Prevalence of and Factors Associated With Long-term Concurrent Use of Stimulants and Opioids Among Adults With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.
ABSTRACT: Importance:There exist limited data on the long-term concurrent use of stimulants and opioids among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a population at risk for prescription drug abuse. Objective:To assess the prevalence and secular trends of and the factors associated with long-term concurrent use of stimulants and opioids among adults with ADHD. Design, Setting, and Participants:This cross-sectional study assessed Medicaid Analytic eXtract data from 29 states between 1999 and 2010. Medicaid fee-for-service enrollees aged 20 to 64 years with ADHD who were continuously enrolled for more than 12 months after receiving an ADHD diagnosis were included. One 12-month continuous enrollment period was randomly selected as an observation unit for each enrollee. Multivariable regression models were used to determine secular trends in the prevalence of and the potential risk factors associated with long-term concurrent stimulant-opioid use. Analyses were conducted between January 1 and December 31, 2017. Exposures:Risk factors measured during the first half of the 12-month observation unit. Main Outcomes and Measures:Prevalence of long-term use of stimulants and opioids overlapping for at least 30 consecutive days was measured during the second half of the randomly selected 12-month observation unit. Results:Of the 66?406 Medicaid-enrolled adults with ADHD who were identified as eligible, 35?670 (53.7%) were 20 to 30 years old, 37?155 (56.0%) were women, and 52?551 (79.1%) were non-Hispanic white individuals. Of these 66?406 adults with ADHD, 21?723 (32.7%) used stimulants, and 3590 (5.4%) were long-term users of stimulants and opioids. Long-term opioid use was more common among adults with ADHD who used stimulants (3590 of 21?723 [16.5%]) than among those with ADHD who did not use stimulants (5826 of 44?683 [13.0%]). Long-term concurrent stimulant-opioid use increased between 1999 and 2010 (adjusted prevalence relative ratio [PRR], 1.12; 95% CI, 1.10-1.14). Compared with patients aged 20 to 30 years, the prevalence of long-term concurrent stimulant-opioid use was higher among patients in their 30s (PRR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.07-1.08) and was further increased among patients in their 40s (PRR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.12-1.15) and 50s (PRR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.16-1.19). Other strongly associated risk factors included being non-Hispanic white (black PRR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.92-0.93; other PRR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.97-0.98; vs white), living in the southern United States (Midwest PRR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97-0.98; Northeast PRR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.93-0.94; West PRR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.94-0.96; vs South), and receiving a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder (PRR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03-1.05), depression (PRR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03), anxiety disorder (PRR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.04-1.07), chronic pain (PRR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.07-1.13), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (PRR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.04-1.07), or cardiovascular disease (PRR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03). Conclusions and Relevance:Long-term concurrent use of stimulants and opioids among adults with ADHD is common. This study suggests that clinical and research priorities should be made toward understanding the benefits and risks of long-term coadministration of stimulants and opioids in the management of ADHD and co-occurring pain conditions.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Substance use disorders are major contributors to excess mortality among individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet associations between pharmacological ADHD treatment and substance-related problems remain unclear. This study investigated concurrent and long-term associations between ADHD medication treatment and substance-related events. METHOD:The authors analyzed 2005-2014 commercial health care claims from 2,993,887 (47.2% female) adolescent and adult ADHD patients. Within-individual analyses compared the risk of substance-related events (i.e., emergency department visits related to substance use disorders) during months in which patients received prescribed stimulant medication or atomoxetine relative to the risk during months in which they did not. RESULTS:In adjusted within-individual comparisons, relative to periods in which patients did not receive ADHD medication, male patients had 35% lower odds of concurrent substance-related events when receiving medication (odds ratio=0.65, 95% CI=0.64-0.67), and female patients had 31% lower odds of concurrent substance-related events (odds ratio=0.69, 95% CI=0.67-0.71). Moreover, male patients had 19% lower odds of substance-related events 2 years after medication periods (odds ratio=0.81, 95% CI=0.78-0.85), and female patients had 14% lower odds of substance-related events 2 years after medication periods (odds ratio=0.86, 95% CI= 0.82-0.91). Sensitivity analyses supported most findings but were less consistent for long-term associations among women. CONCLUSIONS:These results provide evidence that receiving ADHD medication is unlikely to be associated with greater risk of substance-related problems in adolescence or adulthood. Rather, medication was associated with lower concurrent risk of substance-related events and, at least among men, lower long-term risk of future substance-related events.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To estimate the association between maternal use of acetaminophen during pregnancy and of paternal use before pregnancy with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in offspring while adjusting for familial risk for ADHD and indications of acetaminophen use. METHODS:Diagnoses were obtained from the Norwegian Patient Registry for 112?973 offspring from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, including 2246 with ADHD. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for an ADHD diagnosis by using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS:After adjusting for maternal use of acetaminophen before pregnancy, familial risk for ADHD, and indications of acetaminophen use, we observed a modest association between any prenatal maternal use of acetaminophen in 1 (HR = 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96-1.19), 2 (HR = 1.22; 95% CI 1.07-1.38), and 3 trimesters (HR = 1.27; 95% CI 0.99-1.63). The HR for more than 29 days of maternal acetaminophen use was 2.20 (95% CI 1.50-3.24). Use for <8 days was negatively associated with ADHD (HR = 0.90; 95% CI 0.81-1.00). Acetaminophen use for fever and infections for 22 to 28 days was associated with ADHD (HR = 6.15; 95% CI 1.71-22.05). Paternal and maternal use of acetaminophen were similarly associated with ADHD. CONCLUSIONS:Short-term maternal use of acetaminophen during pregnancy was negatively associated with ADHD in offspring. Long-term maternal use of acetaminophen during pregnancy was substantially associated with ADHD even after adjusting for indications of use, familial risk of ADHD, and other potential confounders.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The US opioid epidemic has led to similar concerns about prescribed opioids in the UK. In new users, initiation of or escalation to more potent and high dose opioids may contribute to long-term use. Additionally, physician prescribing behaviour has been described as a key driver of rising opioid prescriptions and long-term opioid use. No studies to our knowledge have investigated the extent to which regions, practices, and prescribers vary in opioid prescribing whilst accounting for case mix. This study sought to (i) describe prescribing trends between 2006 and 2017, (ii) evaluate the transition of opioid dose and potency in the first 2 years from initial prescription, (iii) quantify and identify risk factors for long-term opioid use, and (iv) quantify the variation of long-term use attributed to region, practice, and prescriber, accounting for case mix and chance variation. METHODS AND FINDINGS:A retrospective cohort study using UK primary care electronic health records from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink was performed. Adult patients without cancer with a new prescription of an opioid were included; 1,968,742 new users of opioids were identified. Mean age was 51 ± 19 years, and 57% were female. Codeine was the most commonly prescribed opioid, with use increasing 5-fold from 2006 to 2017, reaching 2,456 prescriptions/10,000 people/year. Morphine, buprenorphine, and oxycodone prescribing rates continued to rise steadily throughout the study period. Of those who started on high dose (120-199 morphine milligram equivalents [MME]/day) or very high dose opioids (?200 MME/day), 10.3% and 18.7% remained in the same MME/day category or higher at 2 years, respectively. Following opioid initiation, 14.6% became long-term opioid users in the first year. In the fully adjusted model, the following were associated with the highest adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for long-term use: older age (?75 years, aOR 4.59, 95% CI 4.48-4.70, p < 0.001; 65-74 years, aOR 3.77, 95% CI 3.68-3.85, p < 0.001, compared to <35 years), social deprivation (Townsend score quintile 5/most deprived, aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.52-1.59, p < 0.001, compared to quintile 1/least deprived), fibromyalgia (aOR 1.81, 95% CI 1.49-2.19, p < 0.001), substance abuse (aOR 1.72, 95% CI 1.65-1.79, p < 0.001), suicide/self-harm (aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.52-1.61, p < 0.001), rheumatological conditions (aOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.48-1.58, p < 0.001), gabapentinoid use (aOR 2.52, 95% CI 2.43-2.61, p < 0.001), and MME/day at initiation (aOR 1.08, 95% CI 1.07-1.08, p < 0.001). After adjustment for case mix, 3 of the 10 UK regions (North West [16%], Yorkshire and the Humber [15%], and South West [15%]), 103 practices (25.6%), and 540 prescribers (3.5%) had a higher proportion of patients with long-term use compared to the population average. This study was limited to patients prescribed opioids in primary care and does not include opioids available over the counter or prescribed in hospitals or drug treatment centres. CONCLUSIONS:Of patients commencing opioids on very high MME/day (?200), a high proportion stayed in the same category for a subsequent 2 years. Age, deprivation, prescribing factors, comorbidities such as fibromyalgia, rheumatological conditions, recent major surgery, and history of substance abuse, alcohol abuse, and self-harm/suicide were associated with long-term opioid use. Despite adjustment for case mix, variation across regions and especially practices and prescribers in high-risk prescribing was observed. Our findings support greater calls for action for reduction in practice and prescriber variation by promoting safe practice in opioid prescribing.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The greatest increases in long-term opioid use and opioid-related overdose mortality in recent years have been among women in midlife. Common menopausal symptoms broadly affect health and health care utilization in midlife, but their contribution to chronic pain management during this period is unknown. OBJECTIVE:To examine relationships between menopausal symptoms and long-term opioid prescription patterns among midlife women with chronic pain. DESIGN:Cross-sectional analysis of national Veterans Health Administration medical and pharmacy records (2014-2015). PARTICIPANTS:Women Veterans aged 45-64 with ??1 outpatient visit and chronic pain diagnoses spanning ??90 days. MAIN MEASURES:Long-term opioids (prescribed oral opioids for ??90 days), high-dose long-term opioids (>?50 mg average morphine equivalent daily dose), and long-term opioids co-prescribed with central nervous system depressants (benzodiazepine and non-benzodiazepine sedative-hypnotics, gabapentin/pregabalin, muscle relaxants). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine associations between outcomes and menopausal symptoms (menopausal symptom-related diagnoses (i.e., "symptomatic menopausal states") on ??2 encounters and/or menopausal hormone therapy, adjusting for race, age, body mass index, and mental health and substance use disorder diagnoses. KEY RESULTS:In this national sample of 104,984 midlife women Veterans with chronic pain (mean age 54.5, SD 5.4 years), 17% had evidence of menopausal symptoms, 51% were prescribed long-term opioids, 13% were prescribed high-dose long-term opioids, and 35% were co-prescribed long-term opioids and central nervous system depressants. In multivariable analyses, women with menopausal symptoms had increased odds of long-term opioids (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.18-1.26), high-dose long-term opioids (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02-1.13), and long-term opioids co-prescribed with central nervous system depressants (sedative-hypnotics OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.22-1.30; gabapentin/pregabalin OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.20-1.27; muscle relaxants OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.20-1.28). CONCLUSIONS:Among midlife women Veterans with chronic pain, evidence of menopausal symptoms was associated with potentially risky long-term opioid prescription patterns, independent of known risk factors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Increased long-term prescription of opioids and/or benzodiazepines necessitates evaluating risks associated with their receipt. We sought to evaluate the association between long-term opioids and/or benzodiazepines and mortality in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy and uninfected patients. METHODS:Prospective analysis of all-cause mortality using multivariable methods and propensity score matching among HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy and uninfected patients. RESULTS:Of 64,602 available patients (16,989 HIV-infected and 47,613 uninfected), 27,128 (exposed and unexposed to long-term opioids and/or benzodiazepines) were 1:1 matched by propensity score. The hazard ratio for death was 1.40 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22 to 1.61] for long-term opioid receipt, 1.26 (95% CI: 1.08 to 1.48) for long-term benzodiazepine receipt, and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.26 to 1.92) for long-term opioid and benzodiazepine receipt. There was an interaction (P = 0.01) between long-term opioid receipt and HIV status with mortality. For long-term opioid receipt, the hazard ratio was 1.46 (95% CI: 1.15 to 1.87) among HIV-infected patients, and 1.25 (95% CI: 1.05 to 1.49) among uninfected patients. Mortality risk was increased for patients receiving both long-term opioids and benzodiazepines when opioid doses were ? 20 mg morphine-equivalent daily dose and for patients receiving long-term opioids alone when doses were ? 50 mg morphine-equivalent daily dose. CONCLUSIONS:Long-term opioid receipt was associated with an increased risk of death; especially with long-term benzodiazepine receipt, higher opioid doses, and among HIV-infected patients. Long-term benzodiazepine receipt was associated with an increased risk of death regardless of opioid receipt. Strategies to mitigate risks associated with these medications, and caution when they are coprescribed, are needed particularly in HIV-infected populations.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>We evaluated whether younger age in class is associated with poorer academic performance and an increased risk of being prescribed stimulants for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).<h4>Methods</h4>This was a nationwide population-based cohort study, linking data from national registries of prescribed drugs and standardized scholastic examinations. The study population comprised all children born in 1994-1996 who took standardized tests in Iceland at ages 9 and 12 (n = 11 785). We estimated risks of receiving low test scores (0-10th percentile) and being prescribed stimulants for ADHD. Comparisons were made according to children's relative age in class.<h4>Results</h4>Mean test scores in mathematics and language arts were lowest among the youngest children in the fourth grade, although the gap attenuated in the seventh grade. Compared with the oldest third, those in the youngest third of class had an increased relative risk of receiving a low test score at age 9 for mathematics (1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-2.2) and language arts (1.8; 95% CI 1.6-2.1), whereas at age 12, the relative risk was 1.6 in both subjects. Children in the youngest third of class were 50% more likely (1.5; 95% CI 1.3-1.8) than those in the oldest third to be prescribed stimulants between ages 7 and 14.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Relative age among classmates affects children's academic performance into puberty, as well as their risk of being prescribed stimulants for ADHD. This should be taken into account when evaluating children's performance and behavior in school to prevent unnecessary stimulant treatment.
Project description:Importance:The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines in 2016 recommended avoiding concurrent use of opioids and benzodiazepines. Objective:To determine whether the release of the guidelines was associated with changes in coprescription of opioids and benzodiazepines. Design, Setting, and Participants:This retrospective cohort study used claims data obtained from a US national database of medical and pharmacy claims for 3 598 322 adult commercially insured patients and 1 299 142 Medicare Advantage (MA) beneficiaries with no recent history of cancer, sickle cell disease, or hospice care who ever used prescribed opioids during the study period, January 1, 2014, through March 31, 2018. Exposures:Overlapping opioid and benzodiazepine prescriptions filled. Main Outcomes and Measures:The extent (proportion of person-months with any overlapping days of prescription of opioids and benzodiazepines) and intensity (proportion of days with opioids prescribed where benzodiazepines were also available) of coprescription. Results:Of 4 897 464 patients (with 13.4 million person-months of opioid use), the total number of unique commercially insured individuals was 3 598 322 (1 974 731 women [54.9%]), and the total number of unique MA beneficiaries was 1 299 142 (770 256 women [59.3%]). Among 128 576 participants experiencing chronic pain episodes, more than one-half of person-months of long-term opioid use occurred in women (52.7% of person-months among those with commercial insurance and 62.4% of person-months among MA beneficiaries). The median (interquartile range) age of the participants was 51 (41-58) years for patients in the commercial insurance group and 70 (61-77) years for those in the MA group. The mean (SE) extent of coprescription was 23.0% (0.18%) for the commercial insurance group and 25.7% (0.18%) for the MA group. The extent of coprescription decreased in the targeted guideline population-individuals with long-term opioid use-after the guideline release (postguideline slope, -0.95 percentages point per year [95% CI, -1.44 to -0.46 percentage points per year] for the commercial insurance group and -1.06 percentage points per year [95% CI, -1.49 to -0.63 percentage points per year] for the MA group). Nontargeted short-term episodes of opioid use were associated with no change or small declines in trend (for the MA group, postguideline slope of 0.47 percentage point per year [95% CI, 0.35-0.59 percentage point per year]; for the commercial insurance group, postguideline slope of -0.05 percentage point per year [95% CI, -0.12 to 0.02 percentage point per year]). High coprescribing intensity was seen, with 79.3% (95% CI, 78.9%-79.6%) of opioid prescription days in the commercial insurance group and 83.9% (95% CI, 83.7%-84.2%) in the MA group overlapping with benzodiazepines. There was no change in the intensity of coprescribing. Intensity of coprescription was higher when the same clinician prescribed opioids and benzodiazepines. Conclusion and Relevance:This study observed a reduction in the extent but not intensity of coprescribing of benzodiazepines for patients with long-term opioid use.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>Hypocalcemia is a common complication of total thyroidectomy.<h4>Objectives</h4>To identify factors associated with hypocalcemia after total thyroidectomy and to explore the association between hypocalcemia, magnesium disorders, and costs of care.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was performed using data from the MarketScan Commercial Claim and Encounters database on 126?766 commercially insured patients younger than 65 years undergoing total thyroidectomy between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2012. Statistical analysis was performed from January 1, 2016, to May 30, 2019.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>Short- and long-term hypocalcemia and the costs of care were examined using multivariable regression modeling.<h4>Results</h4>Among the 126?766 patients in the study (81.6% women; mean age, 46.5 years [range, 18-64 years]), postoperative hypocalcemia was present in 19.1% of patients in the initial 30-day postoperative period and in 4.4% of patients at 1 year. Magnesium disorders were present in 2.1% of patients at the time of surgery. Short- and long-term hypocalcemia were significantly more likely in women (short-term: odds ratio [OR], 1.39 [95% CI, 1.29-1.50]; long-term: OR, 1.69 [95% CI, 1.52-1.89]), those younger than 40 years (short-term: OR for ages 40-64 years, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.78-0.87]; long-term: OR for ages 40-64 years, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.67-0.79]), those with a diagnosis of thyroiditis (short-term: OR, 1.48 [95% CI, 1.16-1.89]; long-term: OR, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.13-2.26]) or cancer (short-term: OR, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.05-1.67]; long-term: OR, 1.17 [95% CI, 0.83-1.63]), vitamin D deficiency (short-term: OR, 1.96 [95% CI, 1.74-2.21]; long-term: OR, 3.72 [95% CI, 3.30-4.18]), concurrent lateral neck dissection (short-term: OR, 1.51 [95% CI, 1.37-1.66]; long-term: OR, 1.95 [95% CI, 1.69-2.26]), concurrent central neck dissection (short-term: OR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.07-1.24]; long-term: OR, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.12-1.40]), intraoperative parathyroid (short-term: OR, 1.58 [95% CI, 1.46-1.71]; and long-term: OR, 2.05 [95% CI, 1.82-2.31]) or recurrent laryngeal nerve injury (short-term: OR, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.27-1.74]; long-term: OR, 2.04 [95% CI, 1.64-2.54]), and magnesium disorders (short-term: OR, 8.40 [95% CI, 7.21-9.79]; long-term: OR, 25.23 [95% CI, 19.80-32.17]). Compared with the initial postoperative period, the odds of hypocalcemia decreased by 90.0% (OR, 0.10 [95% CI, 0.09-0.11]) at 6 months and 93.0% (OR, 0.07 [95% CI, 0.06-0.08]) at 1 year. After controlling for all other variables, magnesium disorders were associated with the highest odds of short- and long-term postoperative hypocalcemia. Hypocalcemia ($3392) and magnesium disorders ($14?314) were associated with increased mean incremental 1-year costs of care.<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>Hypocalcemia is common after total thyroidectomy but resolves in most patients by 1 year. Magnesium disorders are significantly independently associated with short- and long-term hypocalcemia and are associated with greater costs of care. These data suggest a potentially modifiable target to reduce the incidence and cost of long-term hypocalcemia at patient and systemic levels.
Project description:Objectives:The aim of this study is to identify prognostic factors of persistent disease activity and long quiescence in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods:Patients enrolled in the Hopkins Lupus Cohort from 1987 to 2012, who attended at least three visits per year during 3 consecutive years following baseline and had available information on disease activity were included. Patterns of SLE disease activity over the 3-year period were defined as: persistent long quiescent (pLQ), persistent relapsing-remitting (pRR), persistent chronic active (pCA) and mixed based on Modified SLE Disease Activity Index (M-SLEDAI). Possible predictors of pCA (vs pLQ, pRR and mixed) and pLQ (vs pCA, pRR and mixed) were identified by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results:916 patients were included. In the multivariate analysis, use of hydroxychloroquine (OR: 0.45, 95% ?CI 0.22 to 0.92, p=0.03), African American ethnicity (OR: 2.36, 95% ?CI 1.15 to 4.85, p=0.02) and baseline SLEDAI (OR: 1.10, 95% ?CI 1.03 to 1.17, p=0.005) remained significant predictors of pCA. Higher education (>12 years; OR. 2.07, 95% ?CI 1.07 to 4.03, p=0.03) and lower baseline SLEDAI (OR: 0.67, 95% ?CI 0.56 to 0.82, p<0.001) were significant predictors of pLQ, while African American (OR: 0.38, 95% ?CI 0.17 to 0.83, p=0.02) and female patients (OR: 0.26, 95% ?CI 0.12 to 0.57, p<0.001) were less likely to achieve pLQ. Conclusion:African American ethnicity and high disease activity at baseline predict chronic activity in SLE, regardless of treatment, years of education and income. Higher education, low disease activity at baseline and male sex predict long quiescence. The use of hydroxychloroquine is independently associated with a lower risk of chronically active disease.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In mid-2016, the College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia (CPSBC) issued prescribing standards and guidelines relating to opioid drugs. We evaluated the impact of these regulatory standards and guidelines on prescription drug use among patients in the province with long-term opioid use.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a cohort study with monthly repeated measures using administrative health data in British Columbia. Patients with long-term prescription opioid use were followed for a 12-month prepolicy period and 10-month postpolicy period, and were compared with a historical control cohort. We excluded patients with a history of long-term care, palliative care or cancer. We estimated changes in use of opioids, high-dose opioids (> 90 mg of morphine equivalents/d), opioids with sedatives/hypnotics, and opioid discontinuation.<h4>Results</h4>The study population included 68 113 patients in the policy cohort and 68 429 patients in the historical control cohort. Following the introduction of the standards and guidelines, the average monthly use of opioids declined (adjusted difference -57 mg of morphine equivalents, 95% confidence interval [CI] -74 to -39) and discontinuation of opioids increased (odds ratio [OR] 1.24, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.32). Among patients prescribed high-dose opioids, switching to lower-dose opioids increased (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.63 to 2.17), but discontinuation did not change significantly (OR 1.21, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.59).<h4>Interpretation</h4>The CPSBC's regulatory standards and guidelines were associated with modestly reduced opioid use and increased switching from high-dose to lower-dose opioids among patients with long-term use of prescribed opioids. Assessment of the potential impacts on health outcomes will be necessary for understanding the implications of the standards and guidelines.