Teaching an old dog new tricks: next-generation CAR T cells.
ABSTRACT: Adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) refers to the therapeutic use of T cells. T cells genetically engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) constitute the most clinically advanced form of ACT approved to date for the treatment of CD19-positive leukaemias and lymphomas. CARs are synthetic receptors that are able to confer antigen-binding and activating functions on T cells with the aim of therapeutically targeting cancer cells. Several factors are essential for CAR T cell therapy to be effective, such as recruitment, activation, expansion and persistence of bioengineered T cells at the tumour site. Despite the advances made in CAR T cell therapy, however, most tumour entities still escape immune detection and elimination. A number of strategies counteracting these problems will need to be addressed in order to render T cell therapy effective in more situations than currently possible. Non-haematological tumours are also the subject of active investigation, but ACT has so far shown only marginal success rates in these cases. New approaches are needed to enhance the ability of ACT to target solid tumours without increasing toxicity, by improving recognition, infiltration, and persistence within tumours, as well as an enhanced resistance to the suppressive tumour microenvironment.
Project description:Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has shown promise in the treatment of haematological cancers and is currently being investigated for solid tumours, including high-grade glioma brain tumours. There is a desperate need to quantitatively study the factors that contribute to the efficacy of CAR T-cell therapy in solid tumours. In this work, we use a mathematical model of predator-prey dynamics to explore the kinetics of CAR T-cell killing in glioma: the Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell treatment Response in GliOma (CARRGO) model. The model includes rates of cancer cell proliferation, CAR T-cell killing, proliferation, exhaustion, and persistence. We use patient-derived and engineered cancer cell lines with an in vitro real-time cell analyser to parametrize the CARRGO model. We observe that CAR T-cell dose correlates inversely with the killing rate and correlates directly with the net rate of proliferation and exhaustion. This suggests that at a lower dose of CAR T-cells, individual T-cells kill more cancer cells but become more exhausted when compared with higher doses. Furthermore, the exhaustion rate was observed to increase significantly with tumour growth rate and was dependent on level of antigen expression. The CARRGO model highlights nonlinear dynamics involved in CAR T-cell therapy and provides novel insights into the kinetics of CAR T-cell killing. The model suggests that CAR T-cell treatment may be tailored to individual tumour characteristics including tumour growth rate and antigen level to maximize therapeutic benefit.
Project description:With the approval of talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) for inoperable locally advanced or metastatic malignant melanoma in the USA and Europe, oncolytic virotherapy is now emerging as a viable therapeutic option for cancer patients. In parallel, following the favourable results of several clinical trials, adoptive cell transfer using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-redirected T-cells is anticipated to enter routine clinical practice for the management of chemotherapy-refractory B-cell malignancies. However, CAR T-cell therapy for patients with advanced solid tumours has proved far less successful. This Review draws upon recent advances in the design of novel oncolytic viruses and CAR T-cells and provides a comprehensive overview of the synergistic potential of combination oncolytic virotherapy with CAR T-cell adoptive cell transfer for the management of solid tumours, drawing particular attention to the methods by which recombinant oncolytic viruses may augment CAR T-cell trafficking into the tumour microenvironment, mitigate or reverse local immunosuppression and enhance CAR T-cell effector function and persistence.
Project description:Although adoptive T-cell therapy has shown remarkable clinical efficacy in haematological malignancies, its success in combating solid tumours has been limited. Here, we report that PTPN2 deletion in T cells enhances cancer immunosurveillance and the efficacy of adoptively transferred tumour-specific T cells. T-cell-specific PTPN2 deficiency prevented tumours forming in aged mice heterozygous for the tumour suppressor p53. Adoptive transfer of PTPN2-deficient CD8+ T cells markedly repressed tumour formation in mice bearing mammary tumours. Moreover, PTPN2 deletion in T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the oncoprotein HER-2 increased the activation of the Src family kinase LCK and cytokine-induced STAT-5 signalling, thereby enhancing both CAR T-cell activation and homing to CXCL9/10-expressing tumours to eradicate HER-2+ mammary tumours in vivo. Our findings define PTPN2 as a target for bolstering T-cell-mediated anti-tumour immunity and CAR T-cell therapy against solid tumours.
2020-01-01 | S-EPMC6960448 | BioStudies
Project description:Although adoptive T cell therapy has shown remarkable clinical efficacy in hematological malignancies, its success in combating solid tumours has been limited. Here we report that PTPN2 deletion in T cells enhances cancer immunosurveillance and the efficacy of adoptively transferred tumour-specific T cells. T cell-specific PTPN2 deficiency prevented tumours forming in aged mice heterozygous for the tumour suppressor p53. Adoptive transfer of PTPN2-deficient CD8+ T cells markedly repressed tumour formation in mice bearing mammary tumours. Moreover, PTPN2 deletion in T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for the oncoprotein HER-2 increased the activation of the Src family kinase LCK and cytokine-induced STAT-5 signalling, thereby enhancing both CAR-T cell activation and homing to CXCL9/10 expressing tumours to eradicate HER-2+ mammary tumours in vivo. Our findings define PTPN2 as a target for bolstering T-cell mediated anti-tumour immunity and CAR-T cell therapy against solid tumours.
Project description:Engineering T-cells to express receptors specific for antigens present on tumour tissue is proving a highly effective treatment for some leukaemias. However, extending this to solid tumours requires antigens that can be safely and effectively targeted. TEM8, a marker overexpressed on the vasculature of some solid tumours, has been proposed as one such target. A recent report stated that T-cells engineered to express a TEM8-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), when injected into mouse models of triple negative breast cancer, are both safe and effective in controlling tumour growth. Here we report contrasting data with a panel of TEM8-specific CAR-T-cells including one generated from the same antibody used in the other study. We found that the CAR-T-cells demonstrated clear TEM8-specific cytotoxic and cytokine release responses in vitro, but when injected into healthy C57BL6 and NSG mice they rapidly and selectively disappeared from the circulation and in most cases caused rapid toxicity. Infusing CAR-T-cells into a TEM8-knockout mouse indicated that selective loss of cells from the circulation was due to targeting of TEM8 in healthy tissues. Histological analysis of mice treated with a TEM8-specific CAR revealed evidence of inflammation in the lung and spleen with large collections of infiltrating neutrophils. Therefore our data raise concerns over potential on-target off-tumour toxicity with CARs targeting TEM8 and these should be considered carefully before embarking upon clinical trials with such agents.
Project description:Natural Killer (NK) cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells are two types of immune cells that can kill target cells through similar cytotoxic mechanisms. With the remarkable success of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T (CAR-T) cells for treating haematological malignancies, there is a rapid growing interest in developing CAR-engineered NK (CAR-NK) cells for cancer therapy. Compared to CAR-T cells, CAR-NK cells could offer some significant advantages, including: (1) better safety, such as a lack or minimal cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity in autologous setting and graft-versus-host disease in allogenic setting, (2) multiple mechanisms for activating cytotoxic activity, and (3) high feasibility for 'off-the-shelf' manufacturing. CAR-NK cells could be engineered to target diverse antigens, enhance proliferation and persistence in vivo, increase infiltration into solid tumours, overcome resistant tumour microenvironment, and ultimately achieve an effective anti-tumour response. In this review, we focus on recent progress in genetic engineering and clinical application of CAR-NK cells, and discuss current challenges and future promise of CAR-NK cells as a novel cellular immunotherapy in cancer.
Project description:Chimaeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies, as one of the cancer immunotherapies, have heralded a new era of treating cancer. The accumulating data, especially about CAR-modified T cells against CD19 support that CAR T-cell therapy is a highly effective immune therapy for B-cell malignancies. Apart from CD19, there have been many trials of CAR T cells directed other tumour specific or associated antigens (TSAs/TAAs) in haematologic malignancies and solid tumours. This review will briefly summarize basic CAR structure, parts of reported TSAs/TAAs, results of the clinical trials of CAR T-cell therapies as well as two life-threatening side effects. Experiments in vivo or in vitro, ongoing clinical trials and the outlook for CAR T-cell therapies also be included. Our future efforts will focus on identification of more viable cancer targets and more strategies to make CAR T-cell therapy safer.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Patients with relapsed or refractory malignancies have a poor prognosis. Immunotherapy with chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells redirects a patient's immune cells against the tumour antigen. CAR-T cell therapy has demonstrated promise in treating patients with several haematological malignancies, including acute B-cell lymphoblastic leukaemia and B-cell lymphomas. CAR-T cell therapy for patients with other solid tumours is also being tested. Safety is an important consideration in CAR-T cell therapy given the potential for serious adverse events, including death. Previous reviews on CAR-T cell therapy have been limited in scope and methodology. Herein, we present a protocol for a systematic review to identify CAR-T cell interventional studies and examine the safety and efficacy of this therapy in patients with haematology malignancies and solid tumours. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:We will search MEDLINE, including In-Process and Epub Ahead of Print, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1946 to 22 February 2017. Studies will be screened by title, abstract and full text independently and in duplicate. Studies that report administering CAR-T cells of any chimeric antigen receptor construct targeting antigens in patients with haematological malignancies and solid tumours will be eligible for inclusion. Outcomes to be extracted will include complete response rate (primary outcome), overall response rate, overall survival, relapse and adverse events. A meta-analysis will be performed to synthesise the prevalence of outcomes reported as proportions with 95% CIs. The potential for bias within included studies will be assessed using a modified Institute of Health Economics tool. Heterogeneity of effect sizes will be determined using the Cochrane I 2 statistic. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The review findings will be submitted for peer-reviewed journal publication and presented at relevant conferences and scientific meetings to promote knowledge transfer. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42017075331.
Project description:Immunotherapy of cancer had its early beginnings in the times when the elements of the immune system were still poorly characterized. However, with the progress in molecular biology, it has become feasible to re-engineer T cells in order to eradicate tumour cells. The use of synthetic chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) helped to re-target and simultaneously unleash the cytotoxic potential of T cells. CAR-T therapy proved to be remarkably effective in cases of haematological malignancies, often refractory and relapsed. The success of this approach yielded two Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals for the first "living drug" modalities. However, CAR-T therapy is not without flaws. Apart from the side effects associated with the treatment, it became apparent that CAR introduction alters T cell biology and the possible therapeutic outcomes. Additionally, it was shown that CAR-T approaches in solid tumours do not recapitulate the success in the haemato-oncology. Therefore, in this review, we aim to discuss the recent concerns of CAR-T therapy for both haematological and solid tumours. We also summarise the general strategies that are implemented to enhance the efficacy and safety of the CAR-T regimens in blood and solid malignancies.
Project description:Effective adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) comprises the killing of cancer cells through the therapeutic use of transferred T cells. One of the main ACT approaches is chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy. CAR T cells mediate MHC-unrestricted tumor cell killing by enabling T cells to bind target cell surface antigens through a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) recognition domain. Upon engagement, CAR T cells form a non-classical immune synapse (IS), required for their effector function. These cells then mediate their anti-tumoral effects through the perforin and granzyme axis, the Fas and Fas ligand axis, as well as the release of cytokines to sensitize the tumor stroma. Their persistence in the host and functional outputs are tightly dependent on the receptor's individual components-scFv, spacer domain, and costimulatory domains-and how said component functions converge to augment CAR T cell performance. In this review, we bring forth the successes and limitations of CAR T cell therapy. We delve further into the current understanding of how CAR T cells are designed to function, survive, and ultimately mediate their anti-tumoral effects.