Remembering or knowing how we felt: Depression and anxiety symptoms predict retrieval processes during emotional self-report.
ABSTRACT: Researchers and clinicians routinely rely on patients' retrospective emotional self-reports to guide diagnosis and treatment, despite evidence of impaired autobiographical memory and retrieval of emotional information in depression and anxiety. To clarify the nature and specificity of these impairments, we conducted two large online data collections (Study 1, N = 1,983; Study 2, N = 900) examining whether depression and/or anxiety symptoms would uniquely predict the use of self-reported episodic (i.e., remembering) and/or semantic (i.e., knowing) retrieval when rating one's positive and negative emotional experiences over different time frames. Participants were randomly assigned to one of six time frames (ranging from at this moment to last few years) and were asked to rate how intensely they felt each of four emotions, anxious, sad, calm, and happy, over that period. Following each rating, they were asked several follow-up prompts assessing their perceived reliance on episodic and/or semantic information to rate how they felt, using procedures adapted from the traditional "remember/know" paradigm (Tulving, 1985). Across both studies, depression and anxiety symptoms each uniquely predicted increased likelihood of remembering across emotion types, and decreased likelihood of knowing how one felt when rating positive emotion types. Implications for the theory and treatment of emotion-related memory disturbances in depression and anxiety, and for dual-process theories of memory retrieval more generally, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
Project description:A polymorphism in the human serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene is implicated in susceptibility to anxiety and depression and in enhanced emotion-induced activation in the amygdala. A role for 5-HTT polymorphism in the emotional modulation of human episodic memory has yet to be demonstrated. Here, we demonstrate that whereas emotional memory for aversive events per se is not influenced by 5-HTT polymorphism, an emotion-induced retrograde amnesia is expressed solely in the presence of the short allele. The findings indicate a critical role for the serotonin system in emotion-mediated memory disruption.
Project description:Cognitive and emotional deficits have been documented in youth with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD); however, to date, a systematic evaluation of comprehension and memory for verbally presented information has not been conducted. The effect of emotion on comprehension and memory for verbally presented material also has not been examined. We examined whether youth with PBD have difficulty recalling the big picture (macrostructure) as well as the story details (microstructure).A total of 35 youth with PBD and 25 healthy controls completed an Affective Story Task. A psychological processing model allowed for the examination of both the macrostructure and microstructure of language comprehension.Youth with PBD were capable of comprehending the gist of the stories and were not impaired by emotion when comprehending and remembering macrostructure. However, negative emotional material was found to proactively interfere with the encoding and recall of microstructure. Level of depression appeared to impact recall of microstructure, but not macrostructure.Negatively valenced material may impair subsequent comprehension and memory for details among youth with PBD. This deficit could impact the daily functioning of these youth, as the perception of negative affect may derail aspects of successful comprehension and learning.
Project description:Reports of emotions experienced over the past week can be influenced by memory bias, which is more pronounced for people with depression. No studies, however, have examined memory bias for specific emotion clusters (e.g., sadness, anxiety, and anger) experienced on a day-to-day basis among people with depression or a history of depression. Participants (N = 1,657) from the Midlife in the United States Study were assessed for depression. Approximately 6 months later, participants reported their emotional experiences for 8 days and recalled these experiences on the final day. Differences in recalled and reported emotion were compared between participants with and without a history of depression. Participants overestimated experience only of negative emotions, particularly anger, and this negativity bias was greatest for participants with a history of depression. Feelings related to anger were prone to greater overestimation than sadness or anxiety. These findings emphasize the role of memory bias in retrospective reports of specific emotions and illustrate the presence of an amplified memory bias among people who are at a greater risk for recurrent depressive episodes.
Project description:In his seminal paper, Gabrielsson (2002) distinguishes between emotion felt by the listener, here: "internal locus of emotion" (IL), and the emotion the music is expressing, here: "external locus of emotion" (EL). This paper tabulates 16 comparisons of felt versus expressed emotions in music published in the decade 2003-2012 consisting of 19 studies/experiments and provides some theoretical perspectives. The key findings were that (1) IL rating was frequently rated statistically the same or lower than the corresponding EL rating (e.g., lower felt happiness rating compared to the apparent happiness of the music), and that (2) self-select and preferred music had a smaller gap across the emotion loci than experimenter-selected and disliked music. These key findings were explained by an "inhibited" emotional contagion mechanism, where the otherwise matching felt emotion may have been attenuated by some other factor such as social context. Matching between EL and IL for loved and self-selected pieces was explained by the activation of "contagion" circuits. Physiological arousal, personality and age, as well as musical features (tempo, mode, putative emotions) also influenced perceived and felt emotion distinctions. A variety of data collection formats were identified, but mostly using rating items. In conclusion, a more systematic use of terminology appears desirable. Two broad categories, namely matched and unmatched, are proposed as being sufficient to capture the relationships between EL and IL, instead of four categories as suggested by Gabrielsson.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Psychological factors such as depression, anxiety, stress and insomnia and problematic social media use are able to alter our memories and might have an impact on memory function and retrieval. More studies are needed to better understand the relationship between memory performance and mental health disorders, especially the ones that could be related to problematic social media use. The objective of this study was to evaluate any association between problematic social media use, depression, anxiety, stress, and insomnia vs memory performance among a representative sample of Lebanese people.<h4>Methods</h4>This cross-sectional study, conducted between January and May 2019, enrolled 466 community dwelling participants using a proportionate random sample from all Lebanese governorates. The questionnaire consisted of the following measures: the Memory Awareness Rating Scale (MARS) to assesses views of memory performance, the problematic social media use scale to measure the degree of addiction to social media, the Hamilton depression rating scale and Hamilton anxiety scale to assess depression and anxiety respectively, the Beirut Distress Scale to assess stress and the Lebanese Insomnia sale to assess insomnia. The data analysis was performed using the SPSS software version 25. A linear regression was conducted, taking the memory performance scale as the dependent variable. A mediation analysis was performed to test the effect of problematic social media use on memory performance mediated by depression, anxiety, stress and insomnia.<h4>Results</h4>Higher problematic social media use (Beta?=?-?0.21) and higher anxiety (Beta?=?-?0.25) were significantly associated with lower memory performance. The association between problematic social media use and memory performance was partially mediated by anxiety (21.19%) but not depression, stress or insomnia.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Concerning problematic social media use, a clear correlation was demonstrated in this study linking it to lower memory performances. Future studies should evaluate the possible mechanisms and methods for effective awareness especially towards the younger generation.
Project description:Although studies have examined the effect of emotional stimuli on reality-monitoring source memory, it is poorly understood whether the effect observed would remain if emotion is induced after encoding. In addition, although there has been evidence that post-encoding emotion enhances item memory but not external monitoring source memory, it is unclear whether such a null effect extends to other types of source memory. To address these gaps, in the current study, participants encoded a list of words. For half of the words they were asked to think about the corresponding opposite words, and for the remaining half of words they viewed the corresponding opposite words. Following encoding they watched a neutral, positive or negative video. Replicating prior studies, both positive and negative emotions enhanced consolidation of item memory. Furthermore, participants at a high level of state anxiety, trait anxiety and depression were more likely to benefit from the enhancement effect of post-encoding emotion. However, no significant effect was observed on reality-monitoring source memory. Taken together the current study suggests that the enhancement effect of post-encoding emotion on item memory does not necessarily extend to reality-monitoring source memory.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) as a performance task discriminates between implicit or subconscious and explicit or conscious levels of emotional awareness. An impaired awareness of one's feeling states may influence emotion regulation strategies and self-reports of negative emotions. To determine this influence, we applied the LEAS and self-report measures for emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in a representative sample of the German general population.<h4>Sample and methods</h4>A short version of the LEAS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), assessing reappraisal and suppression as emotion regulation strategies, were presented to N?=?2524 participants of a representative German community study. The questionnaire data were analyzed with regard to the level of emotional awareness.<h4>Results</h4>LEAS scores were independent from depression, but related to self-reported anxiety. Although of small or medium effect size, different correlational patters between emotion regulation strategies and negative affectivity were related to implict and explict levels of emotional awareness. In participants with implicit emotional awareness, suppression was related to higher anxiety and depression, whereas in participants with explicit emotional awareness, in addition to a positive relationship of suppression and depression, we found a negative relationship of reappraisal to depression. These findings were independent of age. In women high use of suppression and little use of reappraisal were more strongly related to negative affect than in men.<h4>Discussion</h4>Our first findings suggest that conscious awareness of emotions may be a precondition for the use of reappraisal as an adaptive emotion regulation strategy. They encourage further research in the relation between subconsious and conscious emotional awareness and the prefarance of adaptive or maladaptive emotion regulation strategies The correlational trends found in a representative sample of the general population may become more pronounced in clinical samples.
Project description:A growing literature suggests robust associations between dimensions of emotion regulation and emotional disorder psychopathology. However, limited research has investigated associations of emotion regulation dimensions across several emotional disorders (transdiagnostic associations), or the incremental validity of emotion regulation versus the higher-order construct of neuroticism. The current study used exploratory structural equation modeling and a large clinical sample (N = 1,138) to: (a) develop a multidimensional emotion regulation measurement model, (b) evaluate the differential associations between latent emotion regulation dimensions and five latent emotional disorder symptom dimensions (social anxiety, depression, agoraphobia/panic, obsessions/compulsions, generalized worry), and (c) determine the incremental contribution of emotion regulation in predicting symptom dimensions beyond neuroticism. The best-fitting measurement model of emotion regulation included four dimensions: Problematic Responses, Poor Recognition/Clarity, Negative Thinking, and Emotional Inhibition/Suppression. Although many zero-order associations between the four latent emotion regulation dimensions and five latent symptom dimensions were significant, few associations remained significant in a structural regression model that included neuroticism. Specifically, Negative Thinking and Problematic Responses incrementally predicted depression symptoms, while Emotional Inhibition/Suppression predicted both social anxiety and depression symptoms. Associations between neuroticism and the emotional disorder dimensions were similar regardless of whether the emotion regulation dimensions were held constant. These results suggest that self-reported emotion regulation dimensions are associated with the severity and expression of a range of emotional disorder symptoms, but that some emotion regulation dimensions have limited incremental validity after accounting for general emotional reactivity. Studies of emotion regulation should assess neuroticism as a key covariate.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Although research has identified age-by-emotion interactions in memory performance and in neural recruitment during retrieval, it remains unclear which retrieval processes are affected. The temporal resolution of event-related potentials (ERPs) provides a way to examine different component processes that operate during retrieval. METHODS:In the present study, younger and older adults encoded neutral and emotional images paired with neutral titles. ERPs were assessed during a recognition memory task in which participants viewed neutral titles and indicated whether each had been presented during encoding. RESULTS:An age-related posterior-to-anterior shift began in a time window typically associated with recollection-related processes (500-800 ms) while an age-by-emotion interaction occurred only during a later measurement window (800-1,200 ms). DISCUSSION:These findings suggest an effect of age on mechanisms supporting retrieval of episodic content, prior to post-retrieval processing. The potential relations to different types of detail retrieval are discussed. Further, the later age-by-emotion interactions suggest that age influences the effect of emotion on post-retrieval processes, specifically.
Project description:Memory enhancement for emotional events is dependent on amygdala activation and noradrenergic modulation during learning. A potential role for noradrenaline (NE) during retrieval of emotional memory is less well understood. Here, we report that administration of the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol at retrieval abolishes a declarative memory enhancement for emotional items. Critically, this effect persists at a subsequent 24 h memory test, in the absence of propranolol. Thus, these findings extend our current understanding of the role of NE in emotional memory to encompass effects at retrieval, and provide face validity to clinical interventions using beta-adrenergic antagonists in conjunction with reactivation of unwanted memories in anxiety-related disorders.