In vitro effects of interleukin (IL)-1 beta inhibition on the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of renal tubular and hepatic stellate cells.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a multi-factorial biological mechanism involved in renal and hepatic fibrosis and the IL-1 beta has been assumed as a mediator of this process although data are not exhaustive. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the role of this cytokine in the EMT of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) and stellate cells (LX-2) and the protective/anti-fibrotic effect of its inhibition by Canakinumab (a specific human monoclonal antibody targeted against IL-1beta). METHODS:Both cell types were treated with IL-1 beta (10 ng/ml) for 6 and 24 h with and without Canakinumab (5 ?g/ml). As control we used TGF-beta (10 ng/ml). Expression of EMT markers (vimentin, alpha-SMA, fibronectin) were evaluated through western blotting and immunofluorescence. Genes expression for matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 was measured by Real-Time PCR and enzymatic activity by zymography. Cellular motility was assessed by scratch assay. RESULTS:IL-1 beta induced a significant up-regulation of EMT markers in both cell types and increased the MMP-2 protein expression and enzymatic activity, similarly to TGF-beta. Moreover, IL-1 beta induced a higher rate of motility in HK-2. Canakinumab prevented all these modifications in both cell types. CONCLUSIONS:Our results clearly demonstrate the role of IL-1 beta in the EMT of renal/stellate cells and it underlines, for the first time, the therapeutic potential of its specific inhibition on the prevention/minimization of organ fibrosis.
Project description:The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of renal epithelial cells (RTECs) has pivotal roles in the development of renal fibrosis. Although the interaction of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) on leukocytes and its ligand, intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), plays essential roles in most inflammatory reactions, its pathogenetic role in the EMT of RTECs remains to be clarified. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the interaction of LFA-1 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and ICAM-1 on HK-2 cells after stimulation with TGF-?(1) on the EMT of RTECs. ICAM-1 was highly expressed in HK-2 cells. After TGF-?(1) stimulation, the chemokines CCL3 and CXCL12 increased on HK-2 cells. After co-culture of PBMCs and HK-2 cells pre-stimulated with TGF-?(1) (0.1 ng/ml) (HK-2-TGF-?(1) (0.1)), the expression of the active form of LFA-1 increased on PBMCs; however, total LFA-1 expression did not change. The expression of the active form of LFA-1 on PBMCs did not increase after co-culture with not CCL3 but CXCL12 knockdown HK-2-TGF-?(1) (0.1). The expression of epithelial cell junction markers (E-cadherin and occludin) further decreased and that of mesenchymal markers (vimentin and fibronectin) further increased in HK-2-TGF-?(1) (0.1) after co-culture with PBMCs for 24 hrs (HK-2-TGF-?(1) (0.1)-PBMCs). The phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 but not smad2 and smad3 increased in HK-2-TGF-?(1) (0.1)-PBMCs. The snail and slug signaling did not increase HK-2-TGF-?(1) (0.1)-PBMCs. Although the migration and invasion of HK-2 cells induced full EMT by a high dose (10.0 ng/ml) and long-term (72-96 hrs) TGF-?(1) stimulation increased, that of HK-2-TGF-?(1) (0.1)-PBMCs did not increase. These results suggested that HK-2 cells stimulated with TGF-?(1) induced conformational activation of LFA-1 on PBMCs by increased CXCL12. Then, the direct interaction of LFA-1 on PBMCs and ICAM-1 on HK-2 cells activated ERK1/2 signaling to accelerate the part of EMT of HK-2 cells induced by TGF-?(1).
Project description:Salvianolic Acid B (Sal B) is a water-soluble component from Danshen (a traditional Chinese herb widely used for chronic renal diseases) with anti-oxidative and cell protective properties. Sal B also has potential protective effects on renal diseases. Tubular epithelial cells can undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) and is mainly regulated by TGF-beta1/Smads pathway. The aims of the study are to investigate the effect of Sal B on tubular EMT in vivo and in vitro, and to elucidate its underlying mechanism against EMT related to TGF-beta1/Smads pathway.For in vivo experiments, RIF was induced in rats by oral administration of HgCl2 and prophylaxised with Sal B and vitamin E. The protein expression of E-cadherin was down-regulated, while the expression of alpha-SMA, TGF-beta1, TbetaR-I, p-Smad2/3 and the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) were up-regulated in kidneys of model rats when compared with those of normal rats. In contrast, Sal B and vitamin E significantly attenuated the expression of alpha-SMA, TGF-beta1, TbetaR-I, p-Smad2/3, and MMP-2 activity, but increased E-cadherin expression. For in vitro experiments, HK-2 cells were incubated with TGF-beta1 to induce EMT, and the cells were co-cultured with 1 and 10 microM Sal B or SB-431542 (a specific inhibitor of TbetaR-I kinase). TGF-beta1 induced a typical EMT in HK-2 cells, while it was blocked by Sal B and SB-431542, as evidenced by blocking morphologic transformation, restoring E-cadherin and CK-18 expression, inhibiting alpha-SMA expression and F-actin reorganization, and down-regulating MMP-2/9 activities in TGF-beta1 mediated HK-2 cells. Furthermore, Sal B and SB-431542 profoundly down-regulated the expressions of TbetaR-I and p-Smad2/3 but prevented the decreased expression of Smad7 in TGF-beta1 stimulated HK-2 cells.Sal B can prevent tubular EMT in the fibrotic kidney induced by HgCl2 as well as HK-2 cells triggered by TGF-beta1, the mechanism of Sal B is closely related to the regulation of TGF-beta1/Smads pathway, manifested as the inhibition of TGF-beta1 expression, suppression of TbetaR-I expression and function, down-regulation of Smad2/3 phosphorylation, and restoration of the down-regulation of Smad7, as well as inhibition of MMP-2 activity.
Project description:In osteoarthritis (OA), the subchondral bone undergoes a remodelling process involving several factors synthesized by osteoblasts. In this study, we investigated the expression, production, modulation, and role of PAR-2 in human OA subchondral bone osteoblasts.PAR-2 expression and production were determined by real-time PCR and flow cytometry, respectively. PAR-2 modulation was investigated in OA subchondral bone osteoblasts treated with IL-1 beta (100 pg/ml), TNF-alpha (5 ng/ml), TGF-beta1 (10 ng/ml), PGE(2) (500 nM), IL-6 (10 ng/ml) and IL-17 (10 ng/ml). Membranous RANKL protein was assessed by flow cytometry, and OPG, MMP-1, MMP-9, MMP-13, IL-6 and intracellular signalling pathways by specific ELISAs. Bone resorptive activity was measured by using a co-culture model of human PBMC and OA subchondral bone osteoblasts.PAR-2 expression and production (p<0.05) were markedly increased when human OA subchondral bone osteoblasts were compared to normal. On OA osteoblasts, PAR-2 production was significantly increased by IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha and PGE(2). Activation of PAR-2 with a specific agonist, SLIGKV-NH(2), induced a significant up-regulation of MMP-1, MMP-9, IL-6, and membranous RANKL, but had no effect on MMP-13 or OPG production. Interestingly, bone resorptive activity was also significantly enhanced following PAR-2 activation. The PAR-2 effect was mediated by activation of the MAP kinases Erk1/2 and JNK.This study is the first to demonstrate that PAR-2 activation plays a role in OA subchondral bone resorption via an up-regulation of major bone remodelling factors. These results shed new light on the potential of PAR-2 as a therapeutic target in OA.
Project description:AIM: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) has a wide range of biological functions, including anti-inflammation. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of PPAR-gamma on transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1)-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2). METHODS: HK-2 cells were pretreated with 15d-PGJ2 or troglitazone (TGL) and then treated with TGF-beta1. Expression of MCP-1 and IL-8 was measured using real-time PCR and ELISA. RESULTS: Treatment with 5 ng/mL TGF-beta1 for 24 h increased both MCP-1 and IL-8 mRNA and protein levels in HK-2 cells. Both 15d-PGJ2 at 2.5 and 5 micromol/L and TGL at 2.5 micromol/L exhibited inhibitory effects on TGF-beta1-induced MCP-1 expression. Additionally, 15d-PGJ2 at 2.5 and 5 micromol/L and TGL at 2.5 micromol/L inhibited TGF-beta1-induced expression of IL-8. CONCLUSION: PPAR-gamma agonists (15d-PGJ2 and TGL) could inhibit the TGF-beta1-induced expression of chemokines in HK-2 cells. Our results suggest that PPAR-gamma agonists have the potential to be used as a treatment regimen to reduce inflammation in renal tubulointerstitial disease.
Project description:As regulators in gene expression, microRNAs take part in most biological process including cell differentiation, apoptosis, cell cycle and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In order to evaluate their roles during the growth factors-induced EMT process, microRNA expression profile changes induced by EGF or TGF-β treatment on nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line HK-1 cells were analyzed by means of the Affymetrix genome wide microarray system. Human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line HK-1 was starved for 12 hours before stimulation with EGF (50 ng/mL) or TGF-β (10ng/ml) or Control (PBS) for 36 hours in RPMI-1640 medium (with 1% serum) to establish the in vitro model of EMT. Total RNA were extracted and detected by Affymetrix® GeneChip® miRNA Arrays.
Project description:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in both geriatric cats and aging humans, and is pathologically characterised by chronic tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis in both species. Cats with CKD may represent a spontaneously occurring, non-rodent animal model of human disease, however little is known of feline renal cell biology. In other species, TGF-?1 signalling in the proximal tubular epithelium is thought to play a key role in the initiation and progression of renal fibrosis. In this study, we first aimed to isolate and characterise feline proximal tubular epithelial cells (FPTEC), comparing them to human primary renal epithelial cells (HREC) and the human proximal tubular cell line HK-2. Secondly, we aimed to examine and compare the effect of human recombinant TGF-?1 on cell proliferation, pro-apoptotic signalling and genes associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in feline and human renal epithelial cells. FPTEC were successfully isolated from cadaverous feline renal tissue, and demonstrated a marker protein expression profile identical to that of HREC and HK-2. Exposure to TGF-?1 (0-10 ng/ml) induced a concentration-dependent loss of epithelial morphology and alterations in gene expression consistent with the occurrence of partial EMT in all cell types. This was associated with transcription of downstream pro-fibrotic mediators, growth arrest in FPTEC and HREC (but not HK-2), and increased apoptotic signalling at high concentrations of TGF- ?1. These effects were inhibited by the ALK5 (TGF-?1RI) antagonist SB431542 (5 ?M), suggesting they are mediated via the ALK5/TGF-?1RII receptor complex. Taken together, these results suggest that TGF-?1 may be involved in epithelial cell dedifferentiation, growth arrest and apoptosis in feline CKD as in human disease, and that cats may be a useful, naturally occurring model of human CKD.
Project description:As a rich source of pro-fibrogenic growth factors and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), macrophages are well-placed to play an important role in renal fibrosis. However, the exact underlying mechanisms and the extent of macrophage involvement are unclear. Tubular cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important contributor to renal fibrosis and MMPs to induction of tubular cell EMT. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of macrophages and MMPs to induction of tubular cell EMT. The murine C1.1 tubular epithelial cell line and primary tubular epithelial cells were cultured in activated macrophage-conditioned medium (AMCM) derived from lipopolysaccharide-activated J774 macrophages. MMP-9, but not MMP-2 activity was detected in AMCM. AMCM-induced tubular cell EMT in C1.1 cells was inhibited by broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor (GM6001), MMP-2/9 inhibitor, and in AMCM after MMP-9 removal by monoclonal Ab against MMP-9. AMCM-induced EMT in primary tubular epithelial cells was inhibited by MMP-2/9 inhibitor. MMP-9 induced tubular cell EMT in both C1.1 cells and primary tubular epithelial cells. Furthermore, MMP-9 induced tubular cell EMT in C1.1 cells to an extent similar to transforming growth factor-beta. Transforming growth factor-beta-induced tubular cell EMT in C1.1 cells was inhibited by MMP-2/9 inhibitor. Our in vitro study provides evidence that MMPs, specifically MMP-9, secreted by effector macrophages can induce tubular cell EMT and thereby contribute to renal fibrosis.
Project description:Most renal transplants ultimately fail secondary to chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN). Vimentin (vim) is a member of the intermediate filament family of proteins and has been shown to be important in the development of CAN. One of the pathways leading to chronic renal fibrosis after transplant is thought to be epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Even though vim expression is one of the main steps of EMT, it is unknown whether vim expression is required for EMT leading to renal fibrosis and allograft loss. To this end, the role of vim in renal fibrosis was determined via unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in vim knockout mice (129 svs6 vim -/-). Following UUO, kidneys were recovered and analyzed via Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and transcriptomics. Cultured human proximal renal tubular (HK-2) cells were subjected to lentiviral-driven inhibition of vim expression and then treated with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β to undergo EMT. Immunoblotting as well as wound healing assays were used to determine development of EMT. Western blotting analyses of mice undergoing UUO reveal increased levels of vim soon after UUO. As expected, interstitial collagen deposition increased in control mice following UUO but decreased in vim -/- kidneys. Immunofluorescence analyses also revealed altered localization of β-catenin in vim -/- mice undergoing UUO without significant changes in mRNA levels. However, RNA sequencing revealed a decrease in β-catenin-dependent genes in vim -/- kidneys. Finally, vim-silenced HK-2 cell lines undergoing EMT were shown to have decreased cellular migration during wound healing. We conclude that vim inhibition decreases fibrosis following UUO by possibly altering β-catenin localization and downstream signaling.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of pancreatic fibrosis is unknown. In the liver, stellate cells play a major role in fibrogenesis by synthesising increased amounts of collagen and other extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins when activated by profibrogenic mediators such as cytokines and oxidant stress. AIMS: To determine whether cultured rat pancreatic stellate cells produce collagen and other ECM proteins, and exhibit signs of activation when exposed to the cytokines platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) or transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta). METHODS: Cultured pancreatic stellate cells were immunostained for the ECM proteins procollagen III, collagen I, laminin, and fibronectin using specific polyclonal antibodies. For cytokine studies, triplicate wells of cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of PDGF or TGF-beta. RESULTS: Cultured pancreatic stellate cells stained strongly positive for all ECM proteins tested. Incubation of cells with 1, 5, and 10 ng/ml PDGF led to a significant dose related increase in cell counts as well as in the incorporation of 3H-thymidine into DNA. Stellate cells exposed to 0.25, 0.5, and 1 ng/ml TGF-beta showed a dose dependent increase in alpha smooth muscle actin expression and increased collagen synthesis. In addition, TGF-beta increased the expression of PDGF receptors on stellate cells. CONCLUSIONS: Pancreatic stellate cells produce collagen and other extracellular matrix proteins, and respond to the cytokines PDGF and TGF-beta by increased proliferation and increased collagen synthesis. These results suggest an important role for stellate cells in pancreatic fibrogenesis.
Project description:TNF (designated as TNF-α under previous nomenclature) is the preeminent activator of MMP-9 generation from a variety of cells including eosinophils. We have previously established that TNF strongly synergizes with IFN-γ and IL-4 for eosinophil synthesis of Th1- and Th2-type chemokines respectively. Thus, we sought to determine if TNF-induced synthesis of MMP-9 would be enhanced by the presence of Th1, Th2, or the eosinophil-associated common beta chain (βc) cytokines. Human blood eosinophils were cultured with TNF alone or in combination with either IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-3, IL-5, or GM-CSF. Concentrations and activities of MMP-9 in eosinophil culture supernates were measured by ELISA and gelatin zymography, mRNA transcription and stabilization by quantitative real-time PCR, and signaling events by immunoblotting and intracellular flow cytometric analysis. Individually, TNF, GM-CSF, or IL-3, but not IL-4 or IFN-γ, induced relatively small (<0.2 ng/ml) but statistically significant quantities of MMP-9. Remarkable synergistic synthesis of MMP-9 (ng/ml levels) occurred in response to TNF plus IL-3, GM-CSF or IL-5, in the order of IL-3>GM-CSF>IL-5. Zymography revealed that eosinophils release MMP-9 in its pro-form. Eosinophil stimulation with the combination of IL-3 plus TNF led to increased steady-state levels of MMP-9 mRNA, prolonged mRNA stabilization, and enhanced activation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Inhibition of NF-κB, MEK kinase, or p38 MAP kinase, but not JNK signaling pathways, diminished IL-3/TNF-induced MMP-9 mRNA and protein production. Thus, the synergistic regulation of eosinophil MMP-9 by IL-3 plus TNF likely involves cooperative interaction of multiple transcription factors downstream from ERK, p38, and NF-κB activation as well as post-transcriptional regulation of MMP-9 mRNA stabilization. Our data indicate that within microenvironments rich in βc-family cytokines and TNF, eosinophils are an important source of proMMP-9 and highlight a previously unrecognized role for synergistic interaction between TNF and βc-family cytokines, particularly IL-3, for proMMP-9 synthesis.