Physical and Toxicological Profiles of Human IAPP Amyloids and Plaques.
ABSTRACT: Although much has been learned about the fibrillization kinetics, structure and toxicity of amyloid proteins, the properties of amyloid fibrils beyond the saturation phase are often perceived as chemically and biologically inert, despite evidence suggesting otherwise. To fill this knowledge gap, we examined the physical and biological characteristics of human islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) fibrils that were aged up to two months. Not only did aging decrease the toxicity of IAPP fibrils, but the fibrils also sequestered fresh IAPP and suppressed their toxicity in an embryonic zebrafish model. The mechanical properties of IAPP fibrils in different aging stages were probed by atomic force microscopy and sonication, which displayed comparable stiffness but age-dependent fragmentation, followed by self-assembly of such fragments into the largest lamellar amyloid structures reported to date. The dynamic structural and toxicity profiles of amyloid fibrils and plaques suggest that they play active, long-term roles in cell degeneration and may be a therapeutic target for amyloid diseases.
Project description:Amyloid fibrils generally display chirality, a feature which has rarely been exploited in the development of therapeutics against amyloid diseases. This study reports, for the first time, the use of mesoscopic chiral silica nanoribbons against the in vivo amyloidogenesis of human islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), the peptide whose aggregation is implicated in type 2 diabetes. The thioflavin T assay and transmission electron microscopy show accelerated IAPP fibrillization through elimination of the nucleation phase and shortening of the elongation phase by the nanostructures. Coarse-grained simulations offer complementary molecular insights into the acceleration of amyloid aggregation through their nonspecific binding and directional seeding with the nanostructures. This accelerated IAPP fibrillization translates to reduced toxicity, especially for the right-handed silica nanoribbons, as revealed by cell viability, helium ion microscopy, as well as zebrafish embryo survival, developmental, and behavioral assays. This study has implicated the potential of employing chiral nanotechnologies against the mesoscopic enantioselectivity of amyloid proteins and their associated diseases.
Project description:Understanding how small molecules interface amyloid fibrils on the nanoscale is of importance for developing therapeutic treatment against amyloid-based diseases. Here we show, for the first time, that human islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) in the fibrillar form is polymorphic and ambidextrous possessing multiple periodicities. Upon interfacing with small molecule epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), IAPP aggregation was rendered off pathway assuming the form of soft and disordered clusters, while mature IAPP fibrils displayed kinks and branching but conserved the twisted fibril morphology. These nanoscale phenomena resulted from competitive interactions between EGCG and the IAPP amyloidogenic region, as well as end capping of the fibrils by the small molecule. This information is crucial to delineating IAPP toxicity implicated in type 2 diabetes and developing new inhibitors against amyloidogenesis.
Project description:Islet amyloidosis is characterized by the aberrant accumulation of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) in pancreatic islets, resulting in ? cell toxicity, which exacerbates type 2 diabetes and islet transplant failure. It is not fully clear how IAPP induces cellular stress or how IAPP-induced toxicity can be prevented or treated. We recently defined the properties of toxic IAPP species. Here, we have identified a receptor-mediated mechanism of islet amyloidosis-induced proteotoxicity. In human diabetic pancreas and in cellular and mouse models of islet amyloidosis, increased expression of the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) correlated with human IAPP-induced (h-IAPP-induced) ? cell and islet inflammation, toxicity, and apoptosis. RAGE selectively bound toxic intermediates, but not nontoxic forms of h-IAPP, including amyloid fibrils. The isolated extracellular ligand-binding domains of soluble RAGE (sRAGE) blocked both h-IAPP toxicity and amyloid formation. Inhibition of the interaction between h-IAPP and RAGE by sRAGE, RAGE-blocking antibodies, or genetic RAGE deletion protected pancreatic islets, ? cells, and smooth muscle cells from h-IAPP-induced inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. sRAGE-treated h-IAPP Tg mice were protected from amyloid deposition, loss of ? cell area, ? cell inflammation, stress, apoptosis, and glucose intolerance. These findings establish RAGE as a mediator of IAPP-induced toxicity and suggest that targeting the IAPP/RAGE axis is a potential strategy to mitigate this source of ? cell dysfunction in metabolic disease.
Project description:Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP, amylin) is the major protein component of the islet amyloid deposits associated with type 2 diabetes. The polypeptide lacks a well-defined structure in its monomeric state but readily assembles to form amyloid. Amyloid fibrils formed from IAPP, intermediates generated in the assembly of IAPP amyloid, or both are toxic to ?-cells, suggesting that islet amyloid formation may contribute to the pathology of type 2 diabetes. There are relatively few reported inhibitors of amyloid formation by IAPP. Here we show that the tea-derived flavanol, (-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate [(2R,3R)-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran-3-yl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate] (EGCG), is an effective inhibitor of in vitro IAPP amyloid formation and disaggregates preformed amyloid fibrils derived from IAPP. The compound is thus one of a very small set of molecules which have been shown to disaggregate IAPP amyloid fibrils. Fluorescence-detected thioflavin-T binding assays and transmission electron microscopy confirm that the compound inhibits unseeded amyloid fibril formation as well as disaggregates IAPP amyloid. Seeding studies show that the complex formed by IAPP and EGCG does not seed amyloid formation by IAPP. In this regard, the behavior of IAPP is similar to the reported interactions of A? and ?-synuclein with EGCG. Alamar blue assays and light microscopy indicate that the compound protects cultured rat INS-1 cells against IAPP-induced toxicity. Thus, EGCG offers an interesting lead structure for further development of inhibitors of IAPP amyloid formation and compounds that disaggregate IAPP amyloid.
Project description:Type II diabetes mellitus is associated with the deposition of fibrillar aggregates in pancreatic islets. The major protein component of islet amyloids is the glucomodulatory hormone islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). Islet amyloid fibrils are virtually always associated with several biomolecules, including apolipoprotein E, metals, glycosaminoglycans, and various lipids. IAPP amyloidogenesis has been originally perceived as a self-assembly homogeneous process in which the inherent aggregation propensity of the peptide and its local concentration constitute the major driving forces to fibrillization. However, over the last two decades, numerous studies have shown a prominent role of amyloid cofactors in IAPP fibrillogenesis associated with the etiology of type II diabetes. It is increasingly evident that the biochemical microenvironment in which IAPP amyloid formation occurs and the interactions of the polypeptide with various biomolecules not only modulate the rate and extent of aggregation, but could also remodel the amyloidogenesis process as well as the structure, toxicity, and stability of the resulting fibrils.
Project description:The development of biocompatible nanomaterials has become a new frontier in the detection, treatment and prevention of human amyloid diseases. Here we demonstrated the use of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as a potent inhibitor against the in vivo aggregation and toxicity of human islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), a hallmark of type 2 diabetes. GQDs initiated contact with IAPP through electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions as well as hydrogen bonding, which subsequently drove the peptide fibrillization off-pathway to eliminate the toxic intermediates. Such interactions, probed in vitro by a thioflavin T kinetic assay, fluorescence quenching, circular dichroism spectroscopy, a cell viability assay and in silico by discrete molecular dynamics simulations, translated to a significant recovery of embryonic zebrafish from the damage elicited by IAPP in vivo, as indicated by improved hatching as well as alleviated reactive oxygen species production, abnormality and mortality of the organism. This study points to the potential of using zero-dimensional nanomaterials for in vivo mitigation of a range of amyloidosis.
Project description:Protein aggregation into cytotoxic oligomers and fibrils in vivo is linked to cell degeneration and the pathogenesis of >25 uncurable diseases, whereas the high aggregation propensity and insolubility of several bioactive polypeptides and proteins in vitro prevent their therapeutic use. Aggregation of human islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) into pancreatic amyloid is strongly associated with the pathogenesis of type II diabetes. IAPP is a 37-residue polypeptide that acts as a neuroendocrine regulator of glucose homeostasis. However, IAPP misfolds and self-associates into cytotoxic aggregates and fibrils even at nanomolar concentrations. Because IAPP aggregation causes beta-cell death and prohibits therapeutic application of IAPP in diabetes, we pursued a minimalistic chemical design approach to generate a molecular mimic of a nonamyloidogenic and bioactive IAPP conformation that would still be able to associate with IAPP and thus inhibit its fibrillogenesis and cytotoxicity. We show that the double N-methylated full length IAPP analog [(N-Me)G24, (N-Me)I26]-IAPP (IAPP-GI) is a highly soluble, nonamyloidogenic, and noncytotoxic IAPP molecular mimic and an IAPP receptor agonist. Moreover, IAPP-GI binds IAPP with low nanomolar affinity and completely blocks IAPP cytotoxic self-assembly and fibrillogenesis with activity in the low nanomolar concentration range. Importantly, IAPP-GI dissociates cytotoxic IAPP oligomers and fibrils and is able to reverse their cytotoxicity. Bifunctional soluble IAPP mimics that combine bioactivity with the ability to block and reverse IAPP cytotoxic self-assembly are promising candidates for the treatment of diabetes. Moreover, our amyloid disease inhibitor design concept may be applicable to other protein aggregation diseases.
Project description:Aggregation of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) into amyloid fibrils in islets of Langerhans is associated with type 2 diabetes, and formation of toxic IAPP species is believed to contribute to the loss of insulin-producing beta cells. The BRICHOS domain of integral membrane protein 2B (Bri2), a transmembrane protein expressed in several peripheral tissues and in the brain, has recently been shown to prevent fibril formation and toxicity of A?42, an amyloid-forming peptide in Alzheimer disease. In this study, we demonstrate expression of Bri2 in human islets and in the human beta-cell line EndoC-?H1. Bri2 colocalizes with IAPP intracellularly and is present in amyloid deposits in patients with type 2 diabetes. The BRICHOS domain of Bri2 effectively inhibits fibril formation in vitro and instead redirects IAPP into formation of amorphous aggregates. Reduction of endogenous Bri2 in EndoC-?H1 cells with siRNA increases sensitivity to metabolic stress leading to cell death while a concomitant overexpression of Bri2 BRICHOS is protective. Also, coexpression of IAPP and Bri2 BRICHOS in lateral ventral neurons of Drosophila melanogaster results in an increased cell survival. IAPP is considered to be the most amyloidogenic peptide known, and described findings identify Bri2, or in particular its BRICHOS domain, as an important potential endogenous inhibitor of IAPP aggregation and toxicity, with the potential to be a possible target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Project description:The polypeptide hormone islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) forms islet amyloid in type 2 diabetes, a process which contributes to pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction and death. Not all species form islet amyloid, and the ability to do so correlates with the primary sequence. Humans form islet amyloid, but baboon IAPP has not been studied. The baboon peptide differs from human IAPP at three positions containing K1I, H18R, and A25T substitutions. The K1I substitution is a rare example of a replacement in the N-terminal region of amylin. The effect of this mutation on amyloid formation has not been studied, but it reduces the net charge, and amyloid prediction programs suggest that it should increase amyloidogenicity. The A25T replacement involves a nonconservative substitution in a region of IAPP that is believed to be important for aggregation, but the effects of this replacement have not been examined. The H18R point mutant has been previously shown to reduce aggregation in vitro. Baboon amylin forms amyloid on the same timescale as human amylin in vitro and exhibits similar toxicity toward cultured ?-cells. The K1I replacement in human amylin slightly reduces toxicity, whereas the A25T substitution accelerates amyloid formation and enhances toxicity. Photochemical cross-linking reveals that the baboon amylin, like human amylin, forms low-order oligomers in the lag phase of amyloid formation. Ion-mobility mass spectrometry reveals broadly similar gas phase collisional cross sections for human and baboon amylin monomers and dimers, with some differences in the arrival time distributions. Preamyloid oligomers formed by baboon amylin, but not baboon amylin fibers, are toxic to cultured ?-cells. The toxicity of baboon oligomers and lack of significantly detectable toxicity with exogenously added amyloid fibers is consistent with the hypothesis that preamyloid oligomers are the most toxic species produced during IAPP amyloid formation.
Project description:Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) has become a primary focus of research after the discovery of its strong linkage to Alzheimer's disease (AD), where the ApoE4 variant is the highest genetic risk factor for this disease. ApoE is commonly found in amyloid deposits of different origins, and its interaction with amyloid-? peptide (A?), the hallmark of AD, is well known. However, studies on the interaction of ApoEs with other amyloid-forming proteins are limited. Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is an amyloid-forming peptide linked to the development of type-2 diabetes and has also been shown to be involved in AD pathology and vascular dementia. Here we studied the impact of ApoE on IAPP aggregation and IAPP-induced toxicity on blood vessel pericytes. Using both in vitro and cell-based assays, we show that ApoE efficiently inhibits the amyloid formation of IAPP at highly substoichiometric ratios and that it interferes with both nucleation and elongation. We also show that ApoE protects the pericytes against IAPP-induced toxicity, however, the ApoE4 variant displays the weakest protective potential. Taken together, our results suggest that ApoE has a generic amyloid-interfering property and can be protective against amyloid-induced cytotoxicity, but there is a loss of function for the ApoE4 variant.