Multivariate Quantification of the Solid State Phase Composition of Co-Amorphous Naproxen-Indomethacin.
ABSTRACT: To benefit from the optimized dissolution properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients in their amorphous forms, co-amorphisation as a viable tool to stabilize these amorphous phases is of both academic and industrial interest. Reports dealing with the physical stability and recrystallization behavior of co-amorphous systems are however limited to qualitative evaluations based on the corresponding X-ray powder diffractograms. Therefore, the objective of the study was to develop a quantification model based on X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD), followed by a multivariate partial least squares regression approach that enables the simultaneous determination of up to four solid state fractions: crystalline naproxen, ?-indomethacin, ?-indomethacin as well as co-amorphous naproxen-indomethacin. For this purpose, a calibration set that covers the whole range of possible combinations of the four components was prepared and analyzed by XRPD. In order to test the model performances, leave-one-out cross validation was performed and revealed root mean square errors of validation between 3.11% and 3.45% for the crystalline molar fractions and 5.57% for the co-amorphous molar fraction. In summary, even four solid state phases, involving one co-amorphous phase, can be quantified with this XRPD data-based approach.
Project description:Freeze-drying was evaluated as a production technique for co-amorphous systems of a poorly water-soluble drug. Naproxen was freeze-dried together with arginine and lysine as co-former. To increase the solubility of naproxen in the starting solution, the applicability of five surfactants was investigated, namely sodium dodecyl sulfate, pluronic F-127, polyoxyethylene (40) stearate, tween 20 and TPGS 1000. The influence of the surfactant type, surfactant concentration and total solid content to be freeze-dried on the solid state of the sample was investigated. X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry showed that the majority of systems formed co-amorphous one-phase systems. However, at higher surfactant concentrations, and depending on the surfactant type, surfactant reflections were observed in the XRPD analysis upon production. Crystallization of both naproxen and amino acid occurred from some combinations under storage. In conclusion, freeze-drying was shown to be a feasible technique for the production of a selection of co-amorphous drug-amino acid formulations.
Project description:In this study, the amino acid arginine (ARG) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors verapamil hydrochloride (VER), piperine (PIP) and quercetin (QRT) were used as co-formers for co-amorphous mixtures of a Biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) class IV drug, furosemide (FUR). FUR mixtures with VER, PIP and QRT were prepared by solvent evaporation, and mixtures with ARG were prepared by spray drying in 1:1 and 1:2 molar ratios. The solid-state properties of the mixtures were characterized with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in stability studies under different storage conditions. Simultaneous dissolution/permeation studies were conducted in side-by-side diffusion cells with a PAMPA (parallel artificial membrane permeability assay) membrane as a permeation barrier. It was observed with XRPD that ARG, VER and PIP formed co-amorphous mixtures with FUR at both molar ratios. DSC and FTIR revealed single glass transition values for the mixtures (except for FUR:VER 1:2), with the formation of intermolecular interactions between the components, especially salt formation between FUR and ARG. The co-amorphous mixtures were found to be stable for at least two months under an elevated temperature/humidity, except FUR:ARG 1:2, which was sensitive to humidity. The dissolution/permeation studies showed that only the co-amorphous FUR:ARG mixtures were able to enhance both the dissolution and permeation of FUR. Thus, it is concluded that formulating co-amorphous salts with ARG may be a promising option for poorly soluble/permeable FUR.
Project description:Converting crystalline compounds into co-amorphous systems is an effective way to improve the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. It is, however, of critical importance for the physical stability of co-amorphous systems to find the optimal mixing ratio of the drug with the co-former. In this study, a novel approach for this challenge is presented, exemplified with the co-amorphous system carvedilol-tryptophan (CAR-TRP). Following X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of the ball-milled samples to confirm their amorphous form, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to investigate intermolecular interactions. A clear deviation from a purely additive spectrum of CAR and TRP was visualized in the PCA score plot, with a maximum at around 30% drug (mol/mol). This deviation was attributed to hydrogen bonds of CAR with TRP ether groups. The sample containing 30% drug (mol/mol) was also the most stable sample during a stability test. Using the combination of FTIR with PCA is an effective approach to investigate the optimal mixing ratio of non-strong interacting co-amorphous systems.
Project description:Fused deposition modelling-based 3D printing of pharmaceutical products is facing challenges like brittleness and printability of the drug-loaded hot-melt extruded filament feedstock and stabilization of the solid-state form of the drug in the final product. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the drug load on printability and physical stability. The poor glass former naproxen (NAP) was hot-melt extruded with Kollidon<sup>®</sup> VA 64 at 10-30% <i>w</i>/<i>w</i> drug load. The extrudates (filaments) were characterised using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was confirmed that an amorphous solid dispersion was formed. A temperature profile was developed based on the results from TGA, DSC, and DMA and temperatures used for 3D printing were selected from the profile. The 3D-printed tablets were characterised using DSC, X-ray computer microtomography (XµCT), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). From the DSC and XRPD analysis, it was found that the drug in the 3D-printed tablets (20 and 30% NAP) was amorphous and remained amorphous after 23 weeks of storage (room temperature (RT), 37% relative humidity (RH)). This shows that adjusting the drug ratio can modulate the brittleness and improve printability without compromising the physical stability of the amorphous solid dispersion.
Project description:This work aimed to investigate the co-grinding effects of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and cucurbituril (CB) on crystalline zaltoprofen (ZPF) in tablet formulation. Crystalline ZPF was prepared through anti-solvent recrystallization and fully analyzed through single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Co-ground dispersions and mono-ground ZPF were prepared using a ball grinding process. Results revealed that mono-ground ZPF slightly affected the solid state, solubility, and dissolution of crystalline ZPF. Co-ground dispersions exhibited completely amorphous states and elicited a significant reinforcing effect on drug solubility. UV-vis spectroscopy, XRPD, FT-IR, DSC, ssNMR, and molecular docking demonstrated the interactions in the amorphous product. Hardness tests on blank tablets with different ?-CD and CB contents suggested the addition of ?-CD or CB could enhance the compressibility of the powder mixture. Disintegration tests showed that CB could efficiently shorten the disintegrating time. Dissolution tests indicated that ?-CD and CB could accelerate the drug dissolution rate via different mechanisms. Specifically, CB could accelerate the dissolution rate by improving disintegration and ?-CD showed a distinct advantage in solubility enhancement. Based on the comparative study on ?-CD and CB for tablet formulation combined with co-grinding, we found that CB could be considered a promising drug delivery, which acted as a disintegrant.
Project description:The work evaluates the stability of amorphous and co-amorphous olanzapine (OLZ) in tablets manufactured by direct compression. The flowability and the compressibility of amorphous and co-amorphous OLZ with saccharin (SAC) and the properties of the tablets obtained were measured and compared to those of tablets made with crystalline OLZ. The flowability of the amorphous and mostly of the co-amorphous OLZ powders decreased in comparison with the crystalline OLZ due to the higher cohesiveness of the former materials. The stability of the amorphous and co-amorphous OLZ prior to and after tableting was monitored by XRPD, FTIR, and NIR spectroscopies. Tablets presented long-lasting amorphous OLZ with enhanced water solubility, but the release rate of the drug decreased in comparison with tablets containing crystalline OLZ. In physical mixtures made of crystalline OLZ and SAC, an extent of amorphization of approximately 20% was accomplished through the application of compaction pressures and dwell times of 155 MPa and 5 min, respectively. The work highlighted the stability of amorphous and co-amorphous OLZ during tableting and the positive effect of compaction pressure on the formation of co-amorphous OLZ, providing an expedited amorphization technique, given that the process development-associated hurdles were overcome.
Project description:The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of novel polymer/lipid formulations on the dissolution rates of the water insoluble indomethacin (INM), co-processed by hot melt extrusion (HME). Formulations consisted of the hydrophilic hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose polymer (HPMCAS) and stearoyl macrogol-32 glycerides-Gelucire 50/13 (GLC) were processed with a twin screw extruder to produce solid dispersions. The extrudates characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and hot stage microscopy (HSM) indicated the presence of amorphous INM within the polymer/lipid matrices. In-line monitoring via near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy revealed significant peak shifts indicating possible interactions and H-bonding formation between the drug and the polymer/lipid carriers. Furthermore, in vitro dissolution studies showed a synergistic effect of the polymer/lipid carrier with 2-h lag time in acidic media followed by enhanced INM dissolution rates at pH?>?5.5.
Project description:The aim of this work was to develop an amorphous orlistat-loaded mesoporus silica formulation using the melt-amorphisation by supercritical fluid (MA-SCF) and to investigate the effects of pressure and temperature on the pharmaceutical properties of the developed formulation. In addition, the effect of orlistat mass ratio to the mesoporus silica was also evaluated. The carbon dioxide was used as a supercritical fluid, and Neusilin<sup>®</sup>UFL2 was selected as the mesoporous silica. For comparison with conventional amorphisation methods, orlistat formulations were also prepared by solvent evaporation and hot melt methods. Various pharmaceutical evaluations including differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, specific surface area, total pore volume, and content uniformity were performed to characterise the prepared orlistat formulation. The melting point depression and the solubility of orlistat in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO<sub>2</sub>) were selected for the interpretation of evaluated results in relation to temperature and pressure. The total pore volume of the prepared orlistat-loaded mesoporus silica decreased with an increasing density of SC-CO<sub>2</sub> to about 500 g/L at a constant temperature or pressure. From these results, it was suggested that increasing the density of SC-CO<sub>2</sub> to about 500 g/L could result in the easier penetration of CO<sub>2</sub> into molten orlistat and lower viscosity, hence facilitating the introduction and loading of orlistat into the pores of Neusilin<sup>®</sup>UFL2. However, when the density of SC-CO<sub>2</sub> increased to more than 500 g/L, the total pore volume increased, and this may be due to the release out of orlistat from the pores of Neusilin<sup>®</sup>UFL2 by the increased orlistat solubility in SC-CO<sub>2</sub>. Interestingly, as the total pore volume decreased by the filling of the drug, the drug crystallinity decreased; hence, the dissolution rate increased. Furthermore, it was shown that the most desirable mass ratio of Neusilin<sup>®</sup>UFL2:orlistat for the amorphisation was 1:0.8 at an optimised supercritical condition of 318 K and 10 MPa. Compared with other amorphisation methods, only the sample prepared by the MA-SCF method was in pure amorphous state with the fastest dissolution rate. Therefore, it was concluded that the amorphous orlistat-loaded mesoporus silica prepared using MA-SCF under optimised conditions was more advantageous for enhancing the dissolution rate of orlistat than other conventional amorphisation methods.
Project description:Solid dispersions of tanshinone IIA (TanIIA) using hydroxyapatite (HAp) as the dispersing carrier (TanIIA-HAp SDs) were prepared by the solvent evaporation method. The formed solid dispersions were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The in vitro dissolution rate and the stability of TanIIA-HAp SDs were also evaluated. DSC and XRPD showed that TanIIA was changed from a crystalline to an amorphous form. FTIR suggested the presence of interactions between TanIIA and HAp in solid dispersions. The result of an in vitro dissolution study showed that the dissolution rate of TanIIA-HAp SDs was nearly 7.11-folds faster than free TanIIA. Data from stability studies for over one year of TanIIA-HAp SDs performed under room temperature revealed no significant differences in drug content and dissolution behavior. All these results indicated that HAp may be a promising carrier for improving the oral absorption of TanIIA.
Project description:In the present study, a nanoapatite-mediated delivery system for imatinib has been proposed. Nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) was obtained by co-precipitation method, and its physicochemical properties in combination with imatinib (IM) were studied by means of XRPD (X-ray Powder Diffraction), SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy), FT-IR (Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), absorption spectroscopy as well as DLS (Dynamic Light Scattering) techniques. The obtained hydroxyapatite was defined as nanosized rod-shaped particles with high crystallinity. The amorphous imatinib was obtained by conversion of its crystalline form. The beneficial effects of amorphous pharmaceutical agents have been manifested in the higher dissolution rate in body fluids improving their bioavailability. Imatinib-to-hydroxyapatite interactions on the surface were confirmed by SEM images as well as absorption and FT-IR spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity of the system was tested on NI-1, L929, and D17 cell lines. The effectiveness of imatinib was not affected by nHAp modification. The calculated IC50 values for drug-modified nHAp were similar to those for the drug itself. However, higher cytotoxicity was observed at higher concentrations of imatinib, in comparison with the drug alone.