Comparison of the binding of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R) antagonist 68Ga-RM2 and 18F-FDG in breast cancer samples.
ABSTRACT: The Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor (GRPR) is over-expressed in estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast tumors and related metastatic lymph nodes offering the opportunity of imaging and therapy of luminal tumors. 68Ga-RM2 binding and 18F-FDG binding in tumoral zones were measured and compared using tissue micro-imaging with a beta imager on 14 breast cancer samples (10 primaries and 4 associated metastatic lymph nodes). Results were then assessed against ER expression, progesterone receptor (PR) expression, HER2 over-expression or not and Ki-67 expression. GRPR immunohistochemistry (IHC) was also performed on all samples. We also retrospectively compared 68Ga-RM2 and 18F-FDG bindings to 18F-FDG SUVmax on the pre-therapeutic PET/CT examination, if available. 68Ga-RM2 binding was significantly higher in tumors expressing GRPR on IHC than in GRPR-negative tumors (P = 0.022). In ER+ tumors, binding of 68Ga-RM2 was significantly higher than 18F-FDG (P = 0.015). In tumors with low Ki-67, 68Ga-RM2 binding was also significantly increased compared to 18F-FDG (P = 0.029). Overall, the binding of 68Ga-RM2 and 18F-FDG displayed an opposite pattern in tumor samples and 68Ga-RM2 binding was significantly higher in tumors that had low 18F-FDG binding (P = 0.021). This inverse correlation was also documented in the few patients in whom a 18F-FDG PET/CT examination before surgery was available. Findings from this in vitro study suggest that GRPR targeting can be an alternative to 18F-FDG imaging in ER+ breast tumors. Moreover, because GRPR antagonists can also be labeled with lutetium-177 this opens new avenues for targeted radionuclide therapy in the subset of patients with progressive metastatic disease following conventional treatments.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Current imaging techniques may not detect all prostate cancer (PCa) lesions. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) using the radiolabeled GRPR antagonist probe BAY86-7548 (68Ga-RM2) for localization of newly diagnosed PCa in comparison with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI), histopathology, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:This was a prospective study of 16 men with biopsy-proven PCa (2 low, 8 intermediate, and 6 high risk). 68Ga-RM2 PET/CT was performed within 4 wk after mpMRI and within 2 wk before radical prostatectomy and extended bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:The presence of cancer was evaluated by blinded specialists using a 5-point Likert scale, with lesions scoring 4 or 5 considered positive, on 68Ga-RM2 PET/CT, mpMRI, and 68Ga-RM2 PET/CT-mpMRI fused images for each of 12 anatomic areas of the prostate. Whole-mount, step-section pathology served as the reference standard. Expression of GRPR and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) was analyzed via IHC of tumor paraffin sections. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS:Of 192 areas analyzed, 128 contained cancer. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 68Ga-RM2 PET/CT imaging and mpMRI did not differ significantly; fusing the images maximized the sensitivity and accuracy (85.2% and 83.9%, respectively) and averaged the specificity (81.3%). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.76 for PET visual analysis, 0.72 for PET quantitative analysis, 0.76 for mpMRI, and 0.85 for combined PET/CT and mpMRI analysis. 68Ga-RM2 uptake did not correlate with Gleason score. IHC analysis revealed weaker staining for GRPR than for PSMA, and the expression of these markers was not correlated (r=0.3882). The major limitation is the small sample size. CONCLUSIONS:68Ga-RM2 PET/CT is promising for detection and localization of primary PCa, and complements mpMRI. GRPR expression appears to be independent from PSMA expression, suggesting that GRPR- and PSMA-targeted PET imaging may be complementary. PATIENT SUMMARY:This pilot prospective study shows that a positron emission tomography probe that binds to a marker of prostate cancer, GRPR, improves the ability of magnetic resonance imaging to detect prostate cancer.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>18F-FDG PET/CT is widely used to evaluate indeterminate pulmonary nodules (IPNs). False positive results occur, especially from active granulomatous nodules. A PET-based imaging agent with superior specificity to 18F-FDG for IPNs, is badly needed, especially in areas of endemic granulomatous nodules. Somatostatin receptors (SSTR) are expressed in many malignant cells including small cell and non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). 68Ga-DOTATATE, a positron emitter labeled somatostatin analog, combined with PET/CT imaging, may improve the diagnosis of IPNs over 18F-FDG by reducing false positives. Our study purpose was to test this hypothesis in our region with high endemic granulomatous IPNs.<h4>Methods</h4>We prospectively performed 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT and 18F-FDG PET/CT scans in the same 30 patients with newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve lung cancer (N = 14) or IPNs (N = 15) and one metastatic nodule. 68Ga-DOTATATE SUVmax levels at or above 1.5 were considered likely malignant. We analyzed the scan results, correlating with ultimate diagnosis via biopsy or 2-year chest CT follow-up. We also correlated 68Ga-DOTATATE uptake with immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for SSTR subtype 2A (SSTR2A) in pathological specimens.<h4>Results</h4>We analyzed 31 lesions in 30 individuals, with 14 (45%) being non-neuroendocrine lung cancers and 1 (3%) being metastatic disease. McNemar's result comparing the two radiopharmaceuticals (p = 0.65) indicates that their accuracy of diagnosis in this indication are equivalent. 68Ga-DOTATATE was more specific (94% compared to 81%) and less sensitive 73% compared to 93%) than 18F-FDG. 68Ga-DOTATATE uptake correlated with SSTR2A expression in tumor stroma determined by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining in 5 of 9 (55%) NSCLCs.<h4>Conclusion</h4>68Ga-DOTATATE and 18F-FDG PET/CT had equivalent accuracy in the diagnosis of non-neuroendocrine lung cancer and 68Ga-DOTATATE was more specific than 18F-FDG for the diagnosis of IPNs. IHC staining for SSTR2A receptor expression correlated with tumor stroma but not tumor cells.
Project description:Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptors (GRPr) are frequently overexpressed in human prostate cancer, and radiolabeled GRPr affinity ligands have shown promise for in vivo imaging of prostate cancer with PET. The goal of this study was to develop a dual-modality imaging probe that can be used for noninvasive PET imaging and optical imaging of prostate cancer.We designed and synthesized an IRDye 650 and DOTA-conjugated GRPr antagonist, HZ220 (DOTA-Lys(IRDye 650)-PEG4-[D-Phe6, Sta13]-BN(6-14)NH2), by reacting DOTA-Lys-PEG4-[D-Phe6, Sta13]-BN(6-14)NH2 (HZ219) with IRDye 650 N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester. Receptor-specific binding of gallium-labeled HZ220 was characterized in PC-3 prostate cancer cells (PC-3), and tumor uptake in mice was imaged with PET/CT and fluorescence imaging. Receptor binding affinity, in vivo tumor uptake, and biodistribution were compared with the GRPr antagonists HZ219, DOTA-PEG4-[D-Phe6, Sta13]-BN(6-14)NH2 (DOTA-AR), and DOTA-(4-amino-1-carboxymethyl-piperidine)-[D-Phe6, Sta13]-BN(6-14)NH2 (DOTA-RM2).After hydrophilic-lipophilic balance cartridge purification, 68Ga-HZ220 was obtained with a radiochemical yield of 56% ± 8% (non-decay-corrected), and the radiochemical purity was greater than 95%. Ga-HZ220 had a lower affinity for GRPr (inhibitory concentration of 50% [IC50], 21.4 ± 7.4 nM) than Ga-DOTA-AR (IC50, 0.48 ± 0.18 nM) or Ga-HZ219 (IC50, 0.69 ± 0.18 nM). Nevertheless, 68Ga-HZ220 had an in vivo tumor accumulation similar to 68Ga-DOTA-AR (4.63 ± 0.31 vs. 4.07 ± 0.29 percentage injected activity per mL [%IA/mL] at 1 h after injection) but lower than that of 68Ga-DOTA-RM2 (10.4 ± 0.4 %IA/mL). The tumor uptake of 68Ga-HZ220 was blocked significantly with an excessive amount of GRP antagonists. IVIS spectrum imaging also visualized PC-3 xenografts in vivo and ex vivo with a high-contrast ratio. Autoradiography and fluorescent-based microscopic imaging with 68Ga-HZ220 consistently colocated the expression of GRPr. 68Ga-HZ220 displayed a higher kidney uptake than both 68Ga-DOTA-AR and 68Ga-DOTA-RM2 (16.9 ± 6.5 vs. 4.48 ± 1.63 vs. 5.01 ± 2.29 %IA/mL).68Ga-HZ220 is a promising bimodal ligand for noninvasive PET imaging and intraoperative optical imaging of GRPr-expressing malignancies. Bimodal nuclear/fluorescence imaging may not only improve cancer detection and guide surgical resections, but also improve our understanding of the uptake of GRPr ligands on the cellular level.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Predicting the aggressive behavior of non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NF-PNET) remains controversial. We wanted to explore, in a prospective setting, whether the diagnostic accuracy can be improved by dual-tracer functional imaging 68Ga-DOTANOC and 18F-FDG-PET/CT in patients with NF-PNETs. METHODS:Thirty-one patients with NF-PNET (90% asymptomatic) underwent PET-imaging with 18F-FDG and 68Ga-DOTANOC, followed by surgery (n = 20), an endoscopic ultrasonography and fine-needle biopsy (n = 2) or follow-up (n = 9). A focal activity on PET/CT greater than the background that could not be identified as physiological activity was considered to indicate tumor tissue. The imaging results were compared to histopathology. The mean follow-up time was 31.3 months. RESULTS:Thirty-one patients presented a total of 53 lesions (40 histologically confirmed) on PET/CT. Thirty patients had a 68Ga-DOTANOC-positive tumor (sensitivity 97%) and 10 patients had an 18F-FDG-positive tumor. In addition, one 68Ga-DOTANOC-negative patient was 18F-FDG-positive. 18F-FDG-PET/CT was positive in 19% (3/16) of the G1 tumors, 63% (5/8) of the G2 tumors and 1/1 of the well-differentiated G3 tumor. 68Ga-DOTANOC-PET/CT was positive in 94% of the G1 tumors, 100% of the G2 tumors and 1/1 of the well-differentiated G3 tumor. Two out of six (33%) of the patients with lymph node metastases (LN+) were 18F-FDG-positive. The 18F-FDG-PET/CT correlated with tumor Ki-67 (P = 0.021). Further, the Krenning score correlated with tumor Ki-67 (P = 0.013). 18F-FDG-positive tumors were significantly larger than the 18F-FDG-negative tumors (P = 0.012). 18F-FDG-PET/CT showed a positive predictive value of 78% in the detection of potentially aggressive tumors (G2, G3, or LN + PNETs); the negative predictive value was 69%. CONCLUSIONS:18F-FDG-PET/CT is useful to predict tumor grade but not the LN+ of NF-PNETs. Patients with 18F-FDG-avid NF-PNETs should be referred for surgery. The 68Ga-DOTANOC-PET/CT also has prognostic value since the Krenning score predicts the histopathological tumor grade. TRIAL REGISTRATION:The study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov; Non-functional Pancreatic NET and PET imaging, NCT02621541.
Project description:Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors (PMTs) are small, typically difficult to localize, and express somatostatin receptors. Recent work suggests imaging studies using 68Gallium (68Ga)-conjugated somatostatin peptide analogues, such as 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)TATE, which enables somatostatin receptor imaging with positron emission tomography (PET), may be useful at identifying these tumors.Our objective was to evaluate the use of 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/computed tomography (CT) for tumor localization in tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO).This was a single-center prospective study of patients with TIO.The study was conducted at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center between February 2014 and February 2015.Eleven subjects (six females, five males) with TIO were included.Subjects underwent 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT in addition to 111In-pentetreotide single-photon emission CT (Octreoscan- SPECT/CT) and fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT (18F FDG-PET/CT) scan.Localization of PMTs on the previously described imaging modalities were determined.The tumor was successfully localized in 6/11 (54.5%) subjects (one was metastatic). The tumor was identified by 68Ga-DOTATATE in all six cases. Both Octreoscan-SPECT/CT and 18F FDG-PET each identified the tumor in 4/6. In no cases was 68Ga-DOTATATE the only imaging study to identify the tumor.In this first prospective study comparing 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT to Octreoscan-SPECT/CT and 18F FDG-PET in TIO localization, 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT demonstrated the greatest sensitivity and specificity, suggesting that it may be the best single study for localization of PMTs in TIO.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Ga-[1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N?,N'?-tetraacetic acid]-d-Phe1,Tyr3-octreotate (DOTATATE) positron emission tomography (PET) is commonly used for the visualization of somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-positive neuroendocrine tumors. SSTR is also known to be expressed on macrophages, which play a major role in inflammatory processes in the walls of coronary arteries and large vessels. Therefore, imaging SSTR expression has the potential to visualize vulnerable plaques. We assessed 68Ga-DOTATATE accumulation in large vessels in comparison to 18F-2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake, calcified plaques (CPs), and cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: Sixteen consecutive patients with neuroendocrine tumors or thyroid cancer underwent both 68Ga-DOTATATE and 18F-FDG PET/CT for staging or restaging purposes. Detailed clinical data, including common cardiovascular risk factors, were recorded. For a separate assessment, they were divided into a high-risk and a low-risk group. In each patient, we calculated the maximum target-to-background ratio (TBR) of eight arterial segments. The correlation of the TBRmean of both tracers with risk factors including plaque burden was assessed. RESULTS: The mean TBR of 68Ga-DOTATATE in all large arteries correlated significantly with the presence of CPs (r?=?0.52; p?<?0.05), hypertension (r?=?0.60; p?<?0.05), age (r?=?0.56; p?<?0.05), and uptake of 18F-FDG (r?=?0.64; p?<?0.01). There was one significant correlation between 18F-FDG uptake and hypertension (0.58; p?<?0.05). Out of the 37 sites with the highest focal 68Ga-DOTATATE uptake, 16 (43.2%) also had focal 18F-FDG uptake. Of 39 sites with the highest 18F-FDG uptake, only 11 (28.2%) had a colocalized 68Ga-DOTATATE accumulation. CONCLUSIONS: In this series of cancer patients, we found a stronger association of increased 68Ga-DOTATATE uptake with known risk factors of cardiovascular disease as compared to 18F-FDG, suggesting a potential role for plaque imaging in large arteries. Strikingly, we found that focal uptake of 68Ga-DOTATATE and 18F-FDG does not colocalize in a significant number of lesions.
Project description:Background: Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PHEO/PGL) are rare neuroendocrine tumors which may cause potentially life-threatening complications, with about a third of cases found to harbor specific gene mutations. Thus, early diagnosis, treatment, and meticulous monitoring are of utmost importance. Because of low incidence of succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (SDHA)-related metastatic PHEO/PGL, currently there exists insufficient clinical information, especially with regards to its diagnostic and treatment characteristics. Methods: Ten patients with SDHA-related metastatic PHEO/PGL were followed-up prospectively and/or retrospectively between January 2010-July 2018. They underwent biochemical tests (n = 10), 123I-MIBG (n = 9) scintigraphy, and multiple whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans with 68Ga-DOTATATE (n = 10), 18F-FDG (n = 10), and 18F-FDOPA (n = 6). Results: Our findings suggest that these tumors can occur early and at extra-adrenal locations, behave aggressively, and have a tendency to develop metastatic disease within a short period of time. None of our patients had a family history of PHEO/PGL, making them appear sporadic. Nine out of 10 patients showed abnormal PHEO/PGL-specific biochemical markers with predominantly noradrenergic and/or dopaminergic phenotype, suggesting their utility in diagnosing and monitoring the disease. Per patient detection rates of 68Ga-DOTATATE (n = 10/10), 18F-FDG (n = 10/10), 18F-FDOPA (n = 5/6) PET/CT, and 123I-MIBG (n = 7/9) scintigraphy were 100, 100, 83.33, and 77.77%, respectively. Five out of 7 123I-MIBG positive patients had minimal 123I-MIBG avidity or detected very few lesions compared to widespread metastatic disease on 18F-FDG PET/CT, implying that diagnosis and treatment with 123/131I-MIBG is not a good option. 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT was found to be superior or equal to 18F-FDG PET/CT in 7 out of 10 patients and hence, is recommended for evaluation and follow-up of these patients. All 7 out of 7 patients who received conventional therapies (chemotherapy, somatostatin analog therapy, radiation therapy, 131I-MIBG, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy) in addition to surgery showed disease progression. Conclusion: In our cohort of patients, SDHA-related metastatic PHEO/PGL followed a disease-course similar to that of SDHB-related metastatic PHEO/PGL, showing highly aggressive behavior, similar imaging and biochemical phenotypes, and suboptimal response to conventional therapies. Therefore, we recommend careful surveillance of the affected patients and a search for effective therapies.
Project description:Tracers triggering ?v?3 integrins, such as certain RGD-containing peptides, were found promising in previous pilot studies characterizing high-grade gliomas. However, only limited comparisons have been performed with current PET tracers. This study aimed at comparing the biodistribution of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) with that of 68Ga-NODAGA-RGD, an easily synthesized monomeric RGD compound with rapid kinetics, in two different rodent models of engrafted human glioblastoma.Nude rodents bearing human U87-MG glioblastoma tumor xenografts in the flank (34 tumors in mice) or in the brain (5 tumors in rats) were analyzed. Kinetics of 68Ga-NODAGA-RGD and of 18F-FDG were compared with PET imaging in the same animals, along with additional autohistoradiographic analyses and blocking tests for 68Ga-NODAGA-RGD.Both tracers showed a primary renal route of clearance, although with faster clearance for 68Ga-NODAGA-RGD resulting in higher activities in the kidneys and bladder. The tumor activity from 68Ga-NODAGA-RGD, likely corresponding to true integrin binding (i.e., suppressed by co-injection of a saturating excess of unlabeled RGD), was found relatively high, but only at the 2nd hour following injection, corresponding on average to 53% of total tumor activity. Tumor uptake of 68Ga-NODAGA-RGD decreased progressively with time, contrary to that of 18F-FDG, although 68Ga-NODAGA-RGD exhibited 3.4 and 3.7-fold higher tumor-to-normal brain ratios on average compared to 18F-FDG in mice and rat models, respectively. Finally, ex-vivo analyses revealed that the tumor areas with high 68Ga-NODAGA-RGD uptake also exhibited the highest rates of cell proliferation and ?v integrin expression, irrespective of cell density.68Ga-NODAGA-RGD has a high potential for PET imaging of glioblastomas, especially for areas with high integrin expression and cell proliferation, although PET recording needs to be delayed until the 2nd hour following injection in order to provide sufficiently high integrin specificity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Inflammation drives atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Although inflammation can be measured using fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([18F]FDG PET), [18F]FDG lacks cell specificity, and coronary imaging is unreliable because of myocardial spillover. OBJECTIVES:This study tested the efficacy of gallium-68-labeled DOTATATE (68Ga-DOTATATE), a somatostatin receptor subtype-2 (SST2)-binding PET tracer, for imaging atherosclerotic inflammation. METHODS:We confirmed 68Ga-DOTATATE binding in macrophages and excised carotid plaques. 68Ga-DOTATATE PET imaging was compared to [18F]FDG PET imaging in 42 patients with atherosclerosis. RESULTS:Target SSTR2 gene expression occurred exclusively in "proinflammatory" M1 macrophages, specific 68Ga-DOTATATE ligand binding to SST2 receptors occurred in CD68-positive macrophage-rich carotid plaque regions, and carotid SSTR2 mRNA was highly correlated with in vivo 68Ga-DOTATATE PET signals (r = 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.28 to 0.99; p = 0.02). 68Ga-DOTATATE mean of maximum tissue-to-blood ratios (mTBRmax) correctly identified culprit versus nonculprit arteries in patients with acute coronary syndrome (median difference: 0.69; interquartile range [IQR]: 0.22 to 1.15; p = 0.008) and transient ischemic attack/stroke (median difference: 0.13; IQR: 0.07 to 0.32; p = 0.003). 68Ga-DOTATATE mTBRmax predicted high-risk coronary computed tomography features (receiver operating characteristics area under the curve [ROC AUC]: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.80 to 0.92; p < 0.0001), and correlated with Framingham risk score (r = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.32 to 0.69; p <0.0001) and [18F]FDG uptake (r = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.64 to 0.81; p < 0.0001). [18F]FDG mTBRmax differentiated culprit from nonculprit carotid lesions (median difference: 0.12; IQR: 0.0 to 0.23; p = 0.008) and high-risk from lower-risk coronary arteries (ROC AUC: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.62 to 0.91; p = 0.002); however, myocardial [18F]FDG spillover rendered coronary [18F]FDG scans uninterpretable in 27 patients (64%). Coronary 68Ga-DOTATATE PET scans were readable in all patients. CONCLUSIONS:We validated 68Ga-DOTATATE PET as a novel marker of atherosclerotic inflammation and confirmed that 68Ga-DOTATATE offers superior coronary imaging, excellent macrophage specificity, and better power to discriminate high-risk versus low-risk coronary lesions than [18F]FDG. (Vascular Inflammation Imaging Using Somatostatin Receptor Positron Emission Tomography [VISION]; NCT02021188).
Project description:C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and somatostatin receptors (SSTR) are overexpressed in gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NET). In this study, we aimed to elucidate the feasibility of non-invasive CXCR4 positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging in GEP-NET patients using [68Ga]Pentixafor in comparison to 68Ga-DOTA-D-Phe-Tyr3-octreotide ([68Ga]DOTATOC) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG). Twelve patients with histologically proven GEP-NET (3xG1, 4xG2, 5xG3) underwent [68Ga]DOTATOC, [18F]FDG, and [68Ga]Pentixafor PET/CT for staging and planning of the therapeutic management. Scans were analyzed on a patient as well as on a lesion basis and compared to immunohistochemical staining patterns of CXCR4 and somatostatin receptors SSTR2a and SSTR5. [68Ga]Pentixafor visualized tumor lesions in 6/12 subjects, whereas [18F]FDG revealed sites of disease in 10/12 and [68Ga]DOTATOC in 11/12 patients, respectively. Regarding sensitivity, SSTR-directed PET was the superior imaging modality in all G1 and G2 NET. CXCR4-directed PET was negative in all G1 NET. In contrast, 50% of G2 and 80% of G3 patients exhibited [68Ga]Pentixafor-positive tumor lesions. Whereas CXCR4 seems to play only a limited role in detecting well-differentiated NET, increasing receptor expression could be non-invasively observed with increasing tumor grade. Thus, [68Ga]Pentixafor PET/CT might serve as non-invasive read-out for evaluating the possibility of CXCR4-directed endoradiotherapy in advanced dedifferentiated SSTR-negative tumors.