Mothers In Motion intervention effect on psychosocial health in young, low-income women with overweight or obesity.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Mothers in Motion (MIM), a community-based intervention program, was designed to help young, low-income women with overweight or obesity prevent further weight gain by promoting stress management, healthy eating, and physical activity. This paper presents the MIM's intervention effect on self-efficacy to cope with stress, emotional coping response, social support for stress management, stress, depressive symptoms, and positive and negative affect. METHODS:Participants (N?=?612) were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in Michigan. They were randomly assigned to an intervention group (410 participants) or comparison group (202 participants). During the 16-week intervention, intervention participants watched ten video lessons at home and joined ten peer support group teleconferences. Surveys with established validity and reliability were used to measure self-efficacy to cope with stress, emotional coping response, and social support for stress management. The Perceived Stress Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and Positive and Negative Affect Scale were used to measure stress, depressive symptoms, and positive and negative affect, respectively. A general linear mixed model was applied to test the intervention effect at the end of the 16-week intervention (T2, n?=?338) and at three-month follow-up (T3, n?=?311). RESULTS:At T2, the intervention group reported significantly higher self-efficacy to cope with stress (effect size [Cohen's d]?=?0.53), better emotional coping response (d?=?0.38), less stress (d?=?0.34), fewer depressive symptoms (d?=?-?0.27), and more positive affect (d?=?0.31) than the comparison group. However, there were no significant differences in social support for stress management and negative affect between these two groups. At T3, the intervention group still reported significantly higher self-efficacy to cope with stress (d?=?0.32) and better emotional coping response (d?=?0.34) than the comparison group but did not report significantly higher social support for stress management, stress, depressive symptoms, and positive and negative affect. CONCLUSIONS:To help young, low-income women with overweight or obesity manage stress, researchers and program planners may consider focusing on building self-efficacy to cope with stress. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinical Trials NCT01839708 ; registered February 28, 2013.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Little is known about associations between perceived stress, psychosocial factors (social support, emotional coping, coping self-efficacy, and autonomous motivation), and depressive symptoms in low-income overweight or obese mothers of young children. Using baseline data of a lifestyle intervention study, this secondary analysis investigates whether perceived stress might mediate the associations between the psychosocial factors and depressive symptoms.<h4>Methods</h4>Convenience sampling was applied. Low-income overweight or obese mothers of young children were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in Michigan, US. Survey data were collected through phone interviews. Participants (N = 740) responded to valid surveys measuring perceived stress, social support, emotional coping, coping self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, and depressive symptoms. Composite indicator structural equation modeling was performed to test for potential mediation.<h4>Results</h4>When investigating the potential role of perceived stress as a mediator, the indirect effects of social support (b = -?2.10, p < 0.01), emotion coping (b = -?3.81, p < 0.05), and coping self-efficacy (b = -?7.53, p < 0.01) on depressive symptoms through perceived stress were significant, but the indirect effect of autonomous motivation was not.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Future intervention studies aiming to alleviate depressive symptoms in low-income overweight or obese mothers of young children might consider including practical strategies to promote social support, emotional coping, and coping self-efficacy to reduce perceived stress, which might potentially decrease depressive symptoms.<h4>Trial registration</h4>Clinical Trials NCT01839708 ; registered February 28, 2013.
Project description:Self-compassion has been associated with less distress, particularly when people face stressful and negative events. This study analyzed the mediation role of coping and affect in the relation between self-compassion and negative emotional symptoms during the quarantine decreed by Portuguese Health Authorities in the first phase of the coronavirus outbreak. A total of 428 Portuguese adults (75% women; <i>M</i><sub>age</sub> = 40.8, <i>SD</i> = 11.6) completed an online survey comprised by the Self-Compassion Scale (predictor); Short Version of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (outcomes); The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule; and Brief-COPE. These instruments were adapted to COVID 19's epidemic. Parallel mediation analyses demonstrated that self-compassionate participants were at less risk of suffering from symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress during the quarantine. Plus, the relation between self-compassion and depressive, anxious, and stress symptoms were mediated by negative affect and dysfunctional coping style, but only for symptoms of depression. The findings support coping strategies and affect as links between self-compassion and distress but also the importance of separately analyzing the role of self-compassion, negative affect, and coping on symptoms of anxiety, depression, and stress. Low self-compassion might increase negative affect, maintaining stress responses to face demanding events during the COVID-19 epidemic. Results were discussed in the context of the pandemic outbreak.
Project description:Burnout syndrome is has been associated with mental health problems such as depression, anxiety, and stress. Given this fact, some teachers implement various coping strategies for emotional control that are not always functional to mitigate such difficulties. Accordingly, this study aimed to identify different burnout profiles that vary in the levels of the three underlying dimensions: depersonalization (DE), emotional exhaustion (EE), and personal accomplishment (PA). Further, this study aimed to examine whether there are significant differences in depressive symptomatology, coping strategies, and the quality of interpersonal relationships at school between teachers with varying burnout profiles. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Coping with Stress Questionnaire, and a questionnaire that measured sociodemographic characteristics were administered to 215 teachers (men: 42.8%) who were recruited from various secondary schools. Cluster analysis identified three different burnout profiles: groups of teachers with a predominance of (a) low levels of EE and high levels of PA, (b) high levels of EE and DE, and (c) low levels of DE and PA. The results revealed that there were significant differences in coping strategies, depressive symptomatology, and the quality of interpersonal relationships at school between teachers with different burnout profiles. These results have important implications for educational professionals. Specifically, the findings underscore the need for prevention and intervention programs that enhance teachers' emotional skills, especially their ability to cope with exhaustion. These skills will alleviate their depression and consequently offer both teachers and students a conducive learning environment.
Project description:Caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may find it difficult to feel a sense of control and to cope with the overall physical and emotional demands of caring for their child. While caregivers are able to successfully cope with a high level of stress, there are limits to their resources and abilities to cope over time. Genetic counselors working with affected families may be able to help parents more effectively manage stress related to the disorder. Few short-term interventions have been reported in genetic counseling yet implementation of evidence-based examples may be achievable. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of a coping effectiveness training (CET) intervention designed to enhance coping self-efficacy (CSE) among caregivers of children with ASD, with the eventual goal of translating this intervention into genetic counseling practice. A randomized treatment-control design was used to investigate the feasibility of an intervention using CET among caregivers of children with ASD. The primary outcome was the feasibility of the intervention; the secondary outcome was improvements in CSE in the intervention group as compared to the control group. Caregivers were recruited and randomized into the treatment (n=15) or control (n=13) groups. Of these, 22 completed the study (retention: 78.6%). The intervention was highly feasible; most caregivers found the CET helpful, practical, useful, and relatively easy to attend. The treatment group demonstrated significantly increased CSE from pre-intervention to post-intervention (p=0.02). Between group differences were not significant when comparing the pre-post changes. We provide preliminary evidence that CET may be beneficial to caregivers of children with ASD. The results of this feasibility study support development of a phase II study of this intervention in a larger cohort, aimed to be implemented into a genetic counseling setting.
Project description:Objective:The COVID-19 epidemic has shown a more benign course in Greece possibly due to the early lockdown measures. Mental health consequences of the lockdown however are unknown. In addition, illness perceptions and relevant strategies to cope with the stress of the epidemic may have played a role in complying with the restrictions. We conducted a survey of the Greek population with the aim to investigate the prevalence of anxiety and depression during the lockdown, the emotional impact of the epidemic, and the effect of coping strategies and illness perceptions in mental health. Methods:Adult persons were invited during the peak of the lockdown period through social media. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed with the PHQ-9 and GAD-2 scales, respectively. Coping strategies were assessed with selected items of the Brief COPE questionnaire, while illness beliefs were assessed with items from the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R). Results:A total of 3379 individuals took part. A strong emotional impact of the epidemic was more often in women and in those with severe financial difficulties. Levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms were high but similar to past assessments. Participants showed high levels of personal control and used more often positive strategies to cope with the stress of the epidemic. Depressive symptoms were higher in the younger, in students, in those with a stronger emotional impact, in those isolated due to symptoms, and those overexposed to media for COVID-19-related news. Lower levels of depression were seen in those using positive coping strategies and showing high levels of personal and treatment control. Conclusions:The study shows that certain psychological and social determinants were associated with increased depressive symptoms during the lockdown warranting the development of public health guidelines to mitigate the effects of the epidemic to the mental health of the population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cancer patients often report increased stress during chemotherapy. Stress management training has been shown to reduce this adverse outcome, but few interventions exist for Spanish-speaking Hispanic and Latina women (Latinas). METHODS:Following community feedback (including focus groups/in-depth interviews), we transcreated the Spanish-Language Self-Administered Stress Management Training (SL-SAT) intervention based on our previously developed and implemented English-based intervention. Latinas about to begin chemotherapy were randomized to SL-SAT (n = 121) or usual care (n = 119). A Spanish-speaking interventionist met with SL-SAT participants who received the SL-SAT toolkit containing instructions in 3 well-established stress management techniques (deep breathing, progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery, and use of coping self-statements). Usual care participants received an educational booklet about coping with chemotherapy. All patients were instructed by nurses on their chemotherapy medications and given a resource listing of local support groups. Outcomes were obtained at baseline, and 7 and 13 weeks after starting chemotherapy. Primary outcomes included anxiety and depression, cancer-related distress, emotional well-being, and spiritual well-being. Secondary outcomes included functional well-being, social/family well-being, physical well-being, symptom severity, and self-efficacy for managing stress. Data were analyzed by using mixed models. RESULTS:In both groups, improvements were observed in emotional well-being (P = .01), and declines were observed in functional well-being (P = .05), and physical well-being (P < .0001). Symptom severity increased across the follow-up period (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS:To be effective, stress management interventions for Latinas receiving chemotherapy may necessitate more attention from an interventionist, delivery of the intervention over a longer interval, and/or a group-based format.
Project description:Background:Adults with adverse childhood experiences and exposure to adverse life events experience a diverse array of physical, mental, and social health problems across their lifespan. Adult exposure to emotional trauma, physical injury, or other adverse life events may result in the development of post-traumatic stress and post-traumatic stress disorder. Understanding individuals' response to stress and their coping strategies is as important as the stimulus or the causes of the stress for effective stress management interventions. Methods:This is a mixed quantitative and qualitative online survey study which explores the coping strategies to stress in adults with adverse childhood experiences and exposure to adverse life events through analysis of emerging themes from survey questionnaire responses of study participants. Results:Participants who respond to stress through adaptive coping focused either on problem-solving, 17.6% (32 out of 188), or on emotion-focused coping, 45.2% (85 out of 188). Participants engaged in problem-solving mainly through therapy such as counseling and other professional stress management, whereas those who chose emotion-focused coping used diverse strategies including practicing mindfulness, meditation, and yoga; using humor and jokes; seeking higher power or religious pursuits; engaging in physical or breathing exercises; and seeking social support. Participants who practiced maladaptive coping styles constituted 37.2% (70 out of 188) of respondents and resorted to avoidance of the stressful condition, withdrawal from a stressful environment, disengagement from stressful relationships, and use and abuse of drugs and/or alcohol. Conclusion:An understanding of emerging themes in coping strategies calls for collaborative and multidisciplinary approaches in the design, implementation, and execution of health education and promotion programs tailored to meet the diverse needs of priority populations. Stress management educators need to take into account the vulnerabilities of individuals who resort to maladaptive coping and institute evidence-based behavioral and social service intervention strategies, including life skills training, to prevent the consequences of maladaptive coping and to enhance the self-efficacy of individuals to cope more effectively with stress and stressful life events.
Project description:While behavioral interventions can improve blood pressure (BP) in individuals with hypertension, getting such services to people who could benefit remains difficult. Workplace programs have potential as dissemination vehicles. The objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of a standardized stress management program delivered in groups at the workplace for reducing BP compared with enhanced usual care. This randomized controlled trial studied 92 urban medical center employees with hypertension randomized into two groups. The intervention was a 10-week group workshop on cognitive-behavioral coping skills. Enhanced usual care included self-help materials for BP reduction and physician referral. Intervention group participants' systolic BP (SBP) decreased 7.5 mm Hg over controls between baseline and follow-up, from 149.1 (95% CI: 146.0-152.1) to 140.0 (95% CI: 134.7-145.2), p < .001. The differential change between intervention and enhanced usual care groups (Group × Time interaction) was 7.5 mm Hg (t = -2.05; p = .04). Diastolic BP reductions were not significantly different. Scores on measures of emotional exhaustion and depressive rumination showed significant improvements and correlated with reductions in SBP. There was no significant change in the usual care group. A standardized worksite group intervention produced clinically meaningful reductions in SBP in participants with hypertension.
Project description:Managing Type 1 diabetes (T1D) during adolescence can be challenging, and there is a need for accessible interventions to help adolescents cope with diabetes-related stress.The aim of this study was to compare an Internet coping skills training (TEENCOPE) intervention to an Internet educational intervention (Managing Diabetes) for adolescents with T1D. Moderators of program efficacy were evaluated.The study was a multisite clinical trial (n = 320) with data collected at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Data were collected on the primary outcomes of physiologic (A1C) and psychosocial (quality of life) and on the secondary outcomes of behavioral (self-management) and psychosocial (stress, coping self-efficacy, social competence, family conflict) variables consistent with the conceptual framework. Data were analyzed using mixed-model analyses with an intent-to-treat approach.There were no significant between-group treatment effects 6 months postintervention on primary outcomes. The Managing Diabetes youth showed a significant increase in social competence compared to the TEENCOPE youth. There were significant time effects for TEENCOPE (decreased stress and increased coping) and Managing Diabetes (improved diabetes quality of life).Youth with T1D transitioning to adolescence may need both structured diabetes education and coping skills to improve health outcomes. There may be a higher potential to reach adolescents with Type 1 diabetes of varying race and ethnicity via Internet interventions.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To determine the efficacy in improving pain and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of an online self-management program for adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). METHODS:Youth ages 12-18 years with JIA were recruited from 10 rheumatology clinics across the United States and randomized to complete an online self-management program (n?=?144) or an online disease education program (n?=?145). Participants in the self-management group worked through multimedia-based modules comprising psychoeducation, training in cognitive-behavioral coping skills and stress management, and other self-management topics over a 12-week period. Participants in the control group viewed a series of preselected quality educational websites about JIA over the same interval. Online content for both groups was made available in English and Spanish to facilitate inclusion of Hispanic participants. Blinded assessment of main outcomes (pain intensity, pain interference, and HRQOL) and process outcomes (disease knowledge, self-efficacy, pain coping, and emotional adjustment) occurred at baseline, posttreatment, and at 6- and 12-month postrandomization follow-up visits. RESULTS:Participants on average demonstrated significant improvements over the study period in the main outcomes, with no significant group differences in the degree of improvement. Effect sizes for these improvements were small. The amount of improvement in self-efficacy, emotional avoidance coping, disease knowledge, and emotional functioning in part predicted improvement in pain and HRQOL outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:Primarily self-directed online self-management training and online disease education comparably and modestly improve pain and HRQOL in youth with JIA.