Incorporation of a Biguanide Scaffold Enhances Drug Uptake by Organic Cation Transporters 1 and 2.
ABSTRACT: Membrane transporters play a significant role in the transport of many endogenous and exogenous compounds. The knowledge of transporter substrate requirements has allowed further development of drugs that utilize them to ensure tissue permeation. In this study, we demonstrate that inclusion of a biguanide functionality can potentiate uptake by the organic cation transporters 1 and 2 (OCT1 and OCT2). We synthesized 18 pairs of structurally diverse compounds, each pair consisting of a parent amino compound and its biguanide analog; and then assessed their cellular uptake in HEK293 cells overexpressing human OCT1 or OCT2. Our results show that addition of the biguanide significantly improved OCT1- and OCT2-mediated transport for the majority of compounds. The biguanides also inhibited the uptake of prototypical substrates of both transporters, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) and metformin. We found that molecular weight, molecular volume, Log D (pH 7.4), and accessible surface area were important determinants of OCT2 substrates, but none of these parameters was a significant factor for OCT1. More so, the inhibition of MPP+ uptake correlated linearly with that of metformin uptake for the tested biguanides in both cell lines. Taken together, we conclude that the inclusion of the biguanide scaffold in nonsubstrates of OCT1 and OCT2 increase their propensity to become substrates and inhibitors for these transporters.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The organic cation transporters 1 (OCT1) and 2 (OCT2) mediate drug uptake into hepatocytes and renal proximal tubular cells, respectively. Multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1) is a major component of subsequent export into bile and urine. However, the functional interaction of OCTs and MATE1 for uptake and transcellular transport of the oral antidiabetic drug metformin or of the cation 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) has not fully been characterized. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Single-transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells as well as double-transfected MDCK-OCT1-MATE1 and -OCT2-MATE1 cells were used to study metformin and MPP(+) uptake into and transcellular transport across cell monolayers, along with their concentration and pH dependence. KEY RESULTS: Cellular accumulation of MPP(+) and metformin was significantly reduced by 31% and 46% in MDCK-MATE1 single-transfected cells compared with MDCK control cells (10 µM; P < 0.01). Over a wide concentration range (10-2500 µM) metformin transcellular transport from the basal into the apical compartment was significantly higher in the double-transfected cells compared with the MDCK control and MDCK-MATE1 monolayers. This process was not saturated up to metformin concentrations of 2500 µM. In MDCK-OCT2-MATE1 cells basal to apical MPP(+) and metformin transcellular translocation decreased with increasing pH from 6.0 to 7.5. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Our data demonstrate functional interplay between OCT1/OCT2-mediated uptake and efflux by MATE1. Moreover, MATE1 function in human kidney might be modified by changes in luminal pH values.
Project description:The importance of the organic cation transporter OCT2 in the renal excretion of cationic drugs raises the possibility of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) in which an inhibitor (perpetrator) drug decreases OCT2-dependent renal clearance of a victim (substrate) drug. In fact, there are clinically significant interactions for drugs that are known substrates of OCT2 such as metformin. To identify drugs as inhibitors for OCT2, individual drugs or entire drug libraries have been investigated in vitro by using experimental probe substrates such as 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) or 4-4-dimethylaminostyryl-N-methylpyridinium (ASP+). It has been questioned whether the inhibition data obtained with an experimental probe substrate such as MPP+ or ASP+ might be used to predict the inhibition against other, clinical relevant substrates such as metformin. Here we compared the OCT2 inhibition profile data for the substrates metformin, MPP+ and ASP+. We used human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells stably overexpressing human OCT2 as the test system to screen 125 frequently prescribed drugs as inhibitors of OCT2-mediated metformin and MPP+ uptake. Data on inhibition of OCT2-mediated ASP+ uptake were obtained from previous literature. A moderate correlation between the inhibition of OCT2-mediated MPP+, ASP+, and metformin uptake was observed (pairwise rs between 0.27 and 0.48, all P < 0.05). Of note, the correlation in the inhibition profile between structurally similar substrates such as MPP+ and ASP+ (Tanimoto similarity T = 0.28) was even lower (rs = 0.27) than the correlation between structurally distinct substrates, such as ASP+ and metformin (T = 0.01; rs = 0.48) or MPP+ and metformin (T = 0.01; rs = 0.40). We identified selective as well as universal OCT2 inhibitors, which inhibited transport by more than 50% of one substrate only or of all substrates, respectively. Our data suggest that the predictive value for drug-drug interactions using experimental substrates rather than the specific victim drug is limited.
Project description:The biguanide metformin is widely used as first-line therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Predominately a cation at physiological pH's, metformin is transported by membrane transporters, which play major roles in its absorption and disposition. Recently, our laboratory demonstrated that organic cation transporter 1, OCT1, the major hepatic uptake transporter for metformin, was also the primary hepatic uptake transporter for thiamine, vitamin B1. In this study, we tested the reverse, i.e., that metformin is a substrate of thiamine transporters (THTR-1, SLC19A2, and THTR-2, SLC19A3). Our study demonstrated that human THTR-2 (hTHTR-2), SLC19A3, which is highly expressed in the small intestine, but not hTHTR-1, transports metformin (Km = 1.15 ± 0.2 mM) and other cationic compounds (MPP(+) and famotidine). The uptake mechanism for hTHTR-2 was pH and electrochemical gradient sensitive. Furthermore, metformin as well as other drugs including phenformin, chloroquine, verapamil, famotidine, and amprolium inhibited hTHTR-2 mediated uptake of both thiamine and metformin. Species differences in the substrate specificity of THTR-2 between human and mouse orthologues were observed. Taken together, our data suggest that hTHTR-2 may play a role in the intestinal absorption and tissue distribution of metformin and other organic cations and that the transporter may be a target for drug-drug and drug-nutrient interactions.
Project description:Metformin, an oral insulin-sensitizing drug, is actively transported into cells by organic cation transporters (OCT) 1, 2, and 3 (encoded by SLC22A1, SLC22A2, or SLC22A3), which are tissue specifically expressed at significant levels in various organs such as liver, muscle, and kidney. Because metformin does not undergo hepatic metabolism, drug-drug interaction by inhibition of OCT transporters may be important. So far, comprehensive data on the interaction of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) with OCTs are missing although PPIs are frequently used in metformin-treated patients. Using in silico modeling and computational analyses, we derived pharmacophore models indicating that PPIs (i.e. omeprazole, pantoprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole, and tenatoprazole) are potent OCT inhibitors. We then established stably transfected cell lines expressing the human uptake transporters OCT1, OCT2, or OCT3 and tested whether these PPIs inhibit OCT-mediated metformin uptake in vitro. All tested PPIs significantly inhibited metformin uptake by OCT1, OCT2, and OCT3 in a concentration-dependent manner. Half-maximal inhibitory concentration values (IC(50)) were in the low micromolar range (3-36 µM) and thereby in the range of IC(50) values of other potent OCT drug inhibitors. Finally, we tested whether the PPIs are also transported by OCTs, but did not identify PPIs as OCT substrates. In conclusion, PPIs are potent inhibitors of the OCT-mediated metformin transport in vitro. Further studies are needed to elucidate the clinical relevance of this drug-drug interaction with potential consequences on metformin disposition and/or efficacy.
Project description:It is largely unknown if simultaneous administration of tuberculosis (TB) drugs and metformin leads to drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Disposition of metformin is determined by organic cation transporters (OCTs) and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs). Thus, any DDIs would primarily be mediated via these transporters. This study aimed to assess the in vitro inhibitory effects of TB drugs (rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, amikacin, moxifloxacin, and linezolid) on metformin transport and whether TB drugs are also substrates themselves of OCTs and MATEs. HEK293 cells overexpressing OCT1, OCT2, OCT3, MATE1, and MATE2K were used to study TB drug-mediated inhibition of [14C]metformin uptake and to test if TB drugs are transporter substrates. Metformin uptake was determined by quantifying [14C]metformin radioactivity, and TB drug uptake was analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. DDI indices were calculated (plasma maximum concentrations [Cmax]/50% inhibitory concentrations [IC50]), and based on the literature, a cutoff of >0.1 was assumed to warrant further in vivo investigation. Moxifloxacin was the only TB drug identified as a potent inhibitor (DDI index of >0.1) of MATE1- and MATE2K-mediated metformin transport, with IC50s of 12 μM (95% confidence intervals [CI], 5.1 to 29 μM) and 7.6 μM (95% CI, 0.2 to 242 μM), respectively. Of all TB drugs, only ethambutol appeared to be a substrate of OCT1, OCT2, OCT3, MATE1, and MATE2K. MATE1-mediated ethambutol uptake was inhibited strongly (DDI index of >0.1) by moxifloxacin (IC50, 12 μM [95% CI, 3.4 to 43 μM]). Our findings provide a mechanistic basis for DDI predictions concerning ethambutol. According to international guidelines, an in vivo interaction study is warranted for the observed in vitro interaction between ethambutol and moxifloxacin.
Project description:Twenty-two currently marketed antituberculosis drugs were comprehensively evaluated for their inhibitory effect on organic anionic transporter (OAT)- and organic cation transporter (OCT)-mediated uptake using stably transfected HEK293 cells in vitro We observed moderate to strong inhibitory effects on OAT1- and OAT3-mediated para-aminohippurate (PAH) uptake and OCT1- and OCT2-mediated N-methyl-4-phenylpylidinium acetate (MPP+) uptake. Ciprofloxacin, linezolid, para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), and rifampin were observed to have strong inhibitory effects, with the concentrations for a 50% inhibitory effect (IC50s) being 35.1, 31.1, 37.6, and 48.1 ?M, respectively, for OAT1 and >100, 21.9, 24.6, and 30.2 ?M, respectively, for OAT3. Similarly, pyrazinamide, rifabutin, and levofloxacin were observed to have inhibitory effects, with IC50 values being 36.5, 42.7, and 30.3 ?M, respectively, for OCT1 and with the IC50 value for PAS being 94.2 ?M for OCT2. In addition, we used zidovudine and metformin as clinically prescribed substrates of OATs and OCTs, respectively, and zidovudine and metformin uptake was also strongly inhibited by the antituberculosis drugs. Among the tested drugs, the highest drug-drug interaction (DDI) indexes were found for PAS, which were 9.3 to 13.9 for OAT1 and 12.0 to 17.7 for OAT3, and linezolid, which were 1.18 to 2.15 for OAT1 and 1.7 to 3.01 for OAT3. Similarly, the DDI indexes of pyrazinamide and levofloxacin were 0.57 and 0.30, respectively, for OCT1, and the DDI index of PAS was 3.8 for OCT2, suggesting a stronger possibility (DDI index value cutoff, >0.1) of in vivo DDIs. This is the first comprehensive report of the inhibitory potential of anti-TB drugs on OAT- and OCT-mediated uptake of prototype and clinically prescribed substrate drugs in vitro, providing an ability to predict DDIs between anti-TB drugs and other coprescribed drugs in clinical studies in vivo.
Project description:Ranitidine (Zantac®) is a H2-receptor antagonist commonly used for the treatment of acid-related gastrointestinal diseases. Ranitidine was reported to be a substrate of the organic cation transporters OCT1 and OCT2. The hepatic transporter OCT1 is highly genetically variable. Twelve major alleles confer partial or complete loss of OCT1 activity. The effects of these polymorphisms are highly substrate-specific and therefore difficult to predict. The renal transporter OCT2 has a common polymorphism, Ala270Ser, which was reported to affect OCT2 activity.In this study we analyzed the effects of genetic polymorphisms in OCT1 and OCT2 on the uptake of ranitidine and on its potency to inhibit uptake of other drugs.We characterized ranitidine uptake using HEK293 and CHO cells stably transfected to overexpress wild type OCT1, OCT2, or their naturally occurring allelic variants. Ranitidine was transported by wild-type OCT1 with a Km of 62.9 ?M and a vmax of 1125 pmol/min/mg protein. Alleles OCT1*5, *6, *12, and *13 completely lacked ranitidine uptake. Alleles OCT1*2, *3, *4, and *10 had vmax values decreased by more than 50%. In contrast, OCT1*8 showed an increase of vmax by 25%. The effects of OCT1 alleles on ranitidine uptake strongly correlated with the effects on morphine uptake suggesting common interaction mechanisms of both drugs with OCT1. Ranitidine inhibited the OCT1-mediated uptake of metformin and morphine at clinically relevant concentrations. The inhibitory potency for morphine uptake was affected by the OCT1*2 allele. OCT2 showed only a limited uptake of ranitidine that was not significantly affected by the Ala270Ser polymorphism.We confirmed ranitidine as an OCT1 substrate and demonstrated that common genetic polymorphisms in OCT1 strongly affect ranitidine uptake and modulate ranitidine's potential to cause drug-drug interactions. The effects of the frequent OCT1 polymorphisms on ranitidine pharmacokinetics in humans remain to be analyzed.
Project description:Green tea catechins inhibit the function of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) that mediate the uptake of a diverse group of drugs and endogenous compounds into cells. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of green tea and its most abundant catechin epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on the transport activity of several drug transporters expressed in enterocytes, hepatocytes and renal proximal tubular cells such as OATPs, organic cation transporters (OCTs), multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs), and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Uptake of the typical substrates metformin for OCTs and MATEs and bromosulphophthalein (BSP) and atorvastatin for OATPs was measured in the absence and presence of a commercially available green tea and EGCG. Transcellular transport of digoxin, a typical substrate of P-gp, was measured over 4 hours in the absence and presence of green tea or EGCG in Caco-2 cell monolayers. OCT1-, OCT2-, MATE1- and MATE2-K-mediated metformin uptake was significantly reduced in the presence of green tea and EGCG (P < 0.05). BSP net uptake by OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 was inhibited by green tea [IC50 2.6% (v/v) and 0.39% (v/v), respectively]. Green tea also inhibited OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated atorvastatin net uptake with IC50 values of 1.9% (v/v) and 1.0% (v/v), respectively. Basolateral to apical transport of digoxin was significantly decreased in the presence of green tea and EGCG. These findings indicate that green tea and EGCG inhibit multiple drug transporters in vitro. Further studies are necessary to investigate the effects of green tea on prototoypical substrates of these transporters in humans, in particular on substrates of hepatic uptake transporters (e.g. statins) as well as on P-glycoprotein substrates.
Project description:This article summarizes 4 phase 1 trials that explored interactions between the novel, triazole antifungal isavuconazole and substrates of the drug transporters breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug and toxin extrusion protein-1 (MATE1), organic anion transporters 1/3 (OAT1/OAT3), organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), organic cation transporters 1/2 (OCT1/OCT2), and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Healthy subjects received single doses of atorvastatin (20 mg; OATP1B1 and P-gp substrate), digoxin (0.5 mg; P-gp substrate), metformin (850 mg; OCT1, OCT2, and MATE1 substrate), or methotrexate (7.5 mg; BCRP, OAT1, and OAT3 substrate) in the presence and absence of clinical doses of isavuconazole (200 mg 3 times a day for 2 days; 200 mg once daily thereafter). Coadministration with isavuconazole increased mean area under the plasma concentration-time curves (90% confidence interval) of atorvastatin, digoxin, and metformin to 137% (129, 145), 125% (117, 134),? and 152% (138, 168) and increased mean maximum plasma concentrations to 103% (88, 121), 133% (119, 149), and 123% (109, 140), respectively. Methotrexate parameters were unaffected by isavuconazole. There were no serious adverse events. These findings indicate that isavuconazole is a weak inhibitor of P-gp, as well as OCT1, OCT2, MATE1, or a combination thereof but not of BCRP, OATP1B1, OAT1, or OAT3.
Project description:para-Aminosalicylic acid (PAS) is a second-line antituberculosis drug that has been used to treat multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis for more than 60 years. Renal secretion and glomerular filtration are the major pathways for the elimination of PAS. We comprehensively studied PAS transport by using cell lines that overexpressed various transporters and found that PAS acts as a novel substrate of an organic anionic polypeptide (OATP1B1), organic cationic transporters (OCT1 and OCT2), and organic anion transporters (OAT1 and OAT3) but is not a substrate of any ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Net PAS uptake was measured, and the transport affinities (Km values) for OATP1B1, OCT1, OCT2, OAT1, and OAT3 were found to be 50.0, 20.3, 28.7, 78.1, and 100.1 ?M, respectively. The net uptake rates suggested that renal OAT1 and OAT3 play relatively major roles in PAS elimination. The representative inhibitors rifampin for OATP1B1, probenecid for OAT1 and OAT3, and verapamil for OCT1 and OCT2 greatly inhibited PAS uptake, suggesting that PAS is dependent on multiple transporters for uptake. We also evaluated nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), and metformin for the inhibition of PAS uptake via these transporters. Half-maximal (50%) inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) were kinetically determined and used to predict the drug-drug interactions (DDIs) affecting these transporters' activity toward PAS. We found that rifampin, probenecid, ibuprofen, naproxen, cimetidine, and quinidine each exhibited a significant potential for in vivo DDIs with PAS. In this study, PAS was found to be a novel substrate of several transporters, and drugs that inhibit these transporters can reduce PAS elimination.