Elective caesarean section on maternal request prior to 39 gestational weeks and childhood psychopathology: a birth cohort study in China.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The recommendation of non-indicated caesarean section (CS) after 39 gestational weeks has been announced based on evidence of maternal and infant physiological effects. The potential psychological risks have not been acknowledged. This study aims to investigate emotional and behavioral problems in pre-school children born with elective CS (ECS) on maternal request prior to 39?weeks. METHODS:Pregnant women within 12 gestational weeks between November 2008 and October 2010 were invited to participate in the China-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (C-ABCS). They were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire respectively in 1st and 3rd trimester of pregnancy to collect basic maternal characteristics. Pregnant complications and delivery modes were abstracted from medical notes. Their singleton live births were followed up at preschool age. Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires (SDQ) were completed by parents to assess children's emotional and behavioral problems. A total of 3319 mother-child pairs were put into the final analysis. Descriptive analysis and binary logistic regression analysis were used to assess the impact of delivery modes on abnormalities in SDQ dimensions at various gestational ages. RESULTS:The prevalence of ECS on maternal request prior to 39?weeks, at 39-40?weeks, and after 41?weeks was 16.6, 23.7 and 15.9%, respectively. Compared with those born vaginally, children born with ECS on maternal request were more likely to have total difficult problems (RR 1.519, 95% confidence interval 1.077 to 2.142). ECS on maternal request was the independent predictor of emotional problems (3.479, 1.676 to 7.222) and total difficult problems (2.172, 1.175 to 4.016) in children born prior to 39 gestational weeks. CONCLUSION:Children delivered by ECS on maternal request have an increased risk to have emotional and behavioral problems prior to 39 gestational weeks at preschool age. The potential psychological implication prior to 39?weeks has been added to the roster of impacts of ECS on maternal request. Further research is needed to probe the potential biological mechanisms.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>This study aimed to explore the cognitive development of low-risk children during early childhood for early-term births at 37 and 38 weeks of gestation compared with full term births at 39-41 weeks of gestation.<h4>Setting and participants</h4>We conducted a cross-sectional study in Shanghai, one of the largest cities in China. A total of 1444 children from singleton pregnancies born at term gestation were included in the study.<h4>Measures</h4>The cognitive outcomes of the subjects were measured using the cognitive subtest of Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSID-III) across three cities in China. We analysed the association between gestational age and cognitive development during infancy and toddler stages using multivariate linear modelling.<h4>Results</h4>The cognitive development scores for infants born at 37 gestational weeks were significantly lower than those born at 39-41 gestational weeks (?=-2.257, 95%?CI -4.280 to -0.235; p<0.05) after adjusting for children's and maternal characteristics, as well as socio-economic factors. However, there were no significant differences in cognitive ability between infants born at 38 gestational weeks compared with their full-term counterparts (p>0.05). Moreover, these effects were not found in toddlers (between 17 and 48 months of age) after adjusting for the possible confounders (p>0.05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Infants born at 37 weeks of gestation exhibited weaker cognitive ability compared with those born at 39-41 weeks of gestation. Our findings provide evidences for the close monitoring of potential developmental problems in early-term children, especially those born at 37 gestational weeks.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Preterm-born or asphyxiated term-born children who received neonatal intensive care show more emotional and behavioral problems than term-born children without a medical condition. It is uncertain whether regular parenting intervention programs to which the parents of these children are usually referred, are effective in reducing child problem behavior in this specific population. Our objective was to investigate whether a regular, brief parenting intervention, Primary Care Triple P, is effective in decreasing emotional and behavioral problems in preterm-born or asphyxiated term-born preschoolers. METHODS: For this pragmatic, open randomized clinical trial, participants were recruited from a cohort of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care units (NICU) of two Dutch hospitals. Children born with a gestational age <32 weeks or birth weight <1500 g and children born at a gestational age 37-42 weeks with perinatal asphyxia were included. After screening for a t-score ?60 on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), children were randomly assigned to Primary Care Triple P (n = 34) or a wait-list control group (n = 33). The primary outcome was child emotional and behavioral problems reported by parents on the CBCL, 6 months after the start of the trial. RESULTS: There was no effect of the intervention on the CBCL at the trial endpoint (t64 = 0.54, P = .30). On secondary measurements of child problem behavior, parenting style, parenting stress, and parent perceived child vulnerability, groups either did not differ significantly or the intervention group showed more problems. In both the intervention and control group there was a significant decrease in emotional and behavioral problems during the trial. CONCLUSIONS: Primary Care Triple P, a brief parenting intervention, is not effective in reducing child emotional and behavioral problems in preterm-born children or term-born children with perinatal asphyxia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands National Trial Register (NTR): NTR2179.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Surviving children born at 23 gestational weeks are a growing population. As many of these children face developmental challenges during childhood and adolescence, more knowledge is needed about the everyday life of this group. The parental perspective is important, as developmental problems often pose a challenge for the parents. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore mothers' experiences of parenting children born at 23 gestational weeks and of the children's everyday lives.<h4>Methods</h4>This was a qualitative descriptive study conducted with mothers of children born at 23?weeks of gestation. These purposively sampled eight mothers were interviewed using a semi-structured interview. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the interviews.<h4>Results</h4>Seven themes were formed on the basis of the interview data and they are presented in three dimensions: 1) the child seen from maternal perspective included themes 'emphasizing strengths in the midst of challenges', 'relations with peers and siblings', and 'emotional well-being and active life'; 2) the parenting experience included themes 'intensive mothering' and 'gratitude'; 3) the support included themes 'support from the social network' and 'support from society'.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The mothers described how the lives of their children were active and rich. The mothers were dedicated to motherhood and they also expressed feelings of gratitude. Mothers received support from social networks and from society. This qualitative study provided an important complementary perspective to the discussion on extremely premature children's quality of life. It also highlighted the importance of parental perspectives in assessing neonatal care and its outcomes.
Project description:To compare the maternal and neonatal risks of elective repeat cesarean delivery compared with pregnancy continuation at different gestational ages, starting from 37 weeks.We analyzed the composite maternal and neonatal outcomes of repeat cesarean deliveries studied prospectively over 4 years at 19 U.S. centers. Maternal outcome was a composite of pulmonary edema, cesarean hysterectomy, pelvic abscess, thromboembolism, pneumonia, transfusion, or death. Composite neonatal outcome consisted of respiratory distress, transient tachypnea, necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, ventilation, seizure, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, neonatal intensive care unit admission, 5-minute Apgar of 3 or lower, or death. Outcomes after elective repeat cesarean delivery without labor at each specific gestational age were compared with outcomes for all who were delivered later as a result of labor onset, specific obstetric indications, or both.Twenty-three thousand seven hundred ninety-four repeat cesarean deliveries were included. Elective delivery at 37 weeks of gestation had significantly higher risks of adverse maternal outcome (odds ratio [OR] 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-2.31), whereas elective delivery at 39 weeks of gestation was associated with better maternal outcome when compared with pregnancy continuation (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.36-0.72). Elective repeat cesarean deliveries at 37 and 38 weeks of gestation had significantly higher risks of adverse neonatal outcome (37 weeks OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.73-2.36; 38 weeks OR 1.39 95% CI 1.24-1.56), whereas delivery at 39 and 40 weeks of gestation presented better neonatal outcome as opposed to pregnancy continuation (39 weeks OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.68-0.92; 40 weeks OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.43-0.75).In women with prior cesarean delivery, 39 weeks of gestation is the optimal time for repeat cesarean delivery for both mother and neonate.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>Preterm birth has previously been associated with increased risks of hypertension and diabetes, but not ischemic heart disease (IHD), in adulthood. The reasons for this lack of association with IHD despite associations with its risk factors have been elusive, but may be associated with methodologic issues, such as survivor bias, in prior studies.<h4>Objective</h4>To determine whether preterm birth is associated with an increased risk of IHD in adulthood in a large population-based cohort.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>This national, population-based cohort study included all 2 141 709 persons who were born as singleton live births in Sweden during 1973 to 1994. The data were analyzed in September 2018.<h4>Exposures</h4>Gestational age at birth, identified from nationwide birth records in the Swedish Birth Registry.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>Ischemic heart disease that was identified from nationwide inpatient and outpatient diagnoses through 2015 (maximum age, 43 years). A Cox regression was used to examine gestational age at birth in association with IHD in adulthood while adjusting for other perinatal and maternal factors. Cosibling analyses assessed for potential confounding by unmeasured shared familial factors.<h4>Results</h4>Of 2 141 709 participants, 1 041 906 (48.6%) were female and there were 1921 persons (0.09%) who received a diagnosis of IHD in 30.9 million person-years of follow-up. Gestational age at birth was inversely associated with IHD risk in adulthood. At ages 30 to 43 years, adjusted hazard ratios for IHD associated with preterm (gestational age <37 weeks) and early-term birth (37-38 weeks) were 1.53 (95% CI, 1.20-1.94) and 1.19 (1.01-1.40), respectively, compared with full-term birth (39-41 weeks). Preterm-born women had lower IHD incidence than preterm-born men (15.16 vs 22.00 per 100 000 person-years) but had a higher adjusted hazard ratio (1.93; 95% CI, 1.28-2.90 vs 1.37; 95% CI, 1.01-1.84). These associations did not appear to be explained by shared genetic or environmental factors in families.<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>In this large national cohort, preterm and early-term birth were associated with an increased IHD risk in adulthood. Persons born prematurely need early evaluation and preventive actions to reduce the risk of IHD.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The most important knowledge gap in connection with obstetric management for time of delivery in term low-risk pregnancies relates to the absence of information on long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes.<h4>Objectives</h4>We examined risks of stillbirth, infant mortality, cerebral palsy (CP) and epilepsy among low-risk pregnancies.<h4>Methods</h4>In this population-based Swedish study, we identified, from 1998 to 2019, 1,773,269 singleton infants born between 37 and 42 completed weeks in women with low-risk pregnancies. Poisson log-linear regression models were used to examine the association between gestational age at delivery and stillbirth, infant mortality, CP and epilepsy. Adjusted rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals expressing the effect of birth at a particular gestational week compared with birth at a later gestational week were estimated.<h4>Results</h4>Compared with those born at a later gestation, RRs for stillbirth and infant mortality were higher among births at 37 weeks' and 38 weeks' gestation. The RRs for infant mortality were approximately 20% and 25% lower among births at 40 or 41 weeks compared with those born at later gestation, respectively. Infants born at 37 and 38 weeks also had higher RRs for CP (vs infants born at ≥38 and ≥39 weeks, respectively), while those born at 39 gestation had similar RRs (vs infants born at ≥40 weeks); infants born at 40 and 41 weeks had lower RRs of CP (vs those born at ≥41 and 42 weeks, respectively). The RRs for epilepsy were higher in those born at 37 and 38 weeks compared with those born at later gestation.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Among low-risk pregnancies, birth at 37 or 38 completed weeks' gestation is associated with increased risks of stillbirth, infant mortality and neurological morbidity, while birth at 39-40 completed weeks is associated with reduced risks compared with births at later gestation.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Biological modelling of routinely collected newborn screening data has emerged as a novel method for deriving postnatal gestational age estimates. Validation of published models has previously been limited to cohorts largely consisting of infants of white Caucasian ethnicity. In this study, we sought to determine the validity of a published gestational age estimation algorithm among recent immigrants to Canada, where maternal landed immigrant status was used as a surrogate measure of infant ethnicity.<h4>Design</h4>We conducted a retrospective validation study in infants born in Ontario between April 2009 and September 2011.<h4>Setting</h4>Provincial data from Ontario, Canada were obtained from the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences.<h4>Participants</h4>The dataset included 230?034 infants born to non-landed immigrants and 70?098 infants born to immigrant mothers. The five most common countries of maternal origin were India (n=10?038), China (n=7468), Pakistan (n=5824), The Philippines (n=5441) and Vietnam (n=1408). Maternal country of origin was obtained from Citizenship and Immigration Canada's Landed Immigrant Database.<h4>Primary and secondary outcome measures</h4>Performance of a postnatal gestational age algorithm was evaluated across non-immigrant and immigrant populations.<h4>Results</h4>Root mean squared error (RMSE) of 1.05 weeks was observed for infants born to non-immigrant mothers, whereas RMSE ranged from 0.98 to 1.15 weeks among infants born to immigrant mothers. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for distinguishing term versus preterm infants (?37?vs?<37 weeks gestational age or >34?vs ?34 weeks gestational age) was 0.958 and 0.986, respectively, in the non-immigrant subgroup and ranged from 0.927 to 0.964 and 0.966 to 0.99 in the immigrant subgroups.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Algorithms for postnatal determination of gestational age may be further refined by development and validation of region or ethnicity-specific models. However, our results provide reassurance that an algorithm developed from Ontario-born infant cohorts performs well across a range of ethnicities and maternal countries of origin without modification.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate whether labor is associated with lower odds of respiratory morbidity among neonates born from 36 to 40 weeks of gestation and to assess whether this association varies by gestational age and maternal diabetic status. METHODS:We conducted a secondary analysis of women in the Assessment of Perinatal Excellence obstetric cohort who delivered across 25 U.S. hospitals over a 3-year period. Women with a singleton liveborn nonanomalous neonate who delivered from 36 to 40 weeks of gestation were included in our analysis. Those who received antenatal corticosteroids, underwent amniocentesis for fetal lung maturity, or did not meet dating criteria were excluded. Our primary outcome was composite neonatal respiratory morbidity, which included respiratory distress syndrome, ventilator support, continuous positive airway pressure, or neonatal death. Maternal characteristics and neonatal outcomes between women who labored and those who did not were compared. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between labor and the primary outcome. Interactions between labor and diabetes mellitus and labor and gestational age were tested. RESULTS:Our analysis included 63,187 women who underwent labor and 10,629 who did not. There was no interaction between labor and diabetes mellitus (P=.90). However, there was a significant interaction between labor and gestational age (P=.01). In the adjusted model, labor was associated with lower odds of neonatal respiratory morbidity compared with no labor for neonates delivered from 36-39 weeks of gestation. A 1-week increase in gestational age was associated with a 1.2 times increase in the adjusted odds ratio for the neonatal outcome comparing labor and no labor. CONCLUSION:Labor was associated with lower odds of the composite outcome among neonates delivered from 36-39 weeks of gestation. The magnitude of this association varied by gestational age. The association was similar for women with or without diabetes mellitus.
Project description:<h4>Background/objective</h4>Previous studies have consistently demonstrated that maternal weight status both before and during pregnancy is associated with infant birthweight. However, a fundamental limitation across this literature remains that previous studies have not evaluated the concomitant impact of paternal weight at conception, owing to the paucity of studies in which fathers were assessed prior to pregnancy. Thus, we established a cohort of preconception couples to prospectively evaluate the associations of maternal and paternal weight prior to pregnancy with infant birthweight at delivery.<h4>Methods</h4>In this prospective observational cohort study, 1292 newly-married women and their partners in Liuyang, China, were assessed at median of 23.3 weeks before a singleton pregnancy, thereby enabling concomitant assessment of preconception maternal and paternal body mass index (BMI) in relation to infant birthweight.<h4>Results</h4>Mean birthweight was 3294 ± 450 g with 147 neonates (11.4%) born large-for-gestational-age (LGA) and 94 (7.3%) small-for-gestational-age (SGA). After adjustment for maternal and paternal factors prior to conception (age, education, smoking, BMI, household income), length of gestation, total gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and infant sex, it was noted that infant birthweight increased by 42.2 g (95% CI 29.5-54.8; p < 0.0001) per unit increase in maternal pregravid BMI and 10.7 g (95% CI 0.5-20.9; p = 0.04) per unit increase in paternal pregravid BMI. Maternal pregravid BMI explained 6.2% of the variance in birthweight whereas paternal BMI explained only 0.7%. Independent predictors of LGA delivery were maternal pregravid BMI (aOR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.50-2.44), maternal age (aOR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.09-2.00), and gestational weight gain (aOR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.40-2.30). Paternal pregravid BMI was not independently associated with LGA or SGA.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Paternal BMI prior to conception is associated with infant birthweight but only modestly so, in contrast to the dominant impact of maternal weight.
Project description:Measurements of neonatal metabolites are commonly used in newborn screening (NBS) programs to detect inborn errors of metabolism. Variation in these metabolites, particularly in infants born preterm (<37 weeks gestation), can result from multiple etiologies. We sought to evaluate the impact of maternal complications of pregnancy and environmental stressors on NBS metabolites.We examined 49 metabolic biomarkers obtained from routine NBS in 452 infants born preterm for association with maternal environmental stressors and complications of pregnancy.Neonatal free carnitine (C0, p = 1.4 × 10(-7)), acetylcarnitine (C2, p = 2.7 × 10(-7)), octenoylcarnitine (C8:1, p = 5.2 × 10(-11)) and linoleoylcarnitine (C18:2, p = 9.1 × 10(-7)) were elevated in infants born to preeclamptic mothers. Similar elevations were observed in small for gestational age infants and in infants where labor was not initiated prior to delivery. When accounting for all three factors, associations remained strongest between acylcarnitines and preeclampsia.We observed that maternal conditions, particularly preeclampsia, influence NBS biomarkers. This is important for identifying maternal conditions that influence metabolites measured during routine NBS that are also markers of fetal growth and overall health.