Exosomal miR-196a derived from cancer-associated fibroblasts confers cisplatin resistance in head and neck cancer through targeting CDKN1B and ING5.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Cisplatin resistance is a major challenge for advanced head and neck cancer (HNC). Understanding the underlying mechanisms and developing effective strategies against cisplatin resistance are highly desired in the clinic. However, how tumor stroma modulates HNC growth and chemoresistance is unclear. RESULTS:We show that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are intrinsically resistant to cisplatin and have an active role in regulating HNC cell survival and proliferation by delivering functional miR-196a from CAFs to tumor cells via exosomes. Exosomal miR-196a then binds novel targets, CDKN1B and ING5, to endow HNC cells with cisplatin resistance. Exosome or exosomal miR-196a depletion from CAFs functionally restored HNC cisplatin sensitivity. Importantly, we found that miR-196a packaging into CAF-derived exosomes might be mediated by heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1). Moreover, we also found that high levels of plasma exosomal miR-196a are clinically correlated with poor overall survival and chemoresistance. CONCLUSIONS:The present study finds that CAF-derived exosomal miR-196a confers cisplatin resistance in HNC by targeting CDKN1B and ING5, indicating miR-196a may serve as a promising predictor of and potential therapeutic target for cisplatin resistance in HNC.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Head and neck cancer (HNC) is one of the most common deadly diseases worldwide. An increasing number of studies have recently focused on the malignant functions of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in numerous cancers. However, the underlying mechanisms by which CAF-derived exosomes promote tumor progression need to be further elucidated. This study aims to determine whether the loss of specific miRNAs in CAF-derived exosomes may be involved in the malignant transformation of HNC.<h4>Methods</h4>MiRNA array and real-time PCR assays were used to analyze the differential expression of miRNAs in exosomes from normal fibroblasts (NFs) and CAFs. Cell proliferation, EdU incorporation, colony formation, apoptosis, cell cycle distribution and xenograft assays were performed to examine the effects of miR-3188 on HNC in vitro and in vivo. Real-time PCR, western blotting and luciferase reporter assays were used to identify the target genes of miR-3188. Furthermore, tumor-bearing mouse models were used to prove the potential therapeutic value of miR-3188-loaded exosomes in HNC.<h4>Results</h4>Our results showed that miR-3188 expression is reduced in exosomes and their parental CAFs from HNC tissues. In addition, miR-3188 can be transferred from fibroblasts to HNC cells by exosomes. Further exploration demonstrated that exosomal miR-3188 can influence the proliferation and apoptosis of HNC cells by directly targeting B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) in vitro and in vivo. More importantly, we also found that miR-3188-loaded exosomes significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our findings revealed that CAF-derived exosomes contain lower miR-3188 levels than NFs, and the loss of miR-3188 in exosomes contributes to the malignant phenotypes of HNC cells through the derepression of BCL2. Furthermore, these data suggest the potential therapeutic value of exosomal miR-3188 for inhibiting HNC growth.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Aberrant expression of exosomal miRNAs has emerged as a research hotspot. However, no studies have been conducted on the dysregulation of exosomal miRNAs derived from cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SLSCC).<h4>Methods</h4>Cancer-associated fibroblasts and paired normal fibroblasts (NFs) from SLSCC patients were cultured, and exosomes in the culture supernatants were collected and identified. Exosomal miRNA expression was compared in each pair of CAFs and NFs by next-generation sequencing, and expression of selected exosomal miRNAs was validated by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Four online bioinformatic algorithms predicted the potential target genes of aberrantly expressed miRNAs, while gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment and network analysis identified downstream target genes and their interactions.<h4>Results</h4>Three pairs of CAFs and NFs were successfully cultured and purified. CAF-derived exosomal miRNAs were mostly downregulated and included miR-656-3p, miR-337-5p, miR-29a-3p and miR-655-3p; however, some, including miR-184-3p, miR-92a-1-5p, miR-212-3p and miR-3135b, were upregulated. Bioinformatics analysis revealed involvement of these miRNAs in biological processes, cellular components and molecular functions. KEGG analysis revealed the top 30 pathways involvement in cancer initiation and progression and in cell cycle regulation. An interaction network showed miR-16-5p, miR-29a-3p, miR-34c-5p, miR-32-5p and miR-490-5p as the top five miRNAs and CCND1, CDKN1B, CDK6, PTEN and FOS as the top five target genes.<h4>Conclusions</h4>SLSCC patients showed aberrant expression of CAF-derived exosomal miRNAs. The top five miRNAs and their target genes may jointly constitute a carcinogenic tumour microenvironment and act as biomarkers for SLSCC intervention.
Project description:Exosomal miRNAs secreted by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play a critical role in facilitating head and neck cancer (HNC) progression. A few studies in other cancers have confirmed some CAF-specific miRNAs could be delivered to tumor cells via exosome, thus contributing to chemoresistance. To identify the specific miRNAs responsible for the capability of CAF-derived exosomes to promote cisplatin resistance in recipient HNC cells, a miRNA array was conducted to identify miRNAs involved in exosomes derived from CAFs and the paired normal fibroblasts (NFs).
Project description:MicroRNA-24-3p (miR-24-3p) has been implicated as a key promoter of chemotherapy resistance in numerous cancers. Meanwhile, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) can secret exosomes to transfer miRNAs, which mediate tumour development. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanism of CAF-derived exosomal miR-24-3p in colon cancer (CC). Hence, this study intended to characterize the functional relevance of CAF-derived exosomal miR-24-3p in CC cell resistance to methotrexate (MTX). We identified differentially expressed HEPH, CDX2 and miR-24-3p in CC through bioinformatics analyses, and validated their expression in CC tissues and cells. The relationship among HEPH, CDX2 and miR-24-3p was verified using ChIP and dual-luciferase reporter gene assays. Exosomes were isolated from miR-24-3p inhibitor-treated CAFs (CAFs-exo/miR-24-3p inhibitor), which were used in combination with gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments and MTX treatment. CCK-8, flow cytometry and colony formation assays were conducted to determine cell viability, apoptosis and colony formation, respectively. Based on the findings, CC tissues and cells presented with high expression of miR-24-3p and low expression of HEPH and CDX2. CDX2 was a target gene of miR-24-3p and could up-regulate HEPH. Under MTX treatment, overexpressed CDX2 or HEPH and down-regulated miR-24-3p reduced cell viability and colony formation and elevated cell apoptosis. Furthermore, miR-24-3p was transferred into CC cells via CAF-derived exosomes. CAF-derived exosomal miR-24-3p inhibitor diminished cell viability and colony formation and increased cell apoptosis in vitro and inhibited tumour growth in vivo under MTX treatment. Altogether, CAF-derived exosomal miR-24-3p accelerated resistance of CC cells to MTX by down-regulating CDX2/HEPH axis.
Project description:Tamoxifen remains the most effective treatment for estrogen receptor ? (ER?)-positive breast cancer. However, many patients still develop resistance to tamoxifen in association with metastatic recurrence, which presents a tremendous clinical challenge. To better understand tamoxifen resistance from the perspective of the tumor microenvironment, the whole microenvironment landscape is charted by single-cell RNA sequencing and a new cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) subset, CD63+ CAFs, is identified that promotes tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer. Furthermore, it is discovered that CD63+ CAFs secrete exosomes rich in miR-22, which can bind its targets, ER? and PTEN, to confer tamoxifen resistance on breast cancer cells. Additionally, it is found that the packaging of miR-22 into CD63+ CAF-derived exosomes is mediated by SFRS1. Furthermore, CD63 induces STAT3 activation to maintain the phenotype and function of CD63+ CAFs. Most importantly, the pharmacological blockade of CD63+ CAFs with a CD63-neutralizing antibody or cRGD-miR-22-sponge nanoparticles enhances the therapeutic effect of tamoxifen in breast cancer. In summary, the study reveals a novel subset of CD63+ CAFs that induces tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer via exosomal miR-22, suggesting that CD63+ CAFs may be a novel therapeutic target to enhance tamoxifen sensitivity.
Project description:The tumor microenvironment contributes to tumor progression and metastasis. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) form a major cellular component of the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we further explored the mechanisms underlying the tumor-promoting roles of CAFs. <b>Methods:</b> Patient-derived CAFs and normal fibroblasts (NFs) were isolated from breast carcinomas and adjacent normal breast tissue. Exosomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation and CAF-derived exosomal microRNAs were screened using next-generation sequencing technology. MiR-500a-5p expression was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and <i>in situ</i> hybridization; Tumor cell proliferation was determined by MTT assays and three-dimensioned (3D) cultures, and tumor metastasis was determined by Transwell assays <i>in vitro</i>. <i>In vivo</i> assays were performed in a nude mouse subcutaneous xenograft model. <b>Results:</b> We confirmed that CAF-derived exosomes significantly promoted the proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer cells. MiR-500a-5p was highly expressed in MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells treated with CAF-derived exosomes. The upregulation of miR-500a-5p was also confirmed in CAFs and CAF-derived exosomes. MiR-500a-5p was transferred from CAFs to the cancer cells, and subsequently promoted proliferation and metastasis by binding to ubiquitin-specific peptidase 28 (USP28). <b>Conclusions:</b> The present study demonstrates that CAFs promote breast cancer progression and metastasis via exosomal miR-500a-5p and indicate that inhibiting CAF-derived miR-500a-5p is an alternative modality for the treatment of breast cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ferroptosis is a novel mode of non-apoptotic cell death induced by build-up of toxic lipid peroxides (lipid-ROS) in an iron dependent manner. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) support tumor progression and drug resistance by secreting various bioactive substances, including exosomes. Yet, the role of CAFs in regulating lipid metabolism as well as ferroptosis of cancer cells is still unexplored and remains enigmatic. METHODS:Ferroptosis-related genes in gastric cancer (GC) were screened by using mass spectrum; exosomes were isolated by ultra-centrifugation and CAF secreted miRNAs were determined by RT-qPCR. Erastin was used to induce ferroptosis, and ferroptosis levels were evaluated by measuring lipid-ROS, cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential. RESULTS:Here, we provide clinical evidence to show that arachidonate lipoxygenase 15 (ALOX15) is closely related with lipid-ROS production in gastric cancer, and that exosome-miR-522 serves as a potential inhibitor of ALOX15. By using primary stromal cells and cancer cells, we prove that exosome-miR-522 is mainly derived from CAFs in tumor microenvironment. Moreover, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1) was found to mediate miR-522 packing into exosomes, and ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7) stabilizes hnRNPA1 through de-ubiquitination. Importantly, cisplatin and paclitaxel promote miR-522 secretion from CAFs by activating USP7/hnRNPA1 axis, leading to ALOX15 suppression and decreased lipid-ROS accumulation in cancer cells, and ultimately result in decreased chemo-sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS:The present study demonstrates that CAFs secrete exosomal miR-522 to inhibit ferroptosis in cancer cells by targeting ALOX15 and blocking lipid-ROS accumulation. The intercellular pathway, comprising USP7, hnRNPA1, exo-miR-522 and ALOX15, reveals new mechanism of acquired chemo-resistance in GC.
Project description:Recently, novel mechanisms underlying the pro-tumorigenic effects of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have been identified in several cancers, including breast cancer. CAFs can secrete exosomes that are loaded with proteins, lipids, and RNAs to affect tumor microenvironment. Herein, we identify CAF-derived exosomes that can transfer miR-181d-5p to enhance the aggressiveness of breast cancer. Cancerous tissues and matched paracancerous tissues were surgically resected from 122 patients with breast cancer. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and dual luciferase reporter assays were employed to identify interaction between homeobox A5 (HOXA5) and caudal-related homeobox 2 (CDX2), as well as between CDX2 and miR-181d-5p, respectively. Human breast cancer Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) cells were cocultured with CAF-derived exosomes. 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay, TUNEL staining, Transwell invasion assays, and scratch tests were carried out to evaluate MCF-7 cell functions. Nude mice bearing xenografted MCF-7 cells were injected with CAF-derived exosomes, and the tumor formation was evaluated. HOXA5 expressed at a poor level in breast cancer tissues, and its overexpression retarded MCF-7 cell proliferation, invasion, migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and facilitated its apoptosis in vitro. miR-181d-5p targets CDX2, a transcription factor binding to HOXA5 promoter. Coculture of CAFs and MCF-7 cells showed that CAFs prolonged proliferation and antagonized apoptosis of MCF-7 cells via release of exosomes. Coculture of MCF-7 cells and exosomes derived from CAFs identified miR-181d-5p as a mediator of the exosomal effects on MCF-7 cells, in part, via downregulation of CDX2 and HOXA5. CAF-derived exosomes containing miR-181d-5p promoted the tumor growth of nude mice bearing xenografted MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, exosomal miR-181d-5p plays a key role in CAF-mediated effects on tumor environment in breast cancer, likely via CDX2 and HOXA5.
Project description:Cancer-associated fibroblasts cells (CAFs) confer a rapid growth and metastasis ability of endometrial cancer (EC) via exosomes-mediated cellular communication. Long non-coding RNA nuclear enriched abundant transcript 1 (lncRNA NEAT1) drives the malignant phenotypes of EC cells. However, the role of exosomal NEAT1 from CAFs in EC progression remains ambiguous, which needs to be investigated. In our study, NEAT1 and YKL-40 were up-regulated, while miR-26a/b-5p was down-regulated in EC tissues. Moreover, NEAT1 expression was increased in CAF-exosomes compared with that in NF-exosomes. In addition, the exosomal NEAT1 derived from CAFs could transfer to EC cells and promote YKL-40 expression. Further exploration showed that exosomal NEAT1 enhanced YKL-40 expression via regulating miR-26a/b-5p-STAT3 axis in EC cells. More importantly, exosomal NEAT1 accelerated in vivo tumor growth via miR-26a/b-5p-STAT3-YKL-40 axis. Taken together, our study reveals that exosomal NEAT1 from CAFs contributes to EC progression via miR-26a/b-5p-mediated STAT3/YKL-40 pathway, which indicates the therapeutic potential of exosomal NEAT1 for treating EC.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) contributes to overall tumor progression. In the current survey, we explored the ability of microRNA-20a (miR-20a) within these CAF-derived exosomes to influence non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) progression.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Normal tissue-associated fibroblasts (NAFs) and CAFs were collected from samples of NSCLC patient tumors and paracancerous lung tissues. Exosomes derived from these cells were then characterized via Western blotting, nanoparticle tracking analyses, and transmission electron microscopy. The expression of miR-20a was assessed via qPCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). CCK-8, EdU uptake, and colony formation assessments were used for evaluating tumor proliferation, while Hoechst staining was performed to monitor the in vitro apoptotic death of tumor cells. A model of xenograft tumor established in nude mice was also used to evaluate in vivo tumor responses.<h4>Results</h4>CAF-derived exosomes exhibited miR-20a upregulation and promoted NSCLC cell proliferation and resistance to cisplatin (DDP). Mechanistically, CAF-derived exosomes were discovered to transmit miR-20a to tumor cells wherein it was able to target PTEN to enhance DDP resistance and proliferation. Associated PTEN downregulation following exosome-derived miR-20a treatment enhanced PI3K/AKT pathway activation.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The achieved outcomes explain that CAFs can release miR-20a-containing exosomes capable of promoting NSCLC progression and chemoresistance, highlighting this pathway as a possible therapeutic target in NSCLC.