Near-Infrared Photothermal Release of siRNA from the Surface of Colloidal Gold-Silver-Gold Core-Shell-Shell Nanoparticles Studied with Second-Harmonic Generation.
ABSTRACT: Photothermal release of oligonucleotides from the surface of plasmonic nanoparticles represents a promising platform for spatiotemporal controlled drug delivery. Here we demonstrate the use of novel gold-silver-gold core-shell-shell (CSS) nanoparticles to study the photothermal cleaving and release of micro-RNA (miRNA) mimics or small interfering RNA (siRNA) under nearinfrared (NIR) irradiation. The furan-maleimide-based Diels-Alder adduct cleaves thermally above 60 °C and is used to bind siRNA to the colloidal nanoparticle surface in water. We investigate the photothermal cleaving kinetics of siRNA under different NIR laser powers using surface-sensitive time-dependent second-harmonic generation (SHG) spectroscopy. The photothermal release of siRNA from the surface of CSS nanoparticles is significantly higher than that from the surface of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) under similar experimental conditions. These results demonstrate that plasmonic CSS nanoparticles with photothermal cleaving linkers have important potential applications for nanoparticle-based NIR-mediated drug-delivery systems.
Project description:The hierarchical assembly of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) allows the localized surface plasmon resonance peaks to be engineered to the near-infrared (NIR) region for enhanced photothermal therapy (PTT). Herein we report a novel theranostic platform based on biodegradable plasmonic gold nanovesicles for photoacoustic (PA) imaging and PTT. The disulfide bond at the terminus of a PEG-b-PCL block-copolymer graft enables dense packing of GNPs during the assembly process and induces ultrastrong plasmonic coupling between adjacent GNPs. The strong NIR absorption induced by plasmon coupling and very high photothermal conversion efficiency (?=37%) enable simultaneous thermal/PA imaging and enhanced PTT efficacy with improved clearance of the dissociated particles after the completion of PTT. The assembly of various nanocrystals with tailored optical, magnetic, and electronic properties into vesicle architectures opens new possibilities for the construction of multifunctional biodegradable platforms for biomedical applications.
Project description:Plasmonic-mediated photothermal heating under near-infrared (NIR) irradiation is an emerging key technology in the field of photothermal therapy and chemical reactions. However, there are few reports of photothermal film (dry-type patch), and thus, in this work, we developed the plasmonic-induced photothermal cellulose-patch operating in the NIR region. Hollow and spikelike gold nanostructures, gold-spikes, as plasmonic nanoparticles were prepared and decorated on silica microrods, which were prepared based on a unicellular organism, Escherichia coli, as a framework. In addition, freestanding cellulose-patch was prepared by mixing filter-paper pulp and armored golden E. coli (AGE) microrods. The major absorbing peak of AGE solution was revealed to be 873 nm, and the surface temperature of patch was increased to 264 °C within a very short time (1 min). When NIR laser was irradiated on the patch dipped in the water, the formation of water vapor and air bubbles was observed. The heating efficiency of indirect heat transfer via conduction from patch-to-water was 35.0%, while that of direct heat transfer via radiation from patch in water was 86.1%. Therefore, the cellulose-patch containing AGE microrods has possible applicability to desalination and sterilization because of its fast heating rate and high light-to-heat conversion under the irradiation of low-powered IR laser.
Project description:The unique photothermal properties of non-spherical gold nanoparticles under near-infrared (NIR) irradiation find broad application in nanotechnology and nanomedicine. The combination of their plasmonic features with widely used biocompatible poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) films can lead to novel hybrid polymeric materials with tunable photothermal properties and a wide range of applications. In this study, thin PVA films containing highly photothermally efficient gold nanostars (GNSs) were fabricated and their properties were studied. The resulting films displayed good mechanical properties and a pronounced photothermal effect under NIR irradiation. The local photothermal effect triggered by NIR irradiation of the PVA-GNS films is highly efficient at killing bacteria, therefore providing an opportunity to develop new types of protective antibacterial films and coatings.
Project description:Rational: p53 is suppressing tumor protein correlated with the cell cycle factors and apoptosis. Here, a gold nanoparticle bouquet is designed for an ultrasensitive dark-field imaging approach for cancer cell analysis. Methods: AuNP60/APBA is functionalized by a gold nanoparticle bouquet-plasmonic 60 nm gold nanoparticles. And consistent APBA can be held on the plasma membrane. After 13 nm gold nanoparticles are functionalized with mannose (AuNP13/MN), the AuNP60/APBA gold nanoparticles are captured. The absorption spectrum of aggregation gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) shifts to near-infrared (NIR) region which can be observed under dark-field microscopy (DFM) and is treated the subsequent with photothermal therapy. Results: The results that MCF-7 cells were successfully destroyed under the near-infrared (NIR) irradiation and the intracellular WTp53 increased while the MTp53 decreased. These results indicated that p53 is the key molecule in the apoptosis signaling pathway. Photothermal therapy can stimulate the MTp53 in the cell signal conductive pathway. Conclusion: This work offers a new method for intracellular p53 analysis and a potential targeted cancer treatment.
Project description:The search for efficient plasmonic photothermal therapies using nonharmful pulse laser irradiation at the near-infrared (NIR) is fundamental for biomedical cancer research. Therefore, the development of novel assembled plasmonic gold nanostructures with the aim of reducing the applied laser power density to a minimum through hot-spot-mediated cell photothermolysis is an ongoing challenge. We demonstrate that gold nanorods (Au NRs) functionalized at their tips with a pH-sensitive ligand assemble into oligomers within cell lysosomes through hydrogen-bonding attractive interactions. The unique intracellular features of the plasmonic oligomers allow us to significantly reduce the femtosecond laser power density and Au NR dose while still achieving excellent cell killing rates. The formation of gold tip-to-tip oligomers with longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance bands at the NIR, obtained from low-aspect-ratio Au NRs close in resonance with 800 nm Ti:sapphire 90 fs laser pulses, was found to be the key parameter for realizing the enhanced plasmonic photothermal therapy.
Project description:NIR-II plasmonic materials offer multiple functionalities for in vivo biomedical applications, such as photothermal tumor ablation, surface-enhanced Raman scattering biosensing, photoacoustic imaging, and drug carriers. However, integration of noble metals and plasmonic semiconductors is greatly challenging because of the large lattice-mismatch. This study reports the regioselective overgrowth of Cu2-xSe on gold nanorods (GNRs) for preparation of dual-plasmonic GNR@Cu2-xSe hybrid heterostructures with tunable NIR-II plasmon resonance absorption for in vivo photothermal tumor ablation. Methods: The regioselective deposition of amorphous Se and its subsequent conversion into Cu2-xSe on the GNRs are performed by altering capping agents to produce the GNR@Cu2-xSe heterostructures of various morphologies. Their photothermal performances for NIR-II photothermal tumor ablation are evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Results: We find that the lateral one- and two-side deposition, conformal core-shell coating and island growth of Cu2-xSe on the GNRs can be achieved using different capping agents. The Cu2-xSe domain size in these hybrids can be effectively adjusted by the SeO2 concentration, thereby tuning the NIR-II plasmon bands. A photothermal conversion efficiency up to 58-85% and superior photostability of these dual-plasmonic hybrids can be achieved under the NIR-II laser. Results also show that the photothermal conversion efficiency is dependent on the proportion of optical absorption converted into heat; however, the temperature rise is tightly related to the concentration of their constituents. The excellent NIR-II photothermal effect is further verified in the following in vitro and in vivo experiments. Conclusions: This study achieves one-side or two-side deposition, conformal core-shell coating, and island deposition of Cu2-xSe on GNRs for GNR@Cu2-xSe heterostructures with NIR-II plasmonic absorption, and further demonstrates their excellent NIR-II photothermal tumor ablation in vivo. This study provides a promising strategy for the rational design of NIR-II dual-plasmonic heterostructures and highlights their therapeutic in vivo potential.
Project description:NF-kappaB transcription factor is a critical regulator of the expression of genes involved in tumor formation and progression. Successful RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutics targeting NF-kappaB is challenged by small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery systems, which can render targeted in vivo delivery, efficient endolysosomal escape, and dynamic control over activation of RNAi. Here, we report near-IR (NIR) light-inducible NF-kappaB downregulation through folate receptor-targeted hollow gold nanospheres carrying siRNA recognizing NF-kappaB p65 subunit. Using micro-positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging, the targeted nanoconstructs exhibited significantly higher tumor uptake in nude mice bearing HeLa cervical cancer xenografts than nontargeted nanoparticles following i.v. administration. Mediated by hollow gold nanospheres, controllable cytoplasmic delivery of siRNA was obtained on NIR light irradiation through photothermal effect. Efficient downregulation of NF-kappaB p65 was achieved only in tumors irradiated with NIR light but not in nonirradiated tumors grown in the same mice. Liver, spleen, kidney, and lung were not affected by the treatments, in spite of significant uptake of the siRNA nanoparticles in these organs. We term this mode of action "photothermal transfection." Combined treatments with p65 siRNA photothermal transfection and irinotecan caused substantially enhanced tumor apoptosis and significant tumor growth delay compared with other treatment regimens. Therefore, photothermal transfection of NF-kappaB p65 siRNA could effectively sensitize the tumor to chemotherapeutic agents. Because NIR light can penetrate the skin and be delivered with high spatiotemporal control, therapeutic RNAi may benefit from this novel transfection strategy while avoiding unwanted side effect.
Project description:A multifunctional theranostic platform based on photosensitizer-loaded plasmonic vesicular assemblies of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) is developed for effective cancer imaging and treatment. The gold vesicles (GVs) composed of a monolayer of assembled GNPs show strong absorbance in the near-infrared (NIR) range of 650-800 nm, as a result of the plasmonic coupling effect between neighboring GNPs in the vesicular membranes. The strong NIR absorption and the capability of encapsulating photosensitizer Ce6 in GVs enable trimodality NIR fluorescence/thermal/photoacoustic imaging-guided synergistic photothermal/photodynamic therapy (PTT/PDT) with improved efficacy. The Ce6-loaded GVs (GV-Ce6) have the following characteristics: (i) high Ce6 loading efficiency (up to ~18.4 wt %; (ii) enhanced cellular uptake efficiency of Ce6; (iii) simultaneous trimodality NIR fluorescence/thermal/photoacoustic imaging; (iv) synergistic PTT/PDT treatment with improved efficacy using single wavelength continuous wave laser irradiation.
Project description:Efficient plasmonic photothermal therapies (PPTTs) using non-harmful pulse laser irradiation at the near-infrared (NIR) are a highly sought goal in nanomedicine. These therapies rely on the use of plasmonic nanostructures to kill cancer cells while minimizing the applied laser power density. Cancer cells have an unsettled capacity to uptake, retain, release, and re-uptake gold nanoparticles, thus offering enormous versatility for research. In this work, we have studied such cell capabilities for nanoparticle trafficking and its impact on the effect of photothermal treatments. As our model system, we chose uveal (eye) melanoma cells, since laser-assisted eye surgery is routinely used to treat glaucoma and cataracts, or vision correction in refractive surgery. As nanostructure, we selected gold nanostars (Au NSs) due to their high photothermal efficiency at the near-infrared (NIR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum. We first investigated the photothermal effect on the basis of the dilution of Au NSs induced by cell division. Using this approach, we obtained high PPTT efficiency after several cell division cycles at an initial low Au NS concentration (pM regime). Subsequently, we evaluated the photothermal effect on account of cell division upon mixing Au NS-loaded and non-loaded cells. Upon such mixing, we observed trafficking of Au NSs between loaded and non-loaded cells, thus achieving effective PPTT after several division cycles under low irradiation conditions (below the maximum permissible exposure threshold of skin). Our study reveals the ability of uveal melanoma cells to release and re-uptake Au NSs that maintain their plasmonic photothermal properties throughout several cell division cycles and re-uptake. This approach may be readily extrapolated to real tissue and even to treat in situ the eye tumor itself. We believe that our method can potentially be used as co-therapy to disperse plasmonic gold nanostructures across affected tissues, thus increasing the effectiveness of classic PPTT.
Project description:Methylene blue-loaded gold nanorod@SiO2 (MB-GNR@SiO2) core@shell nanoparticles are synthesized for use in cancer imaging and photothermal/photodynamic dual therapy. For the preparation of GNR@SiO2 nanoparticles, we found that the silica coating rate of hexadecylcetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-capped GNRs is much slower than that of PEGylated GNRs due to the densely coated CTAB bilayer. Encapsulated MB molecules have both monomer and dimer forms that result in an increase in the photosensitizing effect through different photochemical pathways. As a consequence of the excellent plasmonic properties of GNRs at near-infrared (NIR) light, the embedded MB molecules showed NIR light-induced SERS performance with a Raman enhancement factor of 3.0 × 10(10), which is enough for the detection of a single cancer cell. Moreover, the MB-GNR@SiO2 nanoparticles exhibit a synergistic effect of photodynamic and photothermal therapies of cancer under single-wavelength NIR laser irradiation.