased BBB permeability during starvation. Inhibition of p38/MAPK/SGK1 pathway eliminated the effect of NaCl on BBB permeability in vitro. In addition, we noticed a positive correlation between urinary sodium levels and ischemic lesion size in stroke patients. Together, our study demonstrates a hypertension-independent role of HSD during ischemia and provides rationale for post cerebral ischemic attack management.
Project description:Epigenetic regulation of neuronal signalling through histone acetylation dictates transcription programs that govern neuronal memory, plasticity and learning paradigms. Histone Acetyl Transferases (HATs) and Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) are antagonistic enzymes that regulate gene expression through acetylation and deacetylation of histone proteins around which DNA is wrapped inside a eukaryotic cell nucleus. The epigenetic control of HDACs and the cellular imbalance between HATs and HDACs dictate disease states and have been implicated in muscular dystrophy, loss of memory, neurodegeneration and autistic disorders. Altering gene expression profiles through inhibition of HDACs is now emerging as a powerful technique in therapy. This review presents evolving applications of HDAC inhibitors as potential drugs in neurological research and therapy. Mechanisms that govern their expression profiles in neuronal signalling, plasticity and learning will be covered. Promising and exciting possibilities of HDAC inhibitors in memory formation, fear conditioning, ischemic stroke and neural regeneration have been detailed.
Project description:Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Leonurine (also named SCM-198), a compound extracted from Herba leonuri, was effective on the prevention of various cardiovascular and brain diseases. The purpose of this study was to explore the possible therapeutic potential of SCM-198 against ischemia reperfusion injury and underlying mechanisms. In the in vivo transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) rat model, we found that treatment with SCM-198 could decrease infarct volume and improve neurological deficit by protecting against blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown. In the in vitro model of cell oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R), consistent results were obtained with decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and maintained the BBB integrity. Further study demonstrated that SCM-198 increased the expression of histone deacetylase- (HDAC-) 4 which could inhibit NADPH oxidase- (NOX-) 4 and matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 9 expression, resulting in the elevation of tight junction proteins, including claudin-5, occludin, and zonula occluden- (ZO-) 1. These results indicated SCM-198 protected BBB integrity by regulating the HDAC4/NOX4/MMP-9 tight junction pathway. Our findings provided novel insights into the protective effects and mechanisms of SCM-198 on ischemic stroke, indicating SCM-198 as a new class of potential drug against acute onset of ischemic stroke.
Project description:Kidneys damaged by ischemia have the potential to regenerate through a mechanism involving intrarenal induction of protective factors, including bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7). Epigenetic changes, such as alterations in histone modifications, have also been shown to play a role in various pathologic conditions, but their involvement in ischemic injury and regeneration remains unknown. This study investigated whether changes in histone acetylation, regulated by histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase (HDAC), are induced by renal ischemia and involved in the regenerative response. Ischemia/reperfusion of the mouse kidney induced a transient decrease in histone acetylation in proximal tubular cells, likely as a result of a decrease in histone acetyltransferase activity as suggested by experiments with energy-depleted renal epithelial cells in culture. During recovery after transient energy depletion in epithelial cells, the HDAC isozyme HDAC5 was selectively downregulated in parallel with the return of acetylated histone. Knockdown of HDAC5 by RNAi significantly increased histone acetylation and BMP7 expression. BMP7 induction and HDAC5 downregulation in the recovery phase were also observed in proximal tubular cells in vivo after transient ischemia. These data indicate that ischemia induces dynamic epigenetic changes involving HDAC5 downregulation, which contributes to histone re-acetylation and BMP7 induction in the recovery phase. This highlights HDAC5 as a modulator of the regenerative response after ischemia and suggests HDAC5 inhibition may be a therapeutic strategy to enhance BMP7 expression.
Project description:The importance of white matter (WM) injury to stroke pathology has been underestimated in experimental animal models and this may have contributed to the failure to translate potential therapeutics into the stroke clinic. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are neuroprotective and also promote neurogenesis. These properties make them ideal candidates for stroke therapy. In a pure WM tract (isolated mouse optic nerve), we show that pan- and class I-specific HDAC inhibitors, administered before or after a period of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), promote functional recovery of axons and preserve WM cellular architecture. This protection correlates with the upregulation of an astrocyte glutamate transporter, delayed and reduced glutamate accumulation during OGD, preservation of axonal mitochondria and oligodendrocytes, and maintenance of ATP levels. Interestingly, the expression of HDACs 1, 2, and 3 is localized to astrocytes, suggesting that changes in glial cell gene transcription and/or protein acetylation may confer protection to axons. Our findings suggest that a therapeutic opportunity exists for the use of HDAC inhibitors, targeting mitochondrial energy regulation and excitotoxicity in ischemic WM injury.
Project description:Limitation of infarct size is a major goal of therapy for acute coronary syndromes, and research has focused on achieving rapid patency of infarct-related vessels. However, new understandings of epigenetic modifications during ischemia suggest additional targeted approaches that have not been extensively explored. Here, we show that ischemia induces histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in the heart with deacetylation of histones H3/4 in vitro and in vivo. We show, utilizing a standard murine model of ischemia-reperfusion, that chemical HDAC inhibitors significantly reduce infarct area, even when delivered 1 h after the ischemic insult. We demonstrate that HDAC inhibitors prevent ischemia-induced activation of gene programs that include hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha, cell death, and vascular permeability in vivo and in vitro, thus providing potential mechanisms to explain reduced vascular leak and myocardial injury. In vitro, siRNA knockdown experiments implicate HDAC4 as a mediator of the effects in ischemic cardiac myocytes. These results demonstrate that HDAC inhibitors alter the response to ischemic injury in the heart and reduce infarct size, suggesting novel therapeutic approaches for acute coronary syndromes.
Project description:Proteasome complexes play essential roles in maintaining cellular protein homeostasis and serve fundamental roles in cardiac function under normal and pathological conditions. A functional detriment in proteasomal activities has been recognized as a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, approaches to restore proteolytic function within the setting of the diseased myocardium would be of great clinical significance. In this study, we discovered that the cardiac proteasomal activity could be regulated by acetylation. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and sodium valproate) enhanced the acetylation of 20S proteasome subunits in the myocardium and led to an elevation of proteolytic capacity. This regulatory paradigm was present in both healthy and acutely ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injured murine hearts, and HDAC inhibition in vitro restored proteolytic capacities to baseline sham levels in injured hearts. This mechanism of regulation was also viable in failing human myocardium. With 20S proteasomal complexes purified from murine myocardium treated with HDAC inhibitors in vivo, we confirmed that acetylation of 20S subunits directly, at least in part, presents a molecular explanation for the improvement in function. Furthermore, using high-resolution LC-MS/MS, we unraveled the first cardiac 20S acetylome, which identified the acetylation of nine N-termini and seven internal lysine residues. Acetylation on four lysine residues and four N-termini on cardiac proteasomes were novel discoveries of this study. In addition, the acetylation of five lysine residues was inducible via HDAC inhibition, which correlated with the enhancement of 20S proteasomal activity. Taken as a whole, our investigation unveiled a novel mechanism of proteasomal function regulation in vivo and established a new strategy for the potential rescue of compromised proteolytic function in the failing heart using HDAC inhibitors.