A Collaborative Analysis of Individual Participant Data from 19 Prospective Studies Assesses Circulating Vitamin D and Prostate Cancer Risk.
ABSTRACT: Previous prospective studies assessing the relationship between circulating concentrations of vitamin D and prostate cancer risk have shown inconclusive results, particularly for risk of aggressive disease. In this study, we examine the association between prediagnostic concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] and the risk of prostate cancer overall and by tumor characteristics. Principal investigators of 19 prospective studies provided individual participant data on circulating 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D for up to 13,462 men with incident prostate cancer and 20,261 control participants. ORs for prostate cancer by study-specific fifths of season-standardized vitamin D concentration were estimated using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression. 25(OH)D concentration was positively associated with risk for total prostate cancer (multivariable-adjusted OR comparing highest vs. lowest study-specific fifth was 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.31; P trend < 0.001). However, this association varied by disease aggressiveness (P heterogeneity = 0.014); higher circulating 25(OH)D was associated with a higher risk of nonaggressive disease (OR per 80 percentile increase = 1.24, 1.13-1.36) but not with aggressive disease (defined as stage 4, metastases, or prostate cancer death, 0.95, 0.78-1.15). 1,25(OH)2D concentration was not associated with risk for prostate cancer overall or by tumor characteristics. The absence of an association of vitamin D with aggressive disease does not support the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency increases prostate cancer risk. Rather, the association of high circulating 25(OH)D concentration with a higher risk of nonaggressive prostate cancer may be influenced by detection bias. SIGNIFICANCE: This international collaboration comprises the largest prospective study on blood vitamin D and prostate cancer risk and shows no association with aggressive disease but some evidence of a higher risk of nonaggressive disease.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Vitamin D insufficiency is a common public health problem nationwide. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25[OH]D), the most commonly used index of vitamin D status, is converted to the active hormone 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25[OH]2D), which, operating through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), inhibits in vitro cell proliferation, induces differentiation and apoptosis, and may protect against prostate cancer. Despite intriguing results from laboratory studies, previous epidemiological studies showed inconsistent associations of circulating levels of 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D, and several VDR polymorphisms with prostate cancer risk. Few studies have explored the joint association of circulating vitamin D levels with VDR polymorphisms.<h4>Methods and findings</h4>During 18 y of follow-up of 14,916 men initially free of diagnosed cancer, we identified 1,066 men with incident prostate cancer (including 496 with aggressive disease, defined as stage C or D, Gleason 7-10, metastatic, and fatal prostate cancer) and 1,618 cancer-free, age- and smoking-matched control participants in the Physicians' Health Study. We examined the associations of prediagnostic plasma levels of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D, individually and jointly, with total and aggressive disease, and explored whether relations between vitamin D metabolites and prostate cancer were modified by the functional VDR FokI polymorphism, using conditional logistic regression. Among these US physicians, the median plasma 25(OH)D levels were 25 ng/ml in the blood samples collected during the winter or spring and 32 ng/ml in samples collected during the summer or fall. Nearly 13% (summer/fall) to 36% (winter/spring) of the control participants were deficient in 25(OH)D (<20 ng/ml) and 51% (summer/fall) and 77% (winter/spring) had insufficient plasma 25(OH)D levels (<32 ng/ml). Plasma levels of 1,25(OH)2D did not vary by season. Men whose levels for both 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were below (versus above) the median had a significantly increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-3.4), although the interaction between the two vitamin D metabolites was not statistically significant (pinteraction = 0.23). We observed a significant interaction between circulating 25(OH)D levels and the VDR FokI genotype (pinteraction < 0.05). Compared with those with plasma 25(OH)D levels above the median and with the FokI FF or Ff genotype, men who had low 25(OH)D levels and the less functional FokI ff genotype had increased risks of total (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.3) and aggressive prostate cancer (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.8). Among men with plasma 25(OH)D levels above the median, the ff genotype was no longer associated with risk. Conversely, among men with the ff genotype, high plasma 25(OH)D level (above versus below the median) was related to significant 60% approximately 70% lower risks of total and aggressive prostate cancer.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our data suggest that a large proportion of the US men had suboptimal vitamin D status (especially during the winter/spring season), and both 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D may play an important role in preventing prostate cancer progression. Moreover, vitamin D status, measured by 25(OH)D in plasma, interacts with the VDR FokI polymorphism and modifies prostate cancer risk. Men with the less functional FokI ff genotype (14% in the European-descent population of this cohort) are more susceptible to this cancer in the presence of low 25(OH)D status.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Studies suggest that vitamin D status may be associated with prostate cancer risk although the direction and strength of this association differs between experimental and observational studies. Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status. We examined prostate cancer risk in relation to single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in four genes shown to predict circulating levels of 25(OH)D. METHODS:SNP markers localized to each of four genes (GC, CYP24A1, CYP2R1, and DHCR7) previously associated with 25(OH)D were genotyped in 10,018 cases and 11,052 controls from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. Logistic regression was used to estimate the individual and cumulative association between genetic variants and risk of overall and aggressive prostate cancer. RESULTS:We observed a decreased risk of aggressive prostate cancer among men with the allele in rs6013897 near CYP24A1 associated with lower serum 25(OH)D [per A allele, OR, 0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.80-0.93; Ptrend = 0.0002) but an increased risk for nonaggressive disease (per A allele: OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.17; Ptrend = 0.002). Examination of a polygenic score of the four SNPs revealed statistically significantly lower risk of aggressive prostate cancer among men with a greater number of low vitamin D alleles (OR for 6-8 vs. 0-1 alleles, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.44-0.98; Ptrend = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS:In this large, pooled analysis, genetic variants related to lower 25(OH)D levels were associated with a decreased risk of aggressive prostate cancer. IMPACT:Our genetic findings do not support a protective association between loci known to influence vitamin D levels and prostate cancer risk.
Project description:Dairy food intake has been associated with prostate cancer in previous work, but the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Dairy calcium may suppress circulating levels of potentially cancer-protective 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D). We examined the associations of dairy, milk, calcium, and vitamin D intake with plasma 1,25(OH)2D levels among 296 men (194 black, 102 non-black) enrolled in a high risk program for prostate cancer from 10/96 to 10/07.All participants completed diet and health history questionnaires and provided plasma samples, which were assessed for levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25(OH)2D. We used multivariate linear regression to examine associations with 1,25(OH)2D.After adjustment for age, race, energy intake, BMI, and alcohol intake, we observed no associations for any of our variables of interest with 1,25(OH)2D, or any meaningful differences in estimates by race or vitamin D status.Our findings, in a sample including a large proportion of black participants, do not confirm previous findings showing an inverse association between calcium intake and 1,25(OH)2D levels. As such, they suggest that future work should explore other mechanisms by which dairy foods and calcium might increase prostate cancer risk.
Project description:We systematically investigated the association of 48 SNPS in four vitamin D metabolizing genes [CYP27A1, GC, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1] with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D] levels and the association of these SNPS and an additional 164 SNPS in eight downstream mediators of vitamin D signaling [VDR, RXRA, RXRB, PPAR, NCOA1, NCOA2, NCOA3 and SMAD3] with prostate cancer risk in the 749 incident prostate cancer cases and 781 controls of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. 25(OH)D (all cases and controls) and 1,25(OH)(2)D (a subset of 150 controls) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay and SNP data were genotyped as part of a genome-wide scan. Among investigated SNPS, only four tag SNPS in GC, the major serum 25(OH)D carrier, were associated with 25(OH)D levels; no SNPS were associated with 1,25(OH)(2)D levels. None of the 212 SNPS examined were associated with cancer risk overall. Among men in the lowest tertile of serum 25(OH)D (<48.9 nmol/l), however, prostate cancer risk was related to tag SNPS in or near the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of VDR, with the strongest association for rs11574143 [odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for risk allele carriers versus wild-type: 2.49 (1.51-4.11), P = 0.0007]; the genotype associations were null among men in tertile 2 and tertile 3. Results from the most comprehensive evaluation of serum vitamin D and its related genes to date suggest that tag SNPS in the 3' UTR of VDR may be associated with risk of prostate cancer in men with low vitamin D status.
Project description:PURPOSE:Vitamin D pathway single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are potentially useful proxies for investigating whether circulating vitamin D metabolites [total 25-hydroxyvitamin-D, 25(OH)D; 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin, 1,25(OH)2D] are causally related to prostate cancer. We investigated associations of sixteen SNPs across seven genes with prostate-specific antigen-detected prostate cancer. METHODS:In a nested case-control study (within the ProtecT trial), we estimated odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) quantifying associations between SNPs and prostate cancer. Subgroup analyses investigated whether associations were stronger in men who had high/low sun exposure [a proxy for 25(OH)D]. We quantified associations of SNPs with stage (T1-T2/T3-T4) and grade (<7/≥7). Multiple variant scores included SNPs encoding proteins involved in 25(OH)D synthesis and metabolism. RESULTS:We included 1,275 prostate cancer cases (141 locally advanced, 385 high grades) and 2,062 healthy controls. Vitamin D-binding protein SNPs were associated with prostate cancer (rs4588-A: OR 1.20, CI 1.01, 1.41, p = 0.04; rs7041-T: OR 1.19, CI 1.02, 1.38, p = 0.03). Low 25(OH)D metabolism score was associated with high (vs low) grade (OR 0.76, CI 0.63, 0.93, p = 0.01); there was a similar association of its component variants: rs6013897-A in CYP24A1 (OR 0.78, CI 0.60, 1.01, p = 0.06) and rs10877012-T in CYP27B1 (OR 0.80, CI 0.63, 1.02, p = 0.07). There was no evidence that associations differed by level of sun exposure. CONCLUSION:We found some evidence that vitamin D pathway SNPs were associated with prostate cancer risk and grade, but not stage. There was no evidence of an association in men with deficient vitamin D (measured by having low sun exposure).
Project description:Common polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor gene have been reported to affect the risk of breast, colon, prostate, and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), but polymorphisms within the genes of vitamin D metabolizing enzymes have not been studied in DTC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the genes for vitamin D enzymes in patients with DTC and healthy controls (HC) as well as the vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D(3), and 1,25-hydroxyvitamin) status.German patients (n=253) with DTC (papillary thyroid carcinoma [PTC] and follicular thyroid carcinoma [FTC]) and HC (n=302) were genotyped for polymorphisms within the vitamin D metabolizing enzymes such as 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R1[rs12794714, rs10741657]), 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1?-hydroxylase (CYP27B1[rs10877012, rs4646536]), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D 24-hydrolase (CYP24A1[rs927650, rs2248137, rs2296241]). Furthermore, the 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] and 1,25-hydroxyvitamin [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)] plasma levels were measured by a radioimmunoassay.There was no difference in the genotypes; however, the CYP24A1 haplotype analysis showed that rs2248137C/rs2296241A (13.1% vs. 19.1%; corrected p [pc]=0.04) was less frequent in the PTC, whereas the haplotypes rs2248137C/rs2296241G (56.0% vs. 41.9%; pc=0.03), rs927650C/rs2296241G (22.5% vs. 8.4%; pc=1.6×10(-3)), and rs927650C/rs2248137C/rs2296241G (21.1% vs. 7.3%; pc=1.5×10(-3)) were more frequent in the FTC compared with HC. Furthermore, if patients and controls were grouped according to four 25(OH)D(3) categories (severely deficient, deficient, insufficient, and sufficient), then the patients with both DTC subtypes had significantly lower levels of circulating 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), especially in the group with a deficient 25(OH)D(3) status compared with the controls. Although the polymorphisms showed no differences stratified for the four 25(OH)D(3) categories, the activation status by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) differed significantly depending on the genotypes of the investigated CYP24A1 polymorphisms.A higher risk for DTC is conferred by haplotypes within the CYP24A1 gene, low circulating 25(OH)D(3) levels (deficiency), and a reduced conversion to 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). These results confirm and extend previous observations and also support a role of the vitamin D system in the pathogenesis of DTC. How deficient 25(OH)D(3) levels in combination with certain CYP24A1 haplotypes affect vitamin D activation is the subject of future studies.
Project description:Vitamin D metabolites have been extensively studied as cancer chemopreventive agents. Gc-globulin (GC) isotypes, based on rs7041 and rs4588 diplotypes, have varying affinities for 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), which may affect circulating metabolite concentration as well as delivery at the cellular level. We evaluated associations between GC isotype and circulating vitamin D metabolite concentrations in 403 ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) clinical trial participants. Metabolite uptake was evaluated in human colon cancer (HCT-116) cells treated with ethanol vehicle, 1,25(OH)2D, or 25(OH)D, and with plasma from individuals with known GC isotype. Mammalian-2-hybrid and vitamin D-responsive element-based luciferase assays were used to measure the vitamin D receptor pathway activation as a marker for metabolite uptake. Regression analysis demonstrated significantly lower serum 25(OH)D concentration for clinical trial participants with 1F_2, 1S_2, or 2_2 isotypes (P < 0.01) compared with 1S_1S. Consistent with these in vivo observations, cellular data revealed that 25(OH)D uptake varied less by GC isotype only at the higher concentration tested (P = 0.05), while 1,25(OH)2D uptake differed markedly by GC isotype across concentration and assay (P < 0.01). The 1F_1S and 1F_2 isotypes produced the greatest reporter gene induction with 1,25(OH)2D treatment and, while activation varied less with 25(OH)D, the 2_2 isotype demonstrated increased induction at the lower concentration. These results suggest that vitamin D metabolite concentration and delivery to colon cells may vary not only by GC isotype, but also that certain isotypes may more effectively deliver 1,25(OH)2D versus 25(OH)D. Overall, these results may help identify populations at risk for cancer and potential recipients of targeted chemoprevention.
Project description:Data suggest that circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] interacts with the vitamin D receptor (VDR) to decrease proliferation and increase apoptosis for some malignancies, although evidence for prostate cancer is less clear. How VDR expression in tumor tissue may influence prostate cancer progression has not been evaluated in large studies.We examined protein expression of VDR in tumor tissue among 841 patients with prostate cancer in relation to risk of lethal prostate cancer within two prospective cohorts, the Physicians' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. We also examined the association of VDR expression with prediagnostic circulating 25(OH)D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels and with two VDR single nucleotide polymorphisms, FokI and BsmI.Men whose tumors had high VDR expression had significantly lower prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at diagnosis (P for trend < .001), lower Gleason score (P for trend < .001), and less advanced tumor stage (P for trend < .001) and were more likely to have tumors harboring the TMPRSS2:ERG fusion (P for trend = .009). Compared with the lowest quartile, men whose tumors had the highest VDR expression had significantly reduced risk of lethal prostate cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 0.17; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.41). This association was only slightly attenuated after adjustment for Gleason score and PSA at diagnosis (HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.83) or, additionally, for tumor stage (HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.94). Neither prediagnostic plasma vitamin D levels nor VDR polymorphisms were associated with VDR expression.High VDR expression in prostate tumors is associated with a reduced risk of lethal cancer, suggesting a role of the vitamin D pathway in prostate cancer progression.
Project description:Vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of lethal prostate adenocarcinomas (PCa) and the majority of older men are deficient. Although PCa arises from the epithelium, the surrounding stroma has hormonal regulatory control over the epithelium and contributes to carcinogenesis. Herein, we describe regulation of microRNAs (miRs) by the active hormone dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) in human prostate stroma. 1,25(OH)2D binds the vitamin D receptor (VDR) transcription factor to regulate gene expression, including miRs, which have emerged as potent regulators of protein expression. 1,25(OH)2D-regulated miRs were identified by profiling in primary human prostatic stromal cells (PrS) and three miRs, miR-126-3p, miR 154-5p and miR-21-5p were subsequently validated in laser-capture micro-dissected prostate stromal tissue from a vitamin D3 clinical trial (N=45). Regulation of these miRs by 1,25(OH)2D was VDR-dependent. Network analysis of known and putative mRNA targets of these miRs was enriched with cancer and inflammation pathways, consistent with known roles of stroma and of vitamin D in carcinogenesis. Expression of the miR processing ribonuclease, DICER1, positively correlated with vitamin D metabolite levels in the clinical trial specimens. High epithelial/stromal ratios of DICER1 were significantly associated biochemical recurrence (OR 3.1, p=0.03) in a tissue microarray of 170 matched PCa patients. In summary, these results underscore the role of the prostate stroma in regulating responses to the hormone 1,25(OH)2D and identified miRs and DICER1 as being regulated in human prostate stroma. Regulation of stromal DICER1 by 1,25(OH)2D may also have clinical relevance in protection against aggressive PCa.