Banana sRNAome and degradome identify microRNAs functioning in differential responses to temperature stress.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Temperature stress is a major environmental factor affecting not only plant growth and development, but also fruit postharvest life and quality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding small RNAs that play important roles in various biological processes. Harvested banana fruit can exhibit distinct symptoms in response to different temperature stresses, but the underlying miRNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms remained unknown. RESULTS:Here, we profiled temperature-responsive miRNAs in banana, using deep sequencing and computational and molecular analyses. In total 113 known miRNAs and 26 novel banana-specific miRNAs were identified. Of these miRNAs, 42 miRNAs were expressed differentially under cold and heat stresses. Degradome sequencing identified 60 target genes regulated by known miRNAs and half of these targets were regulated by 15 temperature-responsive miRNAs. The correlative expression patterns between several miRNAs and their target genes were further validated via qRT-PCR. Our data showed that miR535 and miR156 families may derive from a common ancestor during evolution and jointly play a role in fine-tuning SPL gene expression in banana. We also identified the miRNA-triggered phased secondary siRNAs in banana and found miR393-TIR1/AFB phasiRNA production displaying cold stress-specific enrichment. CONCLUSIONS:Our results provide a foundation for understanding the miRNA-dependent temperature stress response in banana. The characterized correlations between miRNAs and their response to temperature stress could serve as markers in the breeding programs or tools for improving temperature tolerance of banana.
Project description:We report the high-throughput profiling of miRNAs in banana. By deep sequencing and computational and molecular analyses, we identify 113 known and 26 banana-specific miRNAs and we characterize their expression pattern under cold and heat stress. We find that 42 banana miRNAs are temperature-responsive. By degradome sequencing, we identify 60 targets for known miRNAs and half of these targets are regulated by 15 temperature-responsive miRNAs. The correlative expression patterns between several miRNAs and their target genes are further validated via qRT-PCR. Our results provide a foundation for understanding the miRNA-dependent temperature stress response in banana and the characterized correlations between miRNAs and their responses to cold or heat stress could serve as markers in the breeding programs or tools for biotechnological approaches for improving temperature stress tolerance of banana. Overall design: Examination of miRNAs in banana peel tissue subjected to cold and heat stress.
Project description:Fruit ripening is influenced by multiple plant hormones and the regulation of genes. However, studies on posttranscriptional regulators (e.g., miRNAs) of fruit growth and ripening are limited. We used miRNA sequencing and degradome methods to identify miRNAs and their target genes in melon (Cucumis melo cv. Hetao melon). A total of 61 conserved miRNAs and 36 novel miRNAs were identified from fruit growth, ripening, climacteric, and postclimacteric developmental stage samples, of which 32 conserved miRNAs were differentially expressed between developmental stage samples. Sixty-two target genes of 43 conserved miRNAs and 1 novel miRNA were identified from degradome sequencing. To further investigate miRNA influencing fruit ripening, transgenic melon plants overexpressing pre-cme-miR393 (cme-miR393-OE) were generated and characterized. The results showed that fruit ripening was delayed in cme-miR393-OE transgenic lines compared to nontransgenic fruits. The target of cme-miR393 was also identified, and the expression of CmAFB2 was repressed in transgenic plants. These results provide evidence that miRNA regulates melon fruit ripening and provide potential targets to improve the horticultural traits of melon fruit.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cold stress is one of the most severe abiotic stresses affecting the banana production. Although some miRNAs have been identified, little is known about the role of miRNAs in response to cold stress in banana, and up to date, there is no report about the role of miRNAs in the response to cold stress in the plants of the cultivated or wild bananas. RESULT:Here, a cold-resistant line wild banana (Musa itinerans) from China was used to profile the cold-responsive miRNAs by RNA-seq during cold stress. Totally, 265 known mature miRNAs and 41 novel miRNAs were obtained. Cluster analysis of differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs indicated that some miRNAs were specific for chilling or 0 °C treated responses, and most of them were reported to be cold-responsive; however, some were seldom reported to be cold-responsive in response to cold stress, e.g., miR395, miR408, miR172, suggesting that they maybe play key roles in response to cold stress. The GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of DE miRNAs targets indicated that there existed diversified cold-responsive pathways, and miR172 was found likely to play a central coordinating role in response to cold stress, especially in the regulation of CK2 and the circadian rhythm. Finally, qPCR assays indicated the related targets were negatively regulated by the tested DE miRNAs during cold stress in the wild banana. CONCLUSIONS:In this study, the profiling of miRNAs by RNA-seq in response to cold stress in the plants of the wild banana (Musa itinerans) was reported for the first time. The results showed that there existed diversified cold-responsive pathways, which provided insight into the roles of miRNAs during cold stress, and would be helpful for alleviating cold stress and cold-resistant breeding in bananas.
Project description:Sugarcane, accounting for 80% of world's sugar, originates in the tropics but is cultivated mainly in the subtropics. Therefore, chilling injury frequently occurs and results in serious losses. Recent studies in various plant species have established microRNAs as key elements in the post-transcriptional regulation of response to biotic and abiotic stresses including cold stress. Though, its accuracy is largely influenced by the use of reference gene for normalization, quantitative PCR is undoubtedly a popular method used for identification of microRNAs. For identifying the most suitable reference genes for normalizing miRNAs expression in sugarcane under cold stress, 13 candidates among 17 were investigated using four algorithms: geNorm, NormFinder, deltaCt, and Bestkeeper, and four candidates were excluded because of unsatisfactory efficiency and specificity. Verification was carried out using cold-related genes miR319 and miR393 in cold-tolerant and sensitive cultivars. The results suggested that miR171/18S rRNA and miR171/miR5059 were the best reference gene sets for normalization for miRNA RT-qPCR, followed by the single miR171 and 18S rRNA. These results can aid research on miRNA responses during sugarcane stress, and the development of sugarcane tolerant to cold stress. This study is the first report concerning the reference gene selection of miRNA RT-qPCR in sugarcane.
Project description:Cold stress seriously affects banana growth, yield and fruit quality. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been demonstrated as key regulators of biotic and abiotic stress in plants, but the identification and prediction of cold responsive mRNAs and lncRNAs in wild banana remains unexplored. In present study, a cold resistant wild banana line from China was used to profile the cold-responsive mRNAs and lncRNAs by RNA-seq under cold stress conditions, i.e. 13°C (critical growth temperature), 4°C (chilling temperature), 0°C (freezing temperature) and normal growing condition, i.e. 28°C (control group). A total of 12,462 lncRNAs were identified in cold-stressed wild banana. In mRNA, much more alternative splicing events occurred in wild banana under the cold stress conditions compared with that in the normal growing condition. The GO analysis of differential expression genes (DEGs) showed the biochemical processes and membrane related genes responded positively to the cold stress. The KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of the DEGs showed that the pathways of photosynthesis, photosynthesis-antenna proteins, circadian rhythm-plant, glutathione metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, cutin/suberine/biosynthesis were altered or affected by the cold stress conditions. Our analyses of the generated transcriptome and lncRNAs provide new insights into regulating expression of genes and lncRNAs that respond to cold stress in the wild banana.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small molecule RNAs widely involved in responses to plant abiotic stresses. We performed small RNA sequencing of cotton anthers at four developmental stages under normal and high temperature (NT and HT, respectively) conditions to investigate the stress response characteristics of miRNA to HT. A total of 77 miRNAs, including 33 known miRNAs and 44 novel miRNAs, were identified, and 41 and 28 miRNAs were differentially expressed under NT and HT stress conditions, respectively. The sporogenous cell proliferation (SCP), meiotic phase (MP), microspore release period (MRP), and pollen maturity (PM) stages had 10 (including 12 miRNAs), four (including six miRNAs), four (including five miRNAs), and seven (including 11 miRNAs) HT stress-responsive miRNA families, respectively, which were identified after removing the changes in genotype-specific miRNAs under NT condition. Seven miRNA families (miR2949, miR167, and miR160 at the SCP stage; miR156 and miR172 at the MP stage; miR156 at the MRP stage; and miR393 and miR3476 at the PM stage), which had expression abundance of more than 10% of the total expression abundance, served as the main regulators responding to HT stress with positive or negative regulation patterns. These miRNAs orchestrated the expression of the corresponding target genes and led to different responses in the HT-tolerant and the HT-sensitive lines. The results revealed that the HT stress response of miRNAs in cotton anthers were stage-specific and differed with the development of anthers. Our study may enhance the understanding of the response of miRNAs to HT stress in cotton anthers and may clarify the mechanism of plant tolerance to HT stress.
Project description:Most harvested fruits and vegetables are stored at low temperature but many of them are highly sensitive to chilling injury. Jasmonic acid (JA), a plant hormone associated with various stress responses, is known to reduce chilling injury in fruits. However, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of JA biosynthesis in relation to cold response of fruits. Here, we show the involvement of a Group I WRKY transcription factor (TF) from banana fruit, MaWRKY26, in regulating JA biosynthesis. MaWRKY26 was found to be nuclear-localized with transcriptional activation property. MaWRKY26 was induced by cold stress or by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which enhances cold tolerance in banana fruit. More importantly, MaWRKY26 transactivated JA biosynthetic genes MaLOX2, MaAOS3 and MaOPR3 via binding to their promoters. Further, MaWRKY26 physically interacted with a VQ motif-containing protein MaVQ5, and the interaction attenuated MaWRKY26-induced transactivation of JA biosynthetic genes. These results strongly suggest that MaVQ5 might act as a repressor of MaWRKY26 in activating JA biosynthesis. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the transcriptional regulation of JA biosynthesis in response to cold stress and a better understanding of the molecular aspects of chilling injury in banana fruit.
Project description:microRNAs (miRNAs) are highly conserved, short (~?21-nucleotide), endogenous, non-coding RNA molecules that play major roles in post-transcriptional silencing by guiding target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. In this study, applying high-stringent genome-wide computational-based approaches, a total of 28 putative miRNAs belonging to 17 miRNA families were identified from an antioxidant-rich medicinal plant passion fruit (Passiflora edulis). Inter-tissue (leaves and fruits) and inter-varietal (yellow and purple fruit varieties) quantitative study of six putative passion fruit miRNAs (ped-miR160, ped-miR164, ped-miR166, ped-miR393, ped-miR394, and ped-miR398) showed differential expression. Using psRNATarget tool, a total of 25 potential target proteins of the characterized passion fruit miRNAs were also identified. Most of the target proteins identified in this study, including SQUAMOSA promoter binding, Class III HD-Zip, NAC, Scarecrow, APETALA2, Auxin response factor, MYB, and superoxide dismutase, were found to be involved in development, metabolism, and defense/stress response signaling.
Project description:Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporters (SWEET) are a novel type of sugar transporter that plays crucial roles in multiple biological processes. From banana, for the first time, 25 SWEET genes which could be classified into four subfamilies were identified. Majority of MaSWEETs in each subfamily shared similar gene structures and conserved motifs. Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of two banana genotypes revealed differential expression patterns of MaSWEETs in different tissues, at various stages of fruit development and ripening, and in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. More than 80% MaSWEETs were highly expressed in BaXi Jiao (BX, Musa acuminata AAA group, cv. Cavendish), in sharp contrast to Fen Jiao (FJ, M. acuminata AAB group) when pseudostem was first emerged. However, MaSWEETs in FJ showed elevated expression under cold, drought, salt, and fungal disease stresses, but not in BX. Interaction networks and co-expression assays further revealed that MaSWEET-mediated networks participate in fruit development signaling and abiotic/biotic stresses, which was strongly activated during early stage of fruit development in BX. This study provides new insights into the complex transcriptional regulation of SWEETs, as well as numerous candidate genes that promote early sugar transport to improve fruit quality and enhance stress resistance in banana.
Project description:Low temperature is one of the key environmental stresses, which greatly affects global banana production. However, little is known about the global phosphoproteomes in Musa spp. and their regulatory roles in response to cold stress. In this study, we conducted a comparative phosphoproteomic profiling of cold-sensitive Cavendish Banana and relatively cold tolerant Dajiao under cold stress. Phosphopeptide abundances of five phosphoproteins involved in MKK2 interaction network, including MKK2, HY5, CaSR, STN7 and kinesin-like protein, show a remarkable difference between Cavendish Banana and Dajiao in response to cold stress. Western blotting of MKK2 protein and its T31 phosphorylated peptide verified the phosphoproteomic results of increased T31 phosphopeptide abundance with decreased MKK2 abundance in Daojiao for a time course of cold stress. Meanwhile increased expression of MKK2 with no detectable T31 phosphorylation was found in Cavendish Banana. These results suggest that the MKK2 pathway in Dajiao, along with other cold-specific phosphoproteins, appears to be associated with the molecular mechanisms of high tolerance to cold stress in Dajiao. The results also provide new evidence that the signaling pathway of cellular MKK2 phosphorylation plays an important role in abiotic stress tolerance that likely serves as a universal plant cold tolerance mechanism.