Characterization and complete genome analysis of the surfactin-producing, plant-protecting bacterium Bacillus velezensis 9D-6.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Bacillus velezensis is an endospore-forming, free-living soil bacterium with potential as a biopesticide against a broad spectrum of microbial pathogens of plants. Its potential for commercial development is enhanced by rapid replication and resistance to adverse environmental conditions, typical of Bacillus species. However, the use of beneficial microbes against phytopathogens has not gained dominance due to limitations that may be overcome with new biopesticidal strains and/or new biological knowledge. RESULTS:Here, we isolated B. velezensis strain 9D-6 and showed that it inhibits the in vitro growth of prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, including the bacteria Bacillus cereus , Clavibacter michiganensis, Pantoea agglomerans, Ralstonia solanacearum, Xanthomonas campestris, and Xanthomonas euvesicatoria; and the fungi Alternaria solani, Cochliobolus carbonum, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Gibberella pulicaris, Gibberella zeae, Monilinia fructicola, Pyrenochaeta terrestris and Rhizoctonia solani. Antimicrobial compounds with activity against Clavibacter michiganensis were isolated from B. velezensis 9D-6 and characterized by high resolution LC-MS/MS, yielding formulae of C52H91N7O13 and C53H93N7O13, which correspond to [Leu7] surfactins C14 and C15 (also called surfactin B and surfactin C), respectively. We further sequenced the B. velezensis 9D-6 genome which consists of a single circular chromosome and revealed 13 gene clusters expected to participate in antimicrobial metabolite production, including surfactin and two metabolites that have not typically been found in this species - ladderane and lantipeptide. Despite being unable to inhibit the growth of Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 in an in vitro plate assay, B. velezensis 9D-6 significantly reduced root colonization by DC3000, suggesting that 9D-6 uses methods other than antimicrobials to control phytopathogens in the environment. Finally, using in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (isDDH), we confirm previous findings that many strains currently classified as B. amyloliquefaciens are actually B. velezensis. CONCLUSIONS:The data presented here suggest B. velezensis 9D-6 as a candidate plant growth promoting bacterium (PGPB) and biopesticide, which uses a unique complement of antimicrobials, as well as other mechanisms, to protect plants against phytopathogens. Our results may contribute to future utilization of this strain, and will contribute to a knowledge base that will help to advance the field of microbial biocontrol.
Project description:A Bacillus velezensis strain from the rhizosphere of Sporobolus airoides (Torr.) Torr., a grass in central-north México, was isolated during a biocontrol of phytopathogens scrutiny study. The 2A-2B strain exhibited at least 60% of growth inhibition of virulent isolates of phytopathogens causing root rot. These phytopathogens include Phytophthora capsici, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani. Furthermore, the 2A-2B strain is an indolacetic acid producer, and a plant inducer of PR1, which is an induced systemic resistance related gene in chili pepper plantlets. Whole genome sequencing was performed to generate a draft genome assembly of 3.953 MB with 46.36% of GC content, and a N50 of 294,737. The genome contains 3713 protein coding genes and 89 RNA genes. Moreover, comparative genome analysis revealed that the 2A-2B strain had the greatest identity (98.4%) with Bacillus velezensis.
Project description:Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis is a Gram-positive actinomycete that is the causative agent of the potato disease ring rot. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of the Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis siphophage CN1A. CN1A is only the second fully sequenced Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis phage reported to date. Core and unique features of its genome are described.
Project description:The genus Clavibacter comprises one species and five subspecies of plant-pathogenic bacteria, four of which are classified as quarantine organisms due to the high economic threat they pose. Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is one of the most important pathogens of tomato, but the recommended diagnostic tools are not satisfactory due to false-negative and/or -positive results. To provide a robust analysis of the genetic relatedness among a worldwide collection of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains, relatives (strains from the four other C. michiganensis subspecies), and nonpathogenic Clavibacter-like strains isolated from tomato, we performed multilocus sequence-based analysis and typing (MLSA and MLST) based on six housekeeping genes (atpD, dnaK, gyrB, ppK, recA, and rpoB). We compared this "framework" with phenotypic and genotypic characteristics such as pathogenicity on tomato, reaction to two antisera by immunofluorescence and to five PCR identification tests, and the presence of four genes encoding the main C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis pathogenicity determinants. We showed that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is monophyletic and is distinct from its closest taxonomic neighbors. The nonpathogenic Clavibacter-like strains were identified as C. michiganensis using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These strains, while cross-reacting with C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis identification tools, are phylogenetically distinct from the pathogenic strains but belong to the C. michiganensis clade. C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis clonal complexes linked strains from highly diverse geographical origins and also strains isolated over long periods of time in the same location. This illustrates the importance of seed transmission in the worldwide dispersion of this pathogen and its survival and adaptation abilities in a new environment once introduced.
Project description:Members of the genus Clavibacter are economically important bacterial plant pathogens infecting a set of diverse agricultural crops (e.g., alfalfa, corn, potato, tomato, and wheat). Tomato-associated Clavibacter sp. strains account for a great portion of the genetic diversity of the genus, and C. michiganensis sensu stricto (formerly C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis), causing bacterial canker disease, is considered one of the most destructive seed-borne agents for the crop worldwide. However, current taxonomic descriptions of the genus do not reflect the existing diversity of the strains, resulting in unsatisfactory results in quarantine surveys for the pathogens. In this study, we used all the available genome sequences of Clavibacter sp. strains, including the type strains of newly described subspecies, to provide precise insight into the diversity of tomato-associated members of the genus and further clarify the taxonomic status of the strains using genotypic and phenotypic features. The results of phylogenetic analyses revealed the existence of nine hypothetical new species among the investigated strains. None of the three new subspecies (i.e., C. michiganensis subsp. californiensis, C. michiganensis subsp. chilensis, and C. michiganensis subsp. phaseoli) is included within the tomato-pathogenic C. michiganensis sensu stricto lineage. Although comparative genomics revealed the lack of chp and tomA pathogenicity determinant gene clusters in the nonpathogenic strains, a number of pathogenicity-related genes were noted to be present in all the strains regardless of their pathogenicity characteristics. Altogether, our results indicate a need for a formal taxonomic reconsideration of tomato-associated Clavibacter sp. strains to facilitate differentiation of the lineages in quarantine inspections.IMPORTANCE Clavibacter spp. are economically important bacterial plant pathogens infecting a set of diverse agricultural crops, such as alfalfa, corn, pepper, potato, tomato, and wheat. A number of plant-pathogenic members of the genus (e.g., C. michiganensis sensu stricto and C. sepedonicus, infecting tomato and potato plants, respectively) are included in the A2 (high-risk) list of quarantine pathogens by the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO). Although tomato-associated members of Clavibacter spp. account for a significant portion of the genetic diversity in the genus, only the strains belonging to C. michiganensis sensu stricto (formerly C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis) cause bacterial canker disease of tomato and are subjected to the quarantine inspections. Hence, discrimination between the pathogenic and nonpathogenic Clavibacter sp. strains associated with tomato seeds and transplants plays a pivotal role in the accurate detection and cost-efficient management of the disease. On the other hand, detailed information on the genetic contents of different lineages of the genus would lead to the development of genome-informed specific detection techniques. In this study, we have provided an overview of the phylogenetic and genomic differences between the pathogenic and nonpathogenic tomato-associated Clavibacter sp. strains. We also noted that the taxonomic status of newly introduced subspecies of C. michiganensis (i.e., C. michiganensis subsp. californiensis, C. michiganensis subsp. chilensis, and C. michiganensis subsp. phaseoli) should be reconsidered.
Project description:Bacillus velezensis 83 was isolated from mango tree phyllosphere of orchards located in El Rosario, Sinaloa, México. The assessment of this strain as BCA (biological control agent), as well as PGPB (plant growth-promoting bacteria), were demonstrated through in vivo and in vitro assays. In vivo assays showed that B. velezensis 83 was able to control anthracnose (Kent mangoes) as efficiently as chemical treatment with Captan 50 PH™ or Cupravit hidro™. The inoculation of B. velezensis 83 to the roots of maize seedlings yielded an increase of 12% in height and 45% of root biomass, as compared with uninoculated seedlings. In vitro co-culture assays showed that B. velezensis 83 promoted Arabidopsis thaliana growth (root and shoot biomass) while, under the same experimental conditions, B. velezensis FZB42 (reference strain) had a suppressive effect on plant growth. In order to characterize the isolated strain, the complete genome sequence of B. velezensis 83 is reported. Its circular genome consists of 3,997,902 bp coding to 3949 predicted genes. The assembly and annotation of this genome revealed gene clusters related with plant-bacteria interaction and sporulation, as well as ten secondary metabolites biosynthetic gene clusters implicated in the biological control of phytopathogens. Despite the high genomic identity (>?98%) between B. velezensis 83 and B. velezensis FZB42, they are phenotypically different. Indeed, in vitro production of compounds such as surfactin and bacillomycin D (biocontrol activity) and ?-PGA (biofilm component) is significantly different between both strains.
Project description:Although the genus Clavibacter was originally proposed to accommodate all phytopathogenic coryneform bacteria containing B2? diaminobutyrate in the peptidoglycan, reclassification of all but one species into other genera has resulted in the current monospecific status of the genus. The single species in the genus, Clavibacter michiganensis, has multiple subspecies, which are all highly host-specific plant pathogens. Whole genome analysis based on average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization as well as multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) of seven housekeeping genes support raising each of the C. michiganensis subspecies to species status. On the basis of whole genome and MLSA data, we propose the establishment of two new species and three new combinations: Clavibacter capsici sp. nov., comb. nov. and Clavibacter tessellarius sp. nov., comb. nov., and Clavibacter insidiosus comb. nov., Clavibacter nebraskensis comb. nov. and Clavibacter sepedonicus comb. nov.
Project description:Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) provide an effective and environmentally sustainable method to protect crops against pathogens. The spore-forming Bacilli are attractive PGPR due to their ease of storage and application. Here, we characterized two rhizosphere-associated Bacillus velezensis isolates (Y6 and F7) that possess strong antagonistic activity against Ralstonia solanacearum and Fusarium oxysporum under both laboratory and greenhouse conditions. We identified three lipopeptide (LP) compounds (surfactin, iturin and fengycin) as responsible for the antimicrobial activity of these two strains. We further dissected the contribution of LPs to various biological processes important for rhizosphere colonization. Although either iturin or fengycin is sufficient for antibacterial activity, cell motility and biofilm formation, only iturin plays a primary role in defense against the fungal pathogen F. oxysporum. Additionally, we found that LP production is significantly stimulated during interaction with R. solanacearum. These results demonstrate the different roles of LPs in the biology of B. velezensis and highlight the potential of these two isolates as biocontrol agents against phytopathogens.
Project description:Pepper and tomato plants infected with two Clavibacter species, C. capsici and C. michiganensis have shown different patterns of disease development depending on their virulence. Here, we investigated how pepper and tomato plants respond to infection by the high-virulent or low-virulent Clavibacter strains. For this, we chose two strains of each Clavibacter species to show different virulence level in the host plants. Although low-virulent strains showed less disease symptoms, they grew almost the same level as the high-virulent strains in both plants. To further examine the response of host plants to Clavibacter infection, we analyzed the expression patterns of plant defense-related genes in the leaves inoculated with different strains of C. capsici and C. michiganensis. Pepper plants infected with high-virulent C. capsici strain highly induced the expression of CaPR1, CaDEF, CaPR4b, CaPR10, and CaLOX1 at 5 days after inoculation (dai), but their expression was much less in low-virulent Clavibacter infection. Expression of CaSAR8.2 was induced at 2 dai, regardless of virulence level. Expression of GluA, Pin2, and PR2 in tomato plants infected with high-virulent C. michiganensis were much higher at 5 dai, compared with mock or low-virulent strain. Expression of PR1a, Osmotin-like, Chitinase, and Chitinase class 2 was increased, regardless of virulence level. Expression of LoxA gene was not affected by Clavibacter inoculation. These results suggested that Clavibacter infection promotes induction of certain defense-related genes in host plants and that differential expression of those genes by low-virulent Clavibacter infection might be affected by their endophytic lifestyle in plants.
Project description:It has previously been shown that the tomato pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis secretes a 14-kDa protein, C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis AMP-I (CmmAMP-I), that inhibits growth of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, the causal agent of bacterial ring rot of potato. Using sequences obtained from tryptic fragments, we have identified the gene encoding CmmAMP-I and we have recombinantly produced the protein with an N-terminal intein tag. The gene sequence showed that CmmAMP-I contains a typical N-terminal signal peptide for Sec-dependent secretion. The recombinant protein was highly active, with 50% growth inhibition (IC50) of approximately 10 pmol, but was not toxic to potato leaves or tubers. CmmAMP-I does not resemble any known protein and thus represents a completely new type of bacteriocin. Due to its high antimicrobial activity and its very narrow inhibitory spectrum, CmmAMP-1 may be of interest in combating potato ring rot disease.
Project description:A multiplex real-time PCR method based on fluorescent TaqMan® probes was developed for the simultaneous detection of the tomato pathogenic bacteria Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and bacterial spot-causing xanthomonads. The specificity of the multiplex assay was validated on 44 bacterial strains, including 32 target pathogen strains as well as closely related species and nontarget tomato pathogenic bacteria. The designed multiplex real-time PCR showed high sensitivity when positive amplification was observed for one pg of bacterial DNA in the cases of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato bacteria and 100 pg for bacterial spot-causing xanthomonads. The reliability of the developed multiplex real-time PCR assay for in planta detection was verified by recognition of the target pathogens in 18 tomato plants artificially inoculated by each of the target bacteria and tomato samples from production greenhouses.