Theoretical description and experimental simulation of quantum entanglement near open time-like curves via pseudo-density operators.
ABSTRACT: Closed timelike curves are striking predictions of general relativity allowing for time-travel. They are afflicted by notorious causality issues (e.g. grandfather's paradox). Quantum models where a qubit travels back in time solve these problems, at the cost of violating quantum theory's linearity-leading e.g. to universal quantum cloning. Interestingly, linearity is violated even by open timelike curves (OTCs), where the qubit does not interact with its past copy, but is initially entangled with another qubit. Non-linear dynamics is needed to avoid violating entanglement monogamy. Here we propose an alternative approach to OTCs, allowing for monogamy violations. Specifically, we describe the qubit in the OTC via a pseudo-density operator-a unified descriptor of both temporal and spatial correlations. We also simulate the monogamy violation with polarization-entangled photons, providing a pseudo-density operator quantum tomography. Remarkably, our proposal applies to any space-time correlations violating entanglement monogamy, such as those arising in black holes.
Project description:For any three-qubit quantum systems ABC, Oliveira et al. numerically found that both the concurrence and the entanglement of formation (EoF) obey the linear monogamy relations in pure states. They also conjectured that the linear monogamy relations can be saturated when the focus qubit A is maximally entangled with the joint qubits BC. In this work, we prove analytically that both the concurrence and EoF obey linear monogamy relations in an arbitrary three-qubit state. Furthermore, we verify that all three-qubit pure states are maximally entangled in the bipartition A|BC when they saturate the linear monogamy relations. We also study the distribution of the concurrence and EoF. More specifically, when the amount of entanglement between A and B equals to that of A and C, we show that the sum of EoF itself saturates the linear monogamy relation, while the sum of the squared EoF is minimum. Different from EoF, the concurrence and the squared concurrence both saturate the linear monogamy relations when the entanglement between A and B equals to that of A and C.
Project description:Hybrid entangled states, having entanglement between different degrees-of-freedom (DoF) of a particle pair, are of great interest for quantum information science and communication protocols. Among different DoFs, the hybrid entangled states encoded with polarization and orbital angular momentum (OAM) allow the generation of qubit-qudit entangled states, macroscopic entanglement with very high quanta of OAM and improvement in angular resolution in remote sensing. Till date, such hybrid entangled states are generated by using a high-fidelity polarization entangled states and subsequent imprinting of chosen amount of OAM using suitable mode converters such as spatial light modulator in complicated experimental schemes. Given that the entangled sources have feeble number of photons, loss of photons during imprinting of OAM using diffractive optical elements limits the use of such hybrid states for practical applications. Here we report, on a simple generic experimental scheme to generate hybrid entangled states in polarization and OAM through direct transfer of classical non-separable states of the pump beam in parametric down conversion process. As a proof of principle, using local non-separable pump states of OAM mode l = 3, we have produced quantum hybrid entangled states with entanglement witness parameter of ~1.25 ± 0.03 violating by 8 standard deviation.
Project description:Quantum Teleportation, the transfer of the state of one quantum system to another without direct interaction between both systems, is an important way to transmit information encoded in quantum states and to generate quantum correlations (entanglement) between remote quantum systems. So far, for photons, only superpositions of two distinguishable states (one "qubit") could be teleported. Here we show how to teleport a "qudit", i.e. a superposition of an arbitrary number d of distinguishable states present in the orbital angular momentum of a single photon using d beam splitters and d additional entangled photons. The same entanglement resource might also be employed to collectively teleport the state of d/2 photons at the cost of one additional entangled photon per qubit. This is superior to existing schemes for photonic qubits, which require an additional pair of entangled photons per qubit.
Project description:We propose efficient schemes of direct concurrence measurement for two-qubit spin and photon-polarization entangled states via the interaction between single-photon pulses and nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond embedded in optical microcavities. For different entangled-state types, diversified quantum devices and operations are designed accordingly. The initial unknown entangled states are possessed by two spatially separated participants, and nonlocal spin (polarization) entanglement can be measured with the aid of detection probabilities of photon (NV center) states. This non-demolition entanglement measurement manner makes initial entangled particle-pair avoid complete annihilation but evolve into corresponding maximally entangled states. Moreover, joint inter-qubit operation or global qubit readout is not required for the presented schemes and the final analyses inform favorable performance under the current parameters conditions in laboratory. The unique advantages of spin qubits assure our schemes wide potential applications in spin-based solid quantum information and computation.
Project description:By introducing an arbitrary-dimensional multipartite entanglement measure, which is defined in terms of the reduced density matrices corresponding to all possible two partitions of the entire system, we prove that multipartite entanglement cannot be freely shared among the parties in both n-qubit systems and three-qutrit systems. Furthermore, our result implies that the satisfaction of the entanglement monogamy is related to the number of particles in the quantum system. As an application of three-qutrit monogamy inequality, we give a condition for the separability of a class of two-qutrit mixed states in a 3???3 system.
Project description:Entanglement--one of the most delicate phenomena in nature--is an essential resource for quantum information applications. Scalable photonic quantum devices must generate and control qubit entanglement on-chip, where quantum information is naturally encoded in photon path. Here we report a silicon photonic chip that uses resonant-enhanced photon-pair sources, spectral demultiplexers and reconfigurable optics to generate a path-entangled two-qubit state and analyse its entanglement. We show that ring-resonator-based spontaneous four-wave mixing photon-pair sources can be made highly indistinguishable and that their spectral correlations are small. We use on-chip frequency demultiplexers and reconfigurable optics to perform both quantum state tomography and the strict Bell-CHSH test, both of which confirm a high level of on-chip entanglement. This work demonstrates the integration of high-performance components that will be essential for building quantum devices and systems to harness photonic entanglement on the large scale.
Project description:Quantum entanglement is the ability of joint quantum systems to possess global properties (correlation among systems) even when subsystems have no definite individual property. Whilst the 2-dimensional (qubit) case is well-understood, currently, tools to characterise entanglement in high dimensions are limited. We experimentally demonstrate a new procedure for entanglement certification that is suitable for large systems, based entirely on information-theoretics. It scales more efficiently than Bell's inequality and entanglement witness. The method we developed works for arbitrarily large system dimension d and employs only two local measurements of complementary properties. This procedure can also certify whether the system is maximally entangled. We illustrate the protocol for families of bipartite states of qudits with dimension up to 32 composed of polarisation-entangled photon pairs.
Project description:Entanglement is at the heart of quantum technologies such as quantum information and quantum metrology. Providing larger quantum Fisher information (QFI), entangled systems can be better resources than separable systems in quantum metrology. However the effects on the entanglement dynamics such as decoherence usually decrease the QFI considerably. On the other hand, Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction has been shown to excite entanglement. Since an increase in entanglement does not imply an increase in QFI, and also there are cases where QFI decreases as entanglement increases, it is interesting to study the influence of DM interaction on quantum metrology. In this work, we study the QFI of thermal entanglement of two-qubit and three-qubit Heisenberg models with respect to SU(2) rotations. We show that even at high temperatures, DM interaction excites QFI of both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic models. We also show that QFI of the ferromagnetic model of two qubits can surpass the shot-noise limit of the separable states, while QFI of the antiferromagnetic model in consideration can only approach to the shot-noise limit. Our results open new insights in quantum metrology with Heisenberg models.
Project description:We describe a one-step, deterministic and scalable scheme for creating macroscopic arbitrary entangled coherent states (ECSs) of separate nitrogen-vacancy center ensembles (NVEs) that couple to a superconducting flux qubit. We discuss how to generate the entangled states between the flux qubit and two NVEs by the resonant driving. Then the ECSs of the NVEs can be obtained by projecting the flux qubit, and the entanglement detection can be realized by transferring the quantum state from the NVEs to the flux qubit. Our numerical simulation shows that even under current experimental parameters the concurrence of the ECSs can approach unity. We emphasize that this method is straightforwardly extendable to the case of many NVEs.
Project description:Quantum entanglement is notorious for being a very fragile resource. Significant efforts have been put into the study of entanglement degradation in the presence of a realistic noisy environment. Here, we present a theoretical and an experimental study of the decoherence properties of entangled pairs of qubits. The entanglement dynamics of maximally entangled qubit pairs is shown to be related in a simple way to the noise representation in the Bloch sphere picture. We derive the entanglement level in the case when both qubits of a Bell state are transmitted through any arbitrary unital Pauli channel, and compare it to the case when the channel is applied only to one of the qubits. The dynamics of both cases was verified experimentally using an all-optical setup. We further investigated the evolution of partially entangled initial states. Different dynamics was observed for initial mixed and pure states of the same entanglement level.