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Incorporation of a Biguanide Scaffold Enhances Drug Uptake by Organic Cation Transporters 1 and 2.

ABSTRACT: Membrane transporters play a significant role in the transport of many endogenous and exogenous compounds. The knowledge of transporter substrate requirements has allowed further development of drugs that utilize them to ensure tissue permeation. In this study, we demonstrate that inclusion of a biguanide functionality can potentiate uptake by the organic cation transporters 1 and 2 (OCT1 and OCT2). We synthesized 18 pairs of structurally diverse compounds, each pair consisting of a parent amino compound and its biguanide analog; and then assessed their cellular uptake in HEK293 cells overexpressing human OCT1 or OCT2. Our results show that addition of the biguanide significantly improved OCT1- and OCT2-mediated transport for the majority of compounds. The biguanides also inhibited the uptake of prototypical substrates of both transporters, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) and metformin. We found that molecular weight, molecular volume, Log D (pH 7.4), and accessible surface area were important determinants of OCT2 substrates, but none of these parameters was a significant factor for OCT1. More so, the inhibition of MPP+ uptake correlated linearly with that of metformin uptake for the tested biguanides in both cell lines. Taken together, we conclude that the inclusion of the biguanide scaffold in nonsubstrates of OCT1 and OCT2 increase their propensity to become substrates and inhibitors for these transporters.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC6328375 | BioStudies | 2017-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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