Volatolomics in Bacterial Ecotoxicology, A Novel Method for Detecting Signatures of Pesticide Exposure?
ABSTRACT: Volatile organic compounds (VOC) produced by microorganisms in response to chemical stressor showed recently increasing attention, because of possible environmental applications. In this work, we aimed to bring the first proof of concept that volatolomic (i.e., VOCs analysis) can be used to determine candidate VOC markers of two soil bacteria strains (Pseudomonas fluorescens SG-1 and Bacillus megaterium Mes11) exposure to pesticides. VOC determination was based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Accordingly, we highlighted a set of bacterial VOCs modulated in each strains according to the nature of the pesticide used. Three out these VOCs were specifically modulated in P. fluorescens SG-1 when exposed with two pyrethroid pesticides (deltamethrine and cypermethrine): 2-hexanone; 1,3-ditertbutylbenzene and malonic acid, hexyl 3-methylbutyl ester. Our results thus suggest the possible existence of generic VOC markers of pyrethroids in this strain. Of particular interest, two out of these three VOCs, the 1,3-ditertbutylbenzene and the malonic acid, hexyl 3-methylbutyl ester were found also in B. megaterium Mes11 when exposed with cypermethrine. This result highlighted the possible existence of interspecific VOC markers of pyrethroid in these two bacteria. Altogether, our work underlined the relevance of volatolomic to detect signatures of pesticides exposure in microorganisms and more generally to microbial ecotoxicology. Based on these first results, considerations of volatolomics for the chemical risk assessment in environment such as soils can be indirectly explored in longer terms.
Project description:Many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are classified as known or possible carcinogens, irritants, and toxicants, and VOC exposure has been associated with the onset and exacerbation of asthma. This study characterizes VOC levels in 126 homes of children with asthma in Detroit, Michigan, USA. The total target VOC concentration ranged from 14 to 2274 ?g/m(3) (mean = 150 ?g/m(3); median = 91 ?g/m(3)); 56 VOCs were quantified; and d-limonene, toluene, p, m-xylene, and ethyl acetate had the highest concentrations. Based on the potential for adverse health effects, priority VOCs included naphthalene, benzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, isopropylbenzene, ethylbenzene, styrene, chloroform, 1,2-dichloroethane, tetrachloroethene, and trichloroethylene. Concentrations varied mostly due to between-residence and seasonal variation. Identified emission sources included cigarette smoking, solvent-related emissions, renovations, household products, and pesticides. The effect of nearby traffic on indoor VOC levels was not distinguished. While concentrations in the Detroit homes were lower than levels found in other North American studies, many homes had elevated VOC levels, including compounds that are known health hazards. Thus, the identification and control of VOC sources are important and prudent, especially for vulnerable individuals. Actions and policies to reduce VOC exposures, for example, sales restrictions, improved product labeling, and consumer education, are recommended.Total target VOC concentrations in the Detroit homes ranged from 14 to 2274 lg/m3, generally lower than found in earlier studies. However, a subset of houses had elevated concentrations, and levels of 1,4-dichlorobenzene, naphthalene, and benzene reached levels commensurate with excess individual cancer risks of 10(-2), 10(-3), and 10(-4), respectively. VOC concentrations varied mostly due to between-residence and season effects. The most important sources included cigarette smoking, vehicle-related emissions, building renovation, solvents, household products, and pesticides.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Exposure to air pollution is a leading cause of global mortality. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are constituents of ambient air that could exert adverse health effects. OBJECTIVE:To examine the relationship between VOC levels in ambient air and individual-level exposure to VOCs, as assessed by urinary VOC metabolites. METHODS:Secular trends in 11 ambient air VOCs (2005-2013) and individual-level metabolites of 14 VOCs (2005-2014) were assessed using National Monitoring Programs (NMP) and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data, respectively. To isolate environmental exposure, individuals reporting exposure to tobacco smoke were excluded. Quantile regression models were used to assess secular trends in VOC exposure, and survey-weighted regression models were built to identify factors associated with VOC exposure. RESULTS:All annual levels of ambient VOCs decreased from 2005 to 2013 (Range: 12.5%-77.2%). However, 11 of the corresponding VOC metabolites increased during the same time (Range: 0.3%-53.6%). There was a proportional change in patterns of VOC exposure across NHANES waves, with the middle quantiles of exposure showing the largest increase. VOC exposures were significantly associated with age, sex, race, education, and physical inactivity, but not with secular VOC trends. DISCUSSION:In the United States, individual-level exposure to several VOCs increased between 2005 and 2014 despite a decline in ambient air VOC levels. This inverse relationship suggests that ambient VOCs are not the primary source of VOC exposure, therefore, decreasing ambient VOCs alone may not be sufficient to protect against the adverse health effects associated with VOC exposure.
Project description:The EstPS1 gene, which encodes a novel carboxylesterase of Pseudomonas synxantha PS1 isolated from oil well-produced water, was cloned and sequenced. EstPS1 has an open reading frame of 1923 bp and encodes the 640-amino acid carboxylesterase (EstPS1), which contains an autotransporter (AT) domain (357-640 amino acids). Homology analysis revealed that EstPS1 shared the highest identity (88%) with EstA from Pseudomonas fluorescens A506 (NCBI database) and belonged to the carboxylesterase family (EC 184.108.40.206). The optimum pH and temperature of recombinant EstPS1 were found to be 8.0 and 60 °C, respectively. EstPS1 showed high thermostability, and the half-lives (T1/2 thermal inactivation) at 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 °C were 14 h, 2 h, 31 min, 10 min, and 1 min, respectively. To understand the role of the AT domain in carboxylesterase, AT domain-truncated carboxylesterase (EstPS1ΔAT) was generated. EstPS1ΔAT showed a clearly decreased secretion rate, owing to the AT domain strongly improved secretory expression in the heterogeneous system. EstPS1 degraded various pyrethroid pesticides, and hydrolysis efficiencies were dependent on the pyrethroid molecular structure. EstPS1 degraded all the tested pyrethroid pesticides and hydrolysed the p-nitrophenyl esters of medium-short-chain fatty acids, indicating that EstPS1 is an esterase with broad specificity.
Project description:Microorganisms in soil are known to be a source and a sink of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The role of the microbial VOCs on soil ecosystem regulation has been increasingly demonstrated in the recent years. Nevertheless, little is known about the influence of the microbial soil community structure and diversity on VOC emissions. This novel study analyzed the effect of reduced microbial diversity in soil on VOC emissions. We found that reduced levels of microbial diversity in soil increased VOC emissions from soils, while the number of different VOCs emitted decreased. Furthermore, we found that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and fungi phyla were positively correlated to VOC emissions, and other prokaryotic phyla were either negatively correlated or very slightly positively correlated to VOCs emissions. Our interpretation is that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and fungi were VOC producers while the other prokaryotic phyla were consumers. Finally, we discussed the possible role of VOCs as mediators of microbial interactions in soil.
Project description:Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were studied during paper and cardboard recycling from a paper and cardboard solid waste recycling factory (PCSWRF). Data are summarized in this article for the following quantities for a PCSWRF during the winter in Tehran, Iran: VOC concentrations (?g m-3), the percentage of detected VOCs, exposure indices (Ei) of individual and total VOCs (TVOCs), inhalation lifetime cancer risk (LTCR) of VOCs, the hazard quotient (HQ) of VOCs, sensitivity analysis (SA) for VOC exposure in different age groups (birth to <81), and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (r) between VOC concentrations and meteorological parameters. For more insight please see "Characteristics and Health Effects of Volatile Organic Compound Emissions during Paper and Cardboard Recycling", https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2019.102005.
Project description:Knowledge gaps remain regarding the cardiorespiratory impacts of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for the general population. This study identified contributing sources to ambient VOCs and estimated the short-term effects of VOC apportioned sources on daily emergency hospital admissions for cardiorespiratory diseases in Hong Kong from 2011 to 2014. We estimated VOC source contributions using fourteen organic chemicals by positive matrix factorization. Then, we examined the associations between the short-term exposure to VOC apportioned sources and emergency hospital admissions for cause-specific cardiorespiratory diseases using generalized additive models with polynomial distributed lag models while controlling for meteorological and co-pollutant confounders. We identified six VOC sources: gasoline emissions, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) usage, aged VOCs, architectural paints, household products, and biogenic emissions. We found that increased emergency hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were positively linked to ambient VOCs from gasoline emissions (excess risk (ER%): 2.1%; 95% CI: 0.9% to 3.4%), architectural paints (ER%: 1.5%; 95% CI: 0.2% to 2.9%), and household products (ER%: 1.5%; 95% CI: 0.2% to 2.8%), but negatively associated with biogenic VOCs (ER%: -6.6%; 95% CI: -10.4% to -2.5%). Increased congestive heart failure admissions were positively related to VOCs from architectural paints and household products in cold seasons. This study suggested that source-specific VOCs might trigger the exacerbation of cardiorespiratory diseases.
Project description:In China, the corresponding control directives for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been based on primary emissions, rarely considering reactive speciation. To seek more effective VOCs control strategies, we investigated 107 VOC species in a typical coastal city (Beihai) of South China, from August to November 2018. Meanwhile, a high-resolution anthropogenic VOCs monthly emission inventory (EI) was established for 2018. For source apportionments (SAs) reliability, comparisons of source structures derived from positive matrix factorization (PMF) and EI were made mainly in terms of reaction losses, uncertainties and specific ratios. Finally, for the source-end control, a comprehensive reactivity control index (RCI) was established by combing SAs with reactive speciation profiles. Ambient measurements showed that the average concentration of VOCs was 26.38 ppbv, dominated by alkanes (36.7%) and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) (29.4%). VOC reactivity was estimated using ozone formation potential (52.35 ppbv) and propylene-equivalent concentration (4.22 ppbv). EI results displayed that the entire VOC, OFP, and propylene-equivalent emissions were 40.98 Gg, 67.98 Gg, and 105.93 Gg, respectively. Comparisons of source structures indicated that VOC SAs agreed within ±100% between two perspectives. Both PMF and EI results showed that petrochemical industry (24.0% and 33.0%), food processing and associated combustion (19.1% and 29.2%) were the significant contributors of anthropogenic VOCs, followed by other industrial processes (22.2% and 13.3%), transportation (18.9% and 12.0%), and solvent utilization (9.1% and10.5%). Aimed at VOCs abatement according to RCI: for terminal control, fifteen ambient highly reactive species (predominantly alkenes and alkanes) were targeted; for source control, the predominant anthropogenic sources (food industry, solvent usage, petrochemical industry and transportation) and their emitted highly reactive species were determined. Particularly, with low levels of ambient VOC and primary emissions, in this VOC and NOx double-controlled regime, crude disorganized emission from food industry contributed a high RCI.
Project description:Community and environmental exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been associated with a number of emission sources and activities, e.g., environmental tobacco smoke and pumping gasoline. Such factors have been identified from mostly small studies with relatively limited information regarding influences on VOC levels. This study uses data from the Relationship of Indoor Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA) study to investigate environmental, individual and social determinants of VOC concentrations. RIOPA included outdoor, indoor and personal measurements of 18 VOCs from 310 non-smoking households and adults in three cities and two seasons, and collected a wide range of information pertaining to participants, family members, households, and neighborhoods. Exposure determinants were identified using stepwise regressions and linear mixed-effect models. Most VOC exposure (66 to 78% of the total exposure, depending on VOC) occurred indoors, and outdoor VOC sources accounted for 5 (d-limonene) to 81% (carbon tetrachloride) of the total exposure. Personal exposure and indoor measurements had similar determinants, which depended on the VOC. Gasoline-related VOCs (e.g., benzene, methyl tertiary butyl ether) were associated with city, residences with attached garages, self-pumping of gas, wind speed, and house air exchange rate (AER). Odorant and cleaning-related VOCs (e.g., 1,4-dichlorobenzene and chloroform) also were associated with city and AER, and with house size and family members showering. Dry-cleaning and industry-related VOCs (e.g., tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene) were associated with city, residence water supply type, and dry-cleaner visits. These and other relationships were significant, explained from 10 to 40% of the variation, and are consistent with known emission sources and the literature. Outdoor concentrations had only two common determinants: city and wind speed. Overall, personal exposure was dominated by the home setting, although a large fraction of VOC concentrations were due to outdoor sources. City, personal activities, household characteristics and meteorology were significant determinants.
Project description:Breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis can open a non-invasive window onto pathological and metabolic processes in the body. Decades of clinical breath-gas analysis have revealed that changes in exhaled VOC concentrations are important rather than disease specific biomarkers. As physiological parameters, such as respiratory rate or cardiac output, have profound effects on exhaled VOCs, here we investigated VOC exhalation under respiratory manoeuvres. Breath VOCs were monitored by means of real-time mass-spectrometry during conventional FEV manoeuvres in 50 healthy humans. Simultaneously, we measured respiratory and hemodynamic parameters noninvasively. Tidal volume and minute ventilation increased by 292 and 171% during the manoeuvre. FEV manoeuvre induced substance specific changes in VOC concentrations. pET-CO2 and alveolar isoprene increased by 6 and 21% during maximum exhalation. Then they decreased by 18 and 37% at forced expiration mirroring cardiac output. Acetone concentrations rose by 4.5% despite increasing minute ventilation. Blood-borne furan and dimethyl-sulphide mimicked isoprene profile. Exogenous acetonitrile, sulphides, and most aliphatic and aromatic VOCs changed minimally. Reliable breath tests must avoid forced breathing. As isoprene exhalations mirrored FEV performances, endogenous VOCs might assure quality of lung function tests. Analysis of exhaled VOC concentrations can provide additional information on physiology of respiration and gas exchange.
Project description:Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emanating from humans have the potential to revolutionize non-invasive diagnostics. Yet, little is known about how these compounds are generated by complex biological systems, and even less is known about how these compounds are reflective of a particular physiological state. In this proof-of-concept study, we examined VOCs produced directly at the cellular level from B lymphoblastoid cells upon infection with three live influenza virus subtypes: H9N2 (avian), H6N2 (avian), and H1N1 (human). Using a single cell line helped to alleviate some of the complexity and variability when studying VOC production by an entire organism, and it allowed us to discern marked differences in VOC production upon infection of the cells. The patterns of VOCs produced in response to infection were unique for each virus subtype, while several other non-specific VOCs were produced after infections with all three strains. Also, there was a specific time course of VOC release post infection. Among emitted VOCs, production of esters and other oxygenated compounds was particularly notable, and these may be attributed to increased oxidative stress resulting from infection. Elucidating VOC signatures that result from the host cells response to infection may yield an avenue for non-invasive diagnostics and therapy of influenza and other viral infections.