COPI-Mediated Nuclear Translocation of EGFRvIII Promotes STAT3 Phosphorylation and PKM2 Nuclear Localization.
ABSTRACT: As a non-ligand-dependent activation protein, EGFRvIII is the most common mutant of EGFR, and its existence or especially its nuclear translocation in tumors can exacerbate the malignancy. Compared with the nuclear translocation of EGFR, which has been studied extensively, the specific mechanism by which EGFRvIII undergoes nuclear translocation has not yet been reported. Here, we found that EGFRvIII eventually reached the nucleus with the involvement of the Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in glioma cells. In this process, syntaxin-6 was responsible for the identification and transport of EGFRvIII on Golgi. We also demonstrated that COPI mediated the reverse transport of EGFRvIII from the Golgi to ER, which process was also important for EGFRvIII's nuclear accumulation. EGFRvIII's nuclear translocation can significantly promote STAT3 phosphorylation and PKM2 nuclear localization. Finally, we showed that EGFRvIII's nuclear translocation obviously induced the growth of gliomas in an intracranial xenotransplantation experiment. These data suggested that searching methods that inhibit EGFRvIII entry into the nucleus will be effective glioma treatments.
Project description:Emerging evidence indicates that cell surface receptors, such as the entire epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, have been shown to localize in the nucleus. A retrograde route from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is postulated to be involved in the EGFR trafficking to the nucleus; however, the molecular mechanism in this proposed model remains unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that membrane-embedded vesicular trafficking is involved in the nuclear transport of EGFR. Confocal immunofluorescence reveals that in response to EGF, a portion of EGFR redistributes to the Golgi and the ER, where its NH(2)-terminus resides within the lumen of Golgi/ER and COOH-terminus is exposed to the cytoplasm. Blockage of the Golgi-to-ER retrograde trafficking by brefeldin A or dominant mutants of the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor, which both resulted in the disassembly of the coat protein complex I (COPI) coat to the Golgi, inhibit EGFR transport to the ER and the nucleus. We further find that EGF-dependent nuclear transport of EGFR is regulated by retrograde trafficking from the Golgi to the ER involving an association of EGFR with gamma-COP, one of the subunits of the COPI coatomer. Our findings experimentally provide a comprehensive pathway that nuclear transport of EGFR is regulated by COPI-mediated vesicular trafficking from the Golgi to the ER, and may serve as a general mechanism in regulating the nuclear transport of other cell surface receptors.
Project description:Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are cell surface receptors that initiate signal cascades in response to ligand stimulation. Abnormal expression and dysregulated intracellular trafficking of RTKs have been shown to be involved in tumorigenesis. Recent evidence shows that these cell surface receptors translocate from cell surface to different cellular compartments, including the Golgi, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the nucleus, to regulate physiological and pathological functions. Although some trafficking mechanisms have been resolved, the mechanism of intracellular trafficking from cell surface to the Golgi is not yet completely understood. Here we report a mechanism of Golgi translocation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in which EGF-induced EGFR travels to the Golgi via microtubule-dependent movement by interacting with dynein and fuses with the Golgi through syntaxin 6-mediated membrane fusion. We also demonstrate that the microtubule- and syntaxin 6-mediated Golgi translocation of EGFR is necessary for its consequent nuclear translocation and nuclear functions. Thus, together with previous studies, the microtubule- and syntaxin 6-mediated trafficking pathway from cell surface to the Golgi, ER and the nucleus defines a comprehensive trafficking route for EGFR to travel from cell surface to the Golgi and the nucleus.
Project description:Nuclear localization of multiple receptor-tyrosine kinases (RTKs), such as EGF receptor (EGFR), ErbB-2, FGF receptor (FGFR), and many others, has been reported by several groups. We previously showed that cell surface EGFR is trafficked to the nucleus through a retrograde pathway from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and that EGFR is then translocated to the inner nuclear membrane (INM) through the INTERNET (integral trafficking from the ER to the nuclear envelope transport) pathway. However, the nuclear trafficking mechanisms of other membrane RTKs, apart from EGFR, remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the nuclear transport of EGFR family proteins with that of FGFR-1. Interestingly, we found that digitonin permeabilization, which selectively releases soluble nuclear transporters from the cytoplasm and has been shown to inhibit nuclear transport of FGFR-1, had no effects on EGFR nuclear transport, raising the possibility that EGFR and FGFR-1 use different pathways to be translocated into the nucleus. Using the subnuclear fractionation assay, we further demonstrated that biotinylated cell surface ErbB-2, but not FGFR-1, is targeted to the INM, associating with Sec61? in the INM, similar to the nuclear trafficking of EGFR. Thus, ErbB-2, but not FGFR-1, shows a similar trafficking pathway to EGFR for translocation to the nucleus, indicating that at least two different pathways of nuclear transport exist for cell surface receptors. This finding provides a new direction for investigating the trafficking mechanisms of various nuclear RTKs.
Project description:Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression is associated with resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. It modulates DNA repair after radiation-induced damage through association with the catalytic subunit of DNA protein kinase (DNA-PKcs). We investigated the role of EGFR nuclear import and its association with DNA-PKcs on DNA repair after exposure to cisplatin or ionizing radiation (IR). The model system was based on EGFR-null murine NIH3T3 fibroblasts in which EGFR expression was restored with isoforms that were wild-type (wt), derived from human cancers (L858R, EGFRvIII), or mutated in the nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence. In cells expressing wtEGFR or EGFRvIII, there was complete unhooking of cisplatin-induced interstrand cross-links and repair of IR-induced strand breaks. In contrast, cells expressing L858R or NLS mutations showed reduced unhooking of interstrand cross-links and repair of strand breaks. Immunoprecipitation showed wtEGFR and EGFRvIII binding to DNA-PKcs, increasing 2-fold 18 hours after cisplatin therapy. Confocal microscopy and proximity ligation assay showed that this interaction in the cytoplasm and nucleus was associated with increased DNA protein kinase complex (DNA-PK) activity. Cells expressing the EGFR L858R mutation, which has constitutive kinase activity, exhibited reduced DNA repair without nuclear localization. EGFR-NLS mutants showed impaired nuclear localization and DNA-PKcs association with reduced DNA repair and DNA-PK kinase activity. In summary, EGFR nuclear localization was required for modulation of cisplatin and IR-induced repair of DNA damage. EGFR-DNA-PKcs binding was induced by cisplatin or IR but not by EGFR nuclear translocation per se. Our findings show that EGFR subcellular distribution can modulate DNA repair kinetics, with implications for design of EGFR-targeted combinational therapies.
Project description:Emerging evidence indicates a novel mode of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling, notably, one involves EGFR nuclear translocalization and subsequent gene activation. To date, however, the significance of the nuclear EGFR pathway in glioblastoma (GBM) is unknown. Here, we report that EGFR and its constitutively activated variant EGFRvIII undergo nuclear translocalization in GBM cells, in which the former event requires EGF stimulation and the latter is constitutive. To gain insights into the effect of nuclear EGFR on gene expression in GBM, we created isogenic GBM cell lines, namely, U87MG-vector, U87MG-EGFR, and U87MG-EGFRdNLS that, respectively, express the control vector, EGFR, and nuclear entry-defective EGFR with a deletion of the nuclear localization signal (NLS). Microarray analysis shows that 19 genes, including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), to be activated in U87MG-EGFR cells but not in U87MG-EGFRdNLS and U87MG-vector cells. Subsequent validation studies indicate that COX-2 gene is expressed at higher levels in cells with EGFR and EGFRvIII than those with EGFRdNLS and EGFRvIIIdNLS. Nuclear EGFR and its transcriptional cofactor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) associate with the COX-2 promoter. Increased expression of EGFR/EGFRvIII and activated STAT3 leads to the synergistic activation of the COX-2 promoter. Promoter mutational analysis identified a proximal STAT3-binding site that is required for EGFR/EGFRvIII-STAT3-mediated COX-2 gene activation. In GBM tumors, an association exists between levels of COX-2, EGFR/EGFRvIII, and activated STAT3. Together, these findings indicate the existence of the nuclear EGFR/EGFRvIII signaling pathway in GBM and its functional interaction with STAT3 to activate COX-2 gene expression, thus linking EGFR-STAT3 and EGFRvIII-STAT3 signaling axes to proinflammatory COX-2 mediated pathway.
Project description:Aberrant EGFR signaling strongly promotes glioma malignancy and treatment resistance. The most prevalent mutation, ?EGFR/EGFRvIII, is an in-frame deletion of the extracellular domain, which occurs in more than 25% of glioblastomas and enhances growth and survival of tumor cells. Paradoxically, the signaling of the potent oncogene ?EGFR is of low intensity, raising the question of whether it exhibits preferential signaling to key downstream targets. We have observed levels of phosphorylation of STAT5 at position Y699 in cells expressing ?EGFR that are similar or higher than in cells that overexpress EGFR and are acutely stimulated with EGF, prompting us to investigate the role of STAT5 activation in glioblastoma. Here, we show that in human glioblastoma samples, pSTAT5 levels correlated positively with EGFR expression and were associated with reduced survival. Interestingly, the activation of STAT5b downstream of ?EGFR was dependent on SFKs, while the signal from acutely EGF-stimulated EGFR to STAT5b involved other kinases. Phosphorylated STAT5b and ?EGFR associated in the nucleus, bound DNA and were found on promoters known to be regulated by STAT5 including that of the Aurora A gene. ?EGFR cooperated with STAT5b to regulate the Bcl-XL promoter and knockdown of STAT5b suppressed anchorage independent growth, reduced the levels of Bcl-XL and sensitized glioblastoma cells to cisplatin. Together these results delineate a novel association of nuclear ?EGFR with STAT5b, which promotes oncogenesis and treatment resistance in glioblastoma by direct regulation of anti-apoptotic gene, Bcl-XL.
Project description:The embryonic pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) isoform is highly expressed in human cancer. In contrast to the established role of PKM2 in aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect, its non-metabolic functions remain elusive. Here we demonstrate, in human cancer cells, that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation induces translocation of PKM2, but not PKM1, into the nucleus, where K433 of PKM2 binds to c-Src-phosphorylated Y333 of ?-catenin. This interaction is required for both proteins to be recruited to the CCND1 promoter, leading to HDAC3 removal from the promoter, histone H3 acetylation and cyclin D1 expression. PKM2-dependent ?-catenin transactivation is instrumental in EGFR-promoted tumour cell proliferation and brain tumour development. In addition, positive correlations have been identified between c-Src activity, ?-catenin Y333 phosphorylation and PKM2 nuclear accumulation in human glioblastoma specimens. Furthermore, levels of ?-catenin phosphorylation and nuclear PKM2 have been correlated with grades of glioma malignancy and prognosis. These findings reveal that EGF induces ?-catenin transactivation via a mechanism distinct from that induced by Wnt/Wingless and highlight the essential non-metabolic functions of PKM2 in EGFR-promoted ?-catenin transactivation, cell proliferation and tumorigenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The differential diagnosis between infiltrative glioma (IG) and benign or curable glial lesions, such as gliosis, pilocytic astrocytoma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, ganglioglioma, or demyelinating disease, may be challenging for the pathologist because specific markers are lacking. Recently, we described a strong EGFR immunolabelling pattern in cells with a high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio that enables the discrimination of low-grade IG from gliosis. The aim of this study was to extend our observation to high-grade glioma to assess whether EGFR expression pattern is of value in the discrimination of all IG from noninfiltrative glial lesions (NIG), including gliosis, benign tumors, and demyelinating disease. METHODS: One hundred one IG and 58 NIG were compared for immunohistochemical expression of EGFR with use of an antibody that recognizes an epitope in the extracellular domain of both EGFRwt and EGFRvIII. Highly EGFR-positive cells with a high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio were isolated and further characterized. RESULTS: Cells with intense EGFR staining and a high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio were significantly associated with the diagnosis of IG (P < .0001). The sensitivity and specificity of this staining pattern for the diagnosis of IG were 95% and 100%, respectively. EGFR expression was independent of IDH1 mutations and EGFR amplification. Finally, we showed that these particular cells displayed the phenotype and properties of glial progenitors and coexpressed CXCR4, a marker of invasiveness. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that cells with intense EGFR staining and a high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio are specific criteria for the diagnosis of IG, irrespective of grade, histological subtype, and progression pathway, and their identification represents a tool to discriminate IG from benign or curable glial lesions.
Project description:Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)vIII is the most common EGFR mutant found in glioblastoma (GBM). EGFRvIII does not bind ligand, is highly oncogenic and is usually coexpressed with EGFR wild type (EGFRwt). EGFRvIII activates Met, and Met contributes to EGFRvIII-mediated oncogenicity and resistance to treatment. Here, we report that addition of EGF results in a rapid loss of EGFRvIII-driven Met phosphorylation in glioma cells. Met is associated with EGFRvIII in a physical complex. Addition of EGF results in a dissociation of the EGFRvIII-Met complex with a concomitant loss of Met phosphorylation. Consistent with the abrogation of Met activation, addition of EGF results in the inhibition of EGFRvIII-mediated resistance to chemotherapy. Thus, our study suggests that ligand in the milieu of EGFRvIII-expressing GBM cells is likely to influence the EGFRvIII-Met interaction and resistance to treatment, and highlights a novel antagonistic interaction between EGFRwt and EGFRvIII in glioma cells.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Although mutational activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) features prominently in glioma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), inhibitors of EGFR improve survival only in patients with NCSLC. To understand how mutations in EGFR influence response to therapy, we generated glioma cells expressing either glioma- or NSCLC-derived alleles and quantified kinase-site occupancy by clinical inhibitors with the use of a novel affinity probe and kinetic methodology. At equivalent doses, erlotinib achieved lower kinase-site occupancy in glioma-derived EGFRvIII compared with NSCLC-derived EGFR mutants. Kinase-site occupancy correlated directly with cell-cycle arrest. EGFRvIII released erlotinib rapidly compared with wild-type EGFR, whereas NSCLC-derived mutants released erlotinib slowly. SIGNIFICANCE:These data suggest that kinase-site occupancy is a biomarker for efficacy of EGFR inhibitors, that rapid binding and release of erlotinib in glioma-derived EGFRvIII opposes the blockade of downstream signaling, and that slower cycling of erlotinib within the active site of NSCLC-derived mutants underlies their improved clinical response.