The crystal structure of glucokinase from Leishmania braziliensis.
ABSTRACT: Glucokinase from pathogenic protozoa of the genus Leishmania is a potential drug target for the chemotherapeutic treatment against leishmaniasis because this enzyme is located at a nodal point between two critically important metabolic pathways, glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). L. braziliensis glucokinase (LbGlcK) was evaluated for its structural characterization and enzymatic performance. The enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of d-glucose with co-substrate ATP to yield the products G6P and ADP. LbGlcK had KM values determined as 6.61?±?2.63?mM and 0.338?±?0.080?mM for d-glucose and ATP, respectively. The 1.85?Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of the apo form of LbGlcK was determined and a homodimer was revealed where each subunit (both in open conformations) included the typical small and large domains. Structural comparisons were assessed in relationship to Homo sapiens hexokinase IV and Trypanosoma cruzi glucokinase. Comparisons revealed that all residues important for making hydrogen bonding interactions with d-glucose in the active site and catalysis were strictly conserved. LbGlcK was screened against four glucosamine analogue inhibitors and the stronger inhibitor of the series, HPOP-GlcN, had a Ki value of 56.9?±?16.6??M that exhibited competitive inhibition. For the purpose of future structure-based drug design experimentation, L. braziliensis glucokinase was observed to be very similar to T. cruzi glucokinase even though there was a 44% protein sequence identity between the two enzymes.
Project description:Glucokinase and hexokinase from pathogenic protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi are potential drug targets for antiparasitic chemotherapy of Chagas' disease. These glucose kinases phosphorylate d-glucose with co-substrate ATP and yield glucose 6-phosphate and are involved in essential metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway. An inhibitor class was conceived that is selective for T. cruzi glucokinase (TcGlcK) using structure-based drug design involving glucosamine having a linker from the C2 amino that terminates with a hydrophobic group either being phenyl, p-hydroxyphenyl, or dioxobenzo[b]thiophenyl groups. The synthesis and characterization for two of the four compounds are presented while the other two compounds were commercially available. Four high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of TcGlcK inhibitor complexes are reported along with enzyme inhibition constants (Ki) for TcGlcK and Homo sapiens hexokinase IV (HsHxKIV). These glucosamine analogue inhibitors include three strongly selective TcGlcK inhibitors and a fourth inhibitor, benzoyl glucosamine (BENZ-GlcN), which is a similar variant exhibiting a shorter linker. Carboxybenzyl glucosamine (CBZ-GlcN) was found to be the strongest glucokinase inhibitor known to date, having a Ki of 0.71±0.05?M. Also reported are two biologically active inhibitors against in vitro T. cruzi culture that were BENZ-GlcN and CBZ-GlcN, with intracellular amastigote growth inhibition IC50 values of 16.08±0.16?M and 48.73±0.69?M, respectively. These compounds revealed little to no toxicity against mammalian NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and provide a key starting point for further drug development with this class of compound.
Project description:We sought to determine a mechanism by which L-arginine increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in ?-cells by finding a protein with affinity to L-arginine using arginine-immobilized magnetic nanobeads technology. Glucokinase (GCK), the key regulator of GSIS and a disease-causing gene of maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 2 (MODY2), was found to bind L-arginine. L-Arginine stimulated production of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) and induced insulin secretion. We analyzed glucokinase mutants and identified three glutamate residues that mediate binding to L-arginine. One MODY2 patient with GCKE442* demonstrated lower C-peptide-to-glucose ratio after arginine administration. In ?-cell line, GCKE442* reduced L-arginine-induced insulin secretion compared with GCKWT. In addition, we elucidated that the binding of arginine protects glucokinase from degradation by E3 ubiquitin ligase cereblon mediated ubiquitination. We conclude that L-arginine induces insulin secretion by increasing G6P production by glucokinase through direct stimulation and by prevention of degradation.
Project description:Sesquiterpene lactones are naturally occurring compounds mainly found in the Asteraceae family. These types of plant metabolites display a wide range of biological activities, including antiprotozoal activity and are considered interesting structures for drug discovery. Four derivatives were synthesized from estafietin (1), isolated from Stevia alpina (Asteraceae): 11βH,13-dihydroestafietin (2), epoxyestafietin (3a and 3b), 11βH,13-methoxyestafietin, (4) and 11βH,13-cianoestafietin. The antiprotozoal activity against Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania braziliensis of these compounds was evaluated. Epoxyestafietin was the most active compound against T. cruzi trypomastigotes and amastigotes (IC50 values of 18.7 and 2.0 µg/mL, respectively). Estafietin (1) and 11βH,13-dihydroestafietin (2) were the most active and selective compounds on L. braziliensis promastigotes (IC50 values of 1.0 and 1.3 μg/mL, respectively). The antiparasitic activity demonstrated by estafietin and some of its derivatives make them promising candidates for the development of effective compounds for the treatment of Chagas disease and leihsmaniasis.
Project description:The liver responds to an increase in blood glucose levels in the postprandial state by uptake of glucose and conversion to glycogen. Liver glycogen synthase (GYS2), a key enzyme in glycogen synthesis, is controlled by a complex interplay between the allosteric activator glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) and reversible phosphorylation through glycogen synthase kinase-3 and the glycogen-associated form of protein phosphatase 1. Here, we initially performed mutagenesis analysis and identified a key residue (Arg(582)) required for activation of GYS2 by G6P. We then used GYS2 Arg(582)Ala knockin (+/R582A) mice in which G6P-mediated GYS2 activation had been profoundly impaired (60-70%), while sparing regulation through reversible phosphorylation. R582A mutant-expressing hepatocytes showed significantly reduced glycogen synthesis with glucose and insulin or glucokinase activator, which resulted in channeling glucose/G6P toward glycolysis and lipid synthesis. GYS2(+/R582A) mice were modestly glucose intolerant and displayed significantly reduced glycogen accumulation with feeding or glucose load in vivo. These data show that G6P-mediated activation of GYS2 plays a key role in controlling glycogen synthesis and hepatic glucose-G6P flux control and thus whole-body glucose homeostasis.
Project description:The Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis complex is responsible for most cases of New World tegumentary leishmaniasis. This complex includes two closely related species but with different geographic distribution and disease phenotypes, L. (V.) peruviana and L. (V.) braziliensis. However, the genetic basis of these differences is not well understood and the status of L. (V.) peruviana as distinct species has been questioned by some. Here we sequenced the genomes of two L. (V.) peruviana isolates (LEM1537 and PAB-4377) using Illumina high throughput sequencing and performed comparative analyses against the L. (V.) braziliensis M2904 reference genome. Comparisons were focused on the detection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions and deletions (INDELs), aneuploidy and gene copy number variations.We found 94,070 variants shared by both L. (V.) peruviana isolates (144,079 in PAB-4377 and 136,946 in LEM1537) against the L. (V.) braziliensis M2904 reference genome while only 26,853 variants separated both L. (V.) peruviana genomes. Analysis in coding sequences detected 26,750 SNPs and 1,513 indels shared by both L. (V.) peruviana isolates against L. (V.) braziliensis M2904 and revealed two L. (V.) braziliensis pseudogenes that are likely to have coding potential in L. (V.) peruviana. Chromosomal read density and allele frequency profiling showed a heterogeneous pattern of aneuploidy with an overall disomic tendency in both L. (V.) peruviana isolates, in contrast with a trisomic pattern in the L. (V.) braziliensis M2904 reference. Read depth analysis allowed us to detect more than 368 gene expansions and 14 expanded gene arrays in L. (V.) peruviana, and the likely absence of expanded amastin gene arrays.The greater numbers of interspecific SNP/indel differences between L. (V.) peruviana and L. (V.) braziliensis and the presence of different gene and chromosome copy number variations support the classification of both organisms as closely related but distinct species. The extensive nucleotide polymorphisms and differences in gene and chromosome copy numbers in L. (V.) peruviana suggests the possibility that these may contribute to some of the unique features of its biology, including a lower pathology and lack of mucosal development.
Project description:To development a reliable murine model of Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis infection, parasites were injected into BALB/c mice in the presence of phlebotomine sand fly salivary gland lysates, which have previously been shown to greatly increase the infectivity of L. major in mice. When injected with salivary gland lysates, L. braziliensis braziliensis produced progressively enlarging cutaneous nodules, containing many macrophages filled with Leishmania amastigotes. In contrast, L. braziliensis injected without gland extracts produced small and rapidly regressing lesions. Isoenzyme analysis, monoclonal antibodies, and the polymerase chain reaction with L. braziliensis-specific oligonucleotide primers and probes confirmed that parasites causing the lesions were L. braziliensis.
Project description:ATP-dependent glucokinase is suggested to have evolved from a hypothetical polyphosphate (polyP)-dependent glucokinase (polyP-GK) via a bifunctional polyP/ATP glucokinase (polyP/ATP-GK). Here we showed that polyP-GK is present in a polyP-accumulating bacterium, Microlunatus phosphovorus. The polyP-GK produced glucose-6-P(i) from glucose and polyP, but it could not phosphorylate glucose with ATP. The polyP-GK was most closely related to the polyP/ATP-GK of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Project description:Neurons in the supraoptic nuclei (SON) produce oxytocin and vasopressin and express insulin receptors (InsR) and glucokinase. Since oxytocin is an anorexigenic agent and glucokinase and InsR are hallmarks of cells that function as glucose and/or metabolic sensors, we evaluated the effect of glucose, insulin, and their downstream effector ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels on calcium signaling in SON neurons and on oxytocin and vasopressin release from explants of the rat hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system. We also evaluated the effect of blocking glucokinase and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K; mediates insulin-induced mobilization of glucose transporter, GLUT4) on responses to glucose and insulin. Glucose and insulin increased intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i). The responses were glucokinase and PI3K dependent, respectively. Insulin and glucose alone increased vasopressin release (P < 0.002). Oxytocin release was increased by glucose in the presence of insulin. The oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) responses to insulin+glucose were blocked by the glucokinase inhibitor alloxan (4 mM; P ? 0.002) and the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin (50 nM; OT: P = 0.03; VP: P ? 0.002). Inactivating K ATP channels with 200 nM glibenclamide increased oxytocin and vasopressin release (OT: P < 0.003; VP: P < 0.05). These results suggest that insulin activation of PI3K increases glucokinase-mediated ATP production inducing closure of K ATP channels, opening of voltage-sensitive calcium channels, and stimulation of oxytocin and vasopressin release. The findings are consistent with SON oxytocin and vasopressin neurons functioning as glucose and "metabolic" sensors to participate in appetite regulation.
Project description:Leishmaniasis, a human parasitic disease with manifestations ranging from cutaneous ulcerations to fatal visceral infection, is caused by several Leishmania species. These protozoan parasites replicate as extracellular, flagellated promastigotes in the gut of a sandfly vector and as amastigotes inside the parasitophorous vacuole of vertebrate host macrophages. Amastins are surface glycoproteins encoded by large gene families present in the genomes of several trypanosomatids and highly expressed in the intracellular amastigote stages of Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. Here, we showed that the genome of L. braziliensis contains 52 amastin genes belonging to all four previously described amastin subfamilies and that the expression of members of all subfamilies is upregulated in L. braziliensis amastigotes. Although primary sequence alignments showed no homology to any known protein sequence, homology searches based on secondary structure predictions indicate that amastins are related to claudins, a group of proteins that are components of eukaryotic tight junction complexes. By knocking-down the expression of ?-amastins in L. braziliensis, their essential role during infection became evident. ?-amastin knockdown parasites showed impaired growth after in vitro infection of mouse macrophages and completely failed to produce infection when inoculated in BALB/c mice, an attenuated phenotype that was reverted by the re-expression of an RNAi-resistant amastin gene. Further highlighting their essential role in host-parasite interactions, electron microscopy analyses of macrophages infected with amastin knockdown parasites showed significant alterations in the tight contact that is normally observed between the surface of wild type amastigotes and the membrane of the parasitophorous vacuole.
Project description:MondoA and its transcriptional target thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) constitute a regulatory loop that senses glycolytic flux and controls glucose availability. Cellular stress also triggers MondoA activity and TXNIP expression. To understand how MondoA integrates glucose and stress signals, we studied its activation by acidosis. We found that acidosis drives mitochondrial ATP (mtATP) synthesis. The subsequent export of mtATP from mitochondria via adenine-nucleotide transporter and voltage-dependent anion channel, and the enzymatic activity of mitochondria-bound hexokinase results in the production of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), a known activator of MondoA transcriptional activity. MondoA localizes to the outer-mitochondrial membrane (OMM), and in response to G6P, shuttles to the nucleus and activates transcription. Our data suggests that MondoA is a required feature of a glucose- and mtATP-dependent, OMM-localized signaling center. We propose MondoA functions as a coincidence detector and its ability to sense glucose and cellular stress is coupled to the concerted production of G6P. Overall design: mRNA sequencing of HeLa and HeLa:MondoA-KO cells treated with DMEM or DMEMAcidic for 4 hours