Deciphering Microenvironment of NSCLC based on CD8+ TIL Density and PD-1/PD-L1 Expression.
ABSTRACT: Purpose: To determine whether distinct tissue immune microenvironments differentially impact on clinical outcome in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), an extended analysis of PD-1/PD-L1 and Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs) was performed. Materials and Methods: 1016 NSCLC mRNA-sequence samples from The Genome Data Analysis Center (TCGA) and 275 NSCLC mRNA-microarray samples from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) were included as testing cohort and validation cohort respectively. Enrichment scores of CD8+ T cells' metagene were used for quantifying its infiltrating density. Based on the median values of CD8+ T cell density and PD-1/PD-L1 mRNA expression, the samples were classified into four Tumor Immune Microenvironment types (TIMTs). Overall survival, as well as clinicopathological features, mutational profiles, mismatch repair score etc. were compared across the four types. Results: Neither PD-1 expression nor PD-L1 expression was associated with outcome in the overall NSCLC. Classification of TIMT based on PD-1/PD-L1 and CD8+ TIL could efficiently classify patients of different survival in ADC but not SCC, with the best overall survival achieved in TIMT3 (high CD8+ TIL and low PD-1/PD-L1), whereas TIMT2 (low CD8+ TIL and high PD-1/PD-L1) manifested the worst outcome. TIMT classification based on PD-1/ CD8+ TIL could better stratify patient of different prognosis than PD-L1/ CD8+ TIL based classification. EGFR wide type and IFN? overexpression were associated with TIMT4 (high PD-1/PD-L1 and high CD8+ TIL), whereas tumor mutational burden (TMB) manifested no significant difference across four TIMTs. Conclusion: The classification of tumors into four microenvironment subtypes based on PD-1/PD-L1 status and CD8+ TIL is an appropriate approach to stratify patients of different clinical outcome and better guide the practical use of immunotherapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Immune checkpoint therapies (ICTs) targeting the programmed cell death-1 (PD1)/programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) pathway have improved outcomes for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), particularly those with high PD-L1 expression. However, the predictive value of manual PD-L1 scoring is imperfect and alternative measures are needed. We report an automated image analysis solution to determine the predictive and prognostic values of the product of PD-L1+ cell and CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) densities (CD8xPD-L1 signature) in baseline tumor biopsies. METHODS:Archival or fresh tumor biopsies were analyzed for PD-L1 and CD8 expression by immunohistochemistry. Samples were collected from 163 patients in Study 1108/NCT01693562, a Phase 1/2 trial to evaluate durvalumab across multiple tumor types, including NSCLC, and a separate cohort of 199 non-ICT- patients. Digital images were automatically scored for PD-L1+ and CD8+ cell densities using customized algorithms applied with Developer XD™ 2.7 software. RESULTS:For patients who received durvalumab, median overall survival (OS) was 21.0?months for CD8xPD-L1 signature-positive patients and 7.8?months for signature-negative patients (p =?0.00002). The CD8xPD-L1 signature provided greater stratification of OS than high densities of CD8+ cells, high densities of PD-L1+ cells, or manually assessed tumor cell PD-L1 expression ?25%. The CD8xPD-L1 signature did not stratify OS in non-ICT patients, although a high density of CD8+ cells was associated with higher median OS (high: 67?months; low: 39.5?months, p =?0.0009) in this group. CONCLUSIONS:An automated CD8xPD-L1 signature may help to identify NSCLC patients with improved response to durvalumab therapy. Our data also support the prognostic value of CD8+ TILS in NSCLC patients who do not receive ICT. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01693562 . Study code: CD-ON-MEDI4736-1108. Interventional study (ongoing but not currently recruiting). Actual study start date: August 29, 2012. Primary completion date: June 23, 2017 (final data collection date for primary outcome measure).
Project description:Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is suggested to be a predictive biomarker in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). However, the differential expression of PD-L1 in primary lung tumor vs. synchronous metastases, especially brain metastasis (BM), remains unclear. This study assessed the concordance of PD-L1 expression on tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and CD8+ TIL intensity between primary lung tumors and synchronous BMs from 24 NSCLC patients. PD-L1, CD3, and CD8 positivity was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). PD-L1 scoring was based on the proportion of tumor cells with membranous expression of PD-L1 and the cutoff values <1%, 1-49%, and ?50%. CD3 and CD8 positivity in TILs was evaluated semi-quantitatively and the proportion of CD3+/CD8+ TILs was determined. PD-L1 expression on tumor cells and TILs was evaluated in relation to CD3+/CD8+ TIL proportions and the intensity of CD8+ TILs between the paired primary lung and BM tissues. In the primary lung tumors, PD-L1 positivity was observed in 25%, 37.5%, and 37.5% cases for the cutoff values <1%, 1-49%, and ?50%, respectively. PD-L1 expression on tumor cells was strongly correlated between the paired primary lung and BM tissues, in all cutoff groups. However, PD-L1 expression on TILs and the proportion of CD3+/CD8+ TILs were not strongly correlated in all three groups between the paired primary lung tumors and BMs. The intensity of CD8+ TILs was concordant in only 54.16% of the paired primary lung tumors and BMs. This study showed a high concordance of PD-L1 expression in neoplastic cells between primary NSCLC and synchronous BMs.
Project description:BACKGROUND/AIM:mmune checkpoint inhibition (CPI) has an increasing impact in the multimodal treatment of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC). Increasing evidence suggests treatment outcome depending on tumor cell PD-L1 expression. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the prognostic value of PD-L1 expression on tumor cells in combination with CD8+ tumor stroma-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) density in inoperable LA-NSCLC treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT). PATIENTS AND METHOD:We retrospectively assessed clinical characteristics and initial tumor biopsy samples of 31 inoperable LA-NSCLC patients treated with concurrent CRT. Prognostic impact of tumor cell PD-L1 expression (0% versus ?1%) and CD8+ TIL density (0-40% vs. 41-100%) for local control, progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) as well as correlations with clinicopathological features were evaluated. RESULTS:Median OS was 14?months (range: 3-167?months). The OS rates at 1- and 2?years were 68 and 20%. Local control of the entire cohort at 1 and 2?years were 74 and 61%. Median PFS, 1-year and 2-year PFS were 13?±?1.4?months, 58 and 19%. PD-L1 expression <?1% on tumor cells was associated with improved OS, PFS and local control in patients treated with concurrent CRT. Univariate analysis showed a trend towards improved OS and local control in patients with low CD8+ TIL density. Evaluation of Tumor Immunity in the MicroEnvironment (TIME) appears to be an independent prognostic factor for local control, PFS and OS. The longest and shortest OS were achieved in patients with type I (PD-L1neg/CD8low) and type IV (PD-L1pos/CD8low) tumors (median OS: 57?±?37 vs. 10?±?5?months, p?=?0.05), respectively. CONCLUSION:Assessment of PD-L1 expression on tumor cells in combination with CD8+ TIL density can be a predictive biomarker in patients with inoperable LA-NSCLC treated with concurrent CRT.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:To depict the genomic landscape of Chinese early-stage lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) and investigate its correlation with tumor mutation burden (TMB), PD-L1 expression, and immune infiltrates. METHODS:Whole-exome sequencing was performed on 189 surgically resected LUSC. TMB was defined as the sum of nonsynonymous single nucleotide and indel variants. CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) density and PD-L1 expression were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Six immune infiltrates were estimated using an online database. RESULTS:The median TMB was 9.43 mutations per megabase. Positive PD-L1 expression and CD8+ TILs density were identified in 24.3% and 78.8%. PIK3CA amplification was associated with significantly higher TMB (P = 0.036). Frequent genetic alterations had no impact on PD-L1 expression but PIK3CA amplification and KEAP1 mutation were independently associated with significantly lower CD8+ TIL density (P < 0.001, P = 0.005, respectively). Low TMB and high CD8+ TIL density were independently associated with longer disease-free survival (DFS) while none of them could individually predict the overall survival (OS). Combination of TMB and PD-L1 expression or TMB and CD8+ TIL density could stratify total populations into two groups with distinct prognosis. Classifying tumor-immune microenvironment based on PD-L1 expression and CD8+ TIL density showed discrepant genomic alterations but similar TMB, clinical features, and OS. Notably, patients with different smoking status had distinct prognostic factors. CONCLUSION:The combination of TMB, PD-L1 expression, immune infiltrates, and smoking status showed the feasibility to subgroup stratification in Chinese patients with early-stage LUSC, which might be helpful for future design of personalized immunotherapy trials in LUSC.
Project description:Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate how the tumor immune microenvironment differs regarding tumor genomics, as well as its impact on prognoses and responses to immunotherapy in East Asian patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: We performed an integrated analysis using publicly available data to identify associations between anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1)/ programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunotherapy efficacy and classic driver oncogene mutations in East Asian NSCLC patients. Four pooled and clinical cohort analyses were used to correlate driver oncogene mutation status and tumor microenvironment based on PD-L1 and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Immune infiltrating patterns were also established for genomic NSCLC subgroups using the CIBERSORT algorithm. Results: Based on East Asian NSCLC patients, TIDE analyses revealed that for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged tumors yielded inferior responses; however, although Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS)-mutant tumors responded better, the difference was not statistically significant (EGFR: P = 0.037; ALK: P < 0.001; KRAS: P = 0.701). Pooled and clinical cohort analyses demonstrated tumor immune microenvironment heterogeneities correlated with oncogenic patterns. The results showed remarkably higher PD-L1- and TIL-positive KRAS-mutant tumors, suggesting KRAS mutations may drive an inflammatory phenotype with adaptive immune resistance. However, the EGFR-mutant or ALK-rearranged groups showed a remarkably higher proportion of PD-L1-/TIL-tumors, suggesting an uninflamed phenotype with immunological ignorance. Notably, similar to triple wild-type NSCLC tumors, EGFR L858R-mutant tumors positively correlated with an inflammatory phenotype, suggesting responsiveness to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the CIBERSORT algorithm results revealed that EGFR-mutant and ALK-rearranged tumors were characterized by an enriched resting memory CD4+ T cell population (P < 0.001), as well as a lack of CD8+ T cells (P < 0.01), and activated memory CD4+ T cells (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Our study highlighted the complex relationships between immune heterogeneity and immunotherapeutic responses in East Asian NSCLC patients regarding oncogenic dependence.
Project description:In order to explore the potential patient population who could benefit from anti PD-1/PD-L1 mono or combination therapies, this study aimed to profile a panel of immunotherapy related biomarkers (PD-1, PD-L1, CTLA-4 and CD8) and targeted therapy biomarkers (EGFR, KRAS, ALK, ROS1 and MET) in NSCLC.Tumor samples from 297 NSCLC patients, including 156 adenocarcinomas (AD) and 129 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), were analyzed using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization.43.1% of NSCLC patients had PD-L1 positive staining on ? 5% tumor cells (TC). Furthermore, dual color immunofluorescence revealed that the majority of PD-L1/CD8 dual positive tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) had infiltrated into the tumor core. Finally, combined analysis of all eight biomarkers showed that tumor PD-L1 positivity overlapped with known alterations in NSCLC oncogenic tumor drivers in 26% of SCC and 76% of AD samples.Our illustration of the eight biomarkers' overlap provides an intuitive overview of NSCLC for personalized therapeutic strategies using anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immune therapies, either as single agents, or in combination with targeted therapies. For the first time, we also report that PD-L1 and CD8 dual positive TILs are predominantly located within the tumor core.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Programmed death ligand 1/2 (PD-L1/PD-L2) expression has been established as a prognostic factor for various solid tumors and as a predictive factor for PD-1 blockade therapy, but scant data on its role in gallbladder cancer (GBC). The aims of this study were to assess the expression of PD-L1/PD-L2 and the density of CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) from GBC samples and to quantify the association between survival prognosis and these factors. METHODS:CD8+ TILs density and the expression of PD-1, PD-L1, PD-L2 and CD133 were assessed using immunohistochemistry in tumor specimens from 66 patients with gallbladder adenocarcinoma. These indexes were correlated with the clinicopathological features. RESULTS:The rate of PD-L1-positive (PD-L1+) was 54%, which included 18% positivity in tumor cells, and 36% in peritumoral immune stroma. High CD8+ TIL density (CD8high) was observed in PD-L1+ GBC, and PD-L1+ was positively associated with PD-L2+ expression. Regarding prognostic factors, PD-L1+ expression was related to worse overall survival (OS), and CD8high indicated better OS and progression-free survival (PFS). The combination of CD8high with PD-L1+ serves as a prognostic factor for improved OS (P?<?0.001) and PFS (P?=?0.014). CONCLUSION:Analysis of the tumor immune microenvironment based on CD8+ TIL and PD-L1 expression is a promising independent predictor for the clinical outcome of GBC patients.
Project description:Data describing relationships between the tumor immune microenvironment and patient outcome are limited for esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). The present study investigated the prognostic values of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and CD8+ or forkhead box protein 3+ (FOXP3+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in 133 pathological T3N0M0 stage ESCC patients who underwent radical resection without neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy. CD8+ and FOXP3+ TIL densities as well as PD-L1 levels in tumor cells and lymphocytes, were assessed through immunohistochemical staining. Patient survival was not associated with CD8+ or FOXP3+ TILs alone, but PD-L1 expression and the CD8+/FOXP3+ ratio were independent predictors of both disease-free and overall survival. PD-L1 expression correlated with age (p = 0.029), tumor length (p < 0.001), tumor differentiation status (p = 0.002) and reduced intratumoral CD8+ TIL density (p < 0.001). Our results suggest pT3N0M0 ESCC clinical outcomes correlate with CD8+ and FOXP3+ TIL densities and PD-L1 levels. Moreover, an intrinsic mechanism for induction of PD-L1 overexpression may be occurring during early tumor oncogenesis. This information may be useful for stratifying patients and guide the application of checkpoint blockade therapy in ESCC.
Project description:EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that developed acquired resistance to EGFR-tyrosine kinase (TKI) are potential candidates for programmed death 1 (PD1) inhibitor.TPS?1% for PD-L1 and low CD8 + TIL in post-TKI tumor showed a trend for a lower PFS of EGFR-TKIs (14.2 vs 9.9 months; P = 0.060) (cohort A). Only 2 of 22 specimens (9.1%) with an acquired EGFR exon 20 T790M mutation exhibited in post-TKI TPS?50% for PD-L1. The degree in post-TKI tumor of PD-L1 expression was varied in 19 patients (40.5%), with 10 (21.2%) showing higher levels in the resistant biopsy (cohort B). Among the post-TKI high TPS groups, median PFS with low post- TKI CD8 + TIL scores treated with EGFR-TKIs (6.6 months) was significantly lower than that for the other patients (14.2 months; P = 0.015).The change of PD-L1 expression was accompanied by dynamic change in CD8 + TILs and might reflect diverse mechanism of resistance to EGFR-TKI therapy.We identified 69 patients (cohort A) with sufficient post-TKI tumor tissues and 47 patients (cohort B) with paired tumor tissues available. TPS for PD-L1 expression of tumor cells and CD8 + TILs score in tumor specimens were determined by immunohistochemistry.
Project description:The clinical relevance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in breast cancer (BC) has been clearly established by their demonstrated correlation with long-term positive outcomes. Nevertheless, the relationship between protective immunity, observed in some patients, and critical features of the infiltrate remains unresolved. This study examined TIL density, composition and organization together with PD-1 and PD-L1 expression in freshly collected and paraffin-embedded tissues from 125 patients with invasive primary BC. Tumor and normal breast tissues were analyzed using both flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. TIL density distribution is a continuum with 25% of tumors identified as TIL-negative at a TIL density equivalent to normal breast tissues. TIL-positive tumors (75%) were equally divided into TIL-intermediate and TIL-high. Tumors had higher mean frequencies of CD4+ T cells and CD19+ B cells and a lower mean frequency of CD8+ T cells compare with normal tissues, increasing the CD4+/CD8+ T-cell ratio. Tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS), principally located in the peri-tumoral stroma, were detected in 60% of tumors and correlated with higher TIL infiltration. PD-1 and PD-L1 expression were also associated with higher TIL densities and TLS. TIL density, TLS and PD-L1 expression were correlated with more aggressive tumor characteristics, including higher proliferation and hormone receptor negativity. Our findings reveal an important relationship between PD-1/PD-L1 expression, increased CD4+ T and B-cell infiltration, TIL density and TLS, suggesting that evaluating not only the extent but also the nature and location of the immune infiltrate should be considered when evaluating antitumor immunity and the potential for benefit from immunotherapies.