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Comprehensive Analytical Approach toward Glycomic Characterization and Profiling in Urinary Exosomes.


ABSTRACT: Exosomes are extracellular nanosized vesicles with lipid bilayers encapsulating nucleic acids and proteins, both with and without glycosylation. While exosomal nucleic acids and proteins have previously been explored to identify cancer biomarkers with some promising results, little information has been available concerning their glycoconjugate content. Exosomes were isolated from normal urine samples through multistep differential centrifugation. The isolated exosomes have an average size of 146 nm and a spherical shape, as determined by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. N-Glycans were enzymatically released from the isolated vesicles. After being reduced and permethylated, N-glycans were measured by MALDI mass spectrometry. Paucimannosidic, high-mannose, and complex type glycans were identified and their relative abundances were determined. Some detailed structures of these glycans were revealed through liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). The reduced N-glycans, without being permethylated, were also separated and analyzed by LC/MS-MS, and their structures were further detailed through isomeric separation on porous graphitized carbon (PGC) packed in long capillaries. Using microfractionation before LC/MS-MS, minor multiantennary N-glycans were preconcentrated as based on hydrophobicity or charge. Preconcentration of the reduced and permethylated glycans on a C18 cartridge revealed numerous large glycans, whereas fractionation of the reduced N-glycans by ion-exchange cartridges facilitated detection of sulfated glycans. After removing N-glycans from the original sample aliquot, O-glycans were chemically released from urinary exosomes and profiled, revealing some unusual structures.

SUBMITTER: Zou G 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6329457 | BioStudies | 2017-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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