Quorum Sensing System of Ruegeria mobilis Rm01 Controls Lipase and Biofilm Formation.
ABSTRACT: Quorum sensing (QS) promotes in situ extracellular enzyme (EE) activity via the exogenous signal N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL), which facilitates marine particle degradation, but the species that engage in this regulatory mechanism remain unclear. Here, we obtained AHL-producing and AHL-degrading strains from marine particles. The strain Ruegeria mobilis Rm01 of the Roseobacter group (RBG), which was capable of both AHL producing and degrading, was chosen to represent these strains. We demonstrated that Rm01 possessed a complex QS network comprising AHL-based QS and quorum quenching (QQ) systems and autoinducer-2 (AI-2) perception system. Rm01 was able to respond to multiple exogenous QS signals through the QS network. By applying self-generated AHLs and non-self-generated AHLs and AI-2 QS signal molecules, we modulated biofilm formation and lipase production in Rm01, which reflected the coordination of bacterial metabolism with that of other species via eavesdropping on exogenous QS signals. These results suggest that R. mobilis might be one of the participators that could regulate EE activities by responding to QS signals in marine particles.
Project description:Gram-negative bacteria utilize N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) as quorum sensing (QS) signaling molecules for intercellular communication. Cell-to-cell communication depends on cell population density, and AHL-dependent QS is related to the production of multiple genes including virulence factors. Quorum quenching (QQ), signal inactivation by enzymatic degradation, is a potential strategy for attenuating QS regulated bacterial infections. Both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria have QQ enzymes that can degrade AHLs. In our previous study, strain Ruegeria mobilis YJ3, isolated from healthy shrimp, showed strong AHLs degradative activity. In the current study, an AHL lactonase (designated RmmL) was cloned and characterized from Ruegeria mobilis YJ3. Amino acid sequence analysis showed that RmmL has a conserved "HXHXDH" motif and clusters together with lactonase AidC that belongs to the metallo-?-lactamase superfamily. Recombinant RmmL could degrade either short- or long-chain AHLs in vitro. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that RmmL works as an AHL lactonase catalyzing AHL ring-opening by hydrolyzing lactones. Furthermore, RmmL can reduce the production of pyocyanin by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, while for the violacein and the extracellular protease activities by Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Vibrio anguillarum VIB72, no significant reduction was observed. This study suggests that RmmL might be used as a therapeutic agent in aquaculture.
Project description:Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) and the corresponding signals, acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), were first described for a luminescent Vibrio species. Since then, detailed knowledge has been gained on the functional level of QS; however, the abundance of AHLs in the family of Vibrionaceae in the environment has remained unclear. Three hundred and one Vibrionaceae strains were collected on a global research cruise and the prevalence and profile of AHL signals in this global collection were determined. AHLs were detected in 32 of the 301 strains using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Chromobacterium violaceum reporter strains. Ethyl acetate extracts of the cultures were analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (MS) with automated tandem MS confirmation for AHLs. N-(3-hydroxy-hexanoyl) (OH-C6) and N-(3-hydroxy-decanoyl) (OH-C10) homoserine lactones were the most common AHLs found in 17 and 12 strains, respectively. Several strains produced a diversity of different AHLs, including N-heptanoyl (C7) HL. AHL-producing Vibrionaceae were found in polar, temperate and tropical waters. The AHL profiles correlated with strain phylogeny based on gene sequence homology, however not with geographical location. In conclusion, a wide range of AHL signals are produced by a number of clades in the Vibrionaceae family and these results will allow future investigations of inter- and intra-species interactions within this cosmopolitan family of marine bacteria.
Project description:<i>N</i>-Acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) and diffusible signal factor (DSF) molecules are two families of widely conserved quorum sensing (QS) signals. Quorum quenching (QQ) via enzymatic inactivation of QS signals is a promising strategy of biocontrol. In the search for biocontrol agent quenching both AHL and DSF signals, it has been recently identified that DSF-quenching biocontrol agent <i>Pseudomonas</i> sp. HS-18 contains at least three genes (<i>aigA</i>, <i>aigB</i>, and <i>aigC</i>) encoding AHL-acylases displaying strong AHL-acylase activities on various AHLs. Among them, AigA and AigC presented broad-spectrum enzyme activity against AHLs, while AigB preferred longer AHLs. Interestingly, transcriptional expression of <i>aigC</i> could be significantly induced by AHL signals. Heterologous expression of <i>aigA</i>-C in <i>Burkholderia cenocepacia</i> and <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> resulted in drastically decreased AHL accumulation, virulence factor production, biofilm formation, motility, and virulence on plants. Significantly, the two types of QQ mechanisms in HS-18 showed a strong and much desired synergistic effect for enhanced biocontrol potency against AHL- and DSF-dependent pathogens.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Bacteria engage in chemical signaling, termed quorum sensing (QS), to mediate intercellular communication, mimicking multicellular organisms. The LuxR family of QS transcription factors regulates gene expression, coordinating population behavior by sensing endogenous acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). However, some bacteria (such as Escherichia coli) do not produce AHLs. These LuxR orphans sense exogenous AHLs but also regulate transcription in the absence of AHLs. Importantly, this AHL-independent regulatory mechanism is still largely unknown. Here we present several structures of one such orphan LuxR-type protein, SdiA, from enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), in the presence and absence of AHL. SdiA is actually not in an apo state without AHL but is regulated by a previously unknown endogenous ligand, 1-octanoyl-rac-glycerol (OCL), which is ubiquitously found throughout the tree of life and serves as an energy source, signaling molecule, and substrate for membrane biogenesis. While exogenous AHL renders to SdiA higher stability and DNA binding affinity, OCL may function as a chemical chaperone placeholder that stabilizes SdiA, allowing for basal activity. Structural comparison between SdiA-AHL and SdiA-OCL complexes provides crucial mechanistic insights into the ligand regulation of AHL-dependent and -independent function of LuxR-type proteins. Importantly, in addition to its contribution to basic science, this work has implications for public health, inasmuch as the SdiA signaling system aids the deadly human pathogen EHEC to adapt to a commensal lifestyle in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of cattle, its main reservoir. These studies open exciting and novel avenues to control shedding of this human pathogen in the environment. IMPORTANCE:Quorum sensing refers to bacterial chemical signaling. The QS acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals are recognized by LuxR-type receptors that regulate gene transcription. However, some bacteria have orphan LuxR-type receptors and do not produce AHLs, sensing them from other bacteria. We solved three structures of the E. coli SdiA orphan, in the presence and absence of AHL. SdiA with no AHL is not in an apo state but is regulated by a previously unknown endogenous ligand, 1-octanoyl-rac-glycerol (OCL). OCL is ubiquitously found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and is a phospholipid precursor for membrane biogenesis and a signaling molecule. While AHL renders to SdiA higher stability and DNA-binding affinity, OCL functions as a chemical chaperone placeholder, stabilizing SdiA and allowing for basal activity. Our studies provide crucial mechanistic insights into the ligand regulation of SdiA activity.
Project description:Despite the discovery of the first N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) based quorum sensing (QS) in the marine environment, relatively little is known about the abundance, nature and diversity of AHL QS systems in this diverse ecosystem. Establishing the prevalence and diversity of AHL QS systems and how they may influence population dynamics within the marine ecosystem, may give a greater insight into the evolution of AHLs as signaling molecules in this important and largely unexplored niche. Microbiome profiling of Stelletta normani and BD1268 sponge samples identified several potential QS active genera. Subsequent biosensor-based screening of a library of 650 marine sponge bacterial isolates identified 10 isolates that could activate at least one of three AHL biosensor strains. Each was further validated and profiled by Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry, with AHLs being detected in 8 out of 10 isolate extracts. Co-culture of QS active isolates with S. normani marine sponge samples led to the isolation of genera such as Pseudomonas and Paenibacillus, both of which were low abundance in the S. normani microbiome. Surprisingly however, addition of AHLs to isolates harvested following co-culture did not measurably affect either growth or biofilm of these strains. Addition of supernatants from QS active strains did however impact significantly on biofilm formation of the marine Bacillus sp. CH8a sporeforming strain suggesting a role for QS systems in moderating the microbe-microbe interaction in marine sponges. Genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of a QS positive Psychrobacter isolate identified several QS associated systems, although no classical QS synthase gene was identified. The stark contrast between the biodiverse sponge microbiome and the relatively limited diversity that was observed on standard culture media, even in the presence of QS active compounds, serves to underscore the extent of diversity that remains to be brought into culture.
Project description:The overall goal of this study was to examine the role of quorum-sensing (QS) signals in a multispecies microbial community. Toward this aim, we studied QS signals produced by an indigenous member and an invading pathogen of the microbial community of the cabbage white butterfly (CWB) larval midgut (Pieris rapae). As an initial step, we characterized the QS system in Pantoea CWB304, which was isolated from the larval midgut. A luxI homolog, designated panI, is necessary for the production of N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) by Pantoea CWB304. To determine whether AHL signals are exchanged in the alkaline environment of the midgut, we constructed AHL-sensing bioluminescent reporter strains in Pantoea CWB304 and a panI mutant of this strain. In the gut of the CWB larvae, the reporter in an AHL-deficient Pantoea CWB304 detected AHLs when coinoculated with the wild type. To study the role of AHL signals produced by a community invader, we examined pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 in CWB larvae. Mortality induced by P. aeruginosa PAO1 was significantly reduced when signaling was interrupted by either a potent chemical inhibitor of QS or mutations in the lasI and rhlI AHL synthases of P. aeruginosa PAO1. These results show that AHLs are exchanged among bacteria in the alkaline gut of CWB larvae and contribute to disease caused by P. aeruginosa PAO1.
Project description:Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-to-cell communication system based on the exchange of small intercellular signal molecules, such as N-Acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), which act as cell-density mediators of QS gene expression, and are highly variable both in types and amounts in most Gram-negative Proteobacteria. Understanding the regulation of AHLs may contribute to the elucidation of cell density-dependent phenomena, such as biofilm formation. <i>Vibrio alginolyticus</i> is among the most frequently observed marine opportunistic <i>Vibrio</i> pathogens. However, AHL production of this species and its effects on biofilm formation remain to be understood. Here, our study reported the diverse AHL profiles of 47 marine-isolated <i>V. alginolyticus</i> strains and the effects of exogenous 3-oxo-C<sub>10</sub>-HSL on biofilm formation under different temperature conditions (16°C and 28°C). A total of 11 detected AHLs were produced by the isolates, of which 3-OH-C<sub>4</sub>-HSL, 3-oxo-C<sub>10</sub>-HSL and 3-oxo-C<sub>14</sub>-HSL comprised the largest proportions. We also observed that moderate levels of exogenous 3-oxo-C<sub>10</sub>-HSL (10 and 20 ?M) could induce or enhance biofilm formation and alter its structure, while high levels (40 and 100 ?M) did not significantly improve and even inhibited biofilm formation in <i>V. alginolyticus</i>. Further, regulation by exogenous 3-oxo-C<sub>10</sub>-HSL was both concentration- and temperature-dependent in <i>V. alginolyticus</i>.
Project description:Bacteria express certain of their characteristics especially, pathogenicity factors at high cell densities. The process is termed as quorum sensing (QS). QS operates via signal molecules such as acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). Other bacteria inhibit QS through the inactivation of AHL signals by producing enzymes like AHL-lactonases and -acylases. Comparative genomic analysis has revealed the multiplicity of genes for AHL lactonases (up to 12 copies per genome) among Bacillus spp. and that of AHL-acylases (up to 5 copies per genome) among Pseudomonas spp. This genetic evolution can be envisaged to enable host to withstand the attacks from bacterial population, which regulates its functioning through QS.
Project description:Quorum quenching (QQ) is a promising strategy for preventing and controlling quorum sensing (QS)-mediated bacterial infections. It interferes with QS by the inhibition of signal synthesis, the detection of enzyme-catalyzed degradation, and the modification of signals. N-Acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) represent a family of widely conserved QS signals involved in the regulation of virulence factor production in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. In this study, AHL-degrading bacterial strains were isolated, and the most efficient one was evaluated for its potential against QS-mediated pathogens. Results showed that an AHL-degrading bacteria Ochrobactrum intermedium D-2 effectively attenuated maceration produced by the pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc) on radish and potato slices. Strain D-2 exhibited a superior AHL degradation activity and efficiently degraded various AHLs, including N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6HSL), N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3OC6HSL), N-(3-oxooctanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3OC8HSL), and N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3OC12HSL). Analysis of the degradation products of AHL by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of N-cyclohexyl-propanamide and propanamide as the main intermediate products, suggesting that AHL was degraded by hydrolysis. Annotation and analysis of the whole genome sequence of strain D-2 revealed the presence of an AHL-lactonase, termed AidF. Moreover, the application of strain D-2 was able to substantially reduce the disease severity caused by Pcc on host plants. These results reveal the biochemical basis of a highly efficient AHL-degrading bacterial isolate and present the potential to attenuate Pcc virulence through QQ.
Project description:Many bacteria use quorum sensing (QS) as an intercellular signaling mechanism to regulate gene expression in local populations. Plant and algal hosts, in turn, secrete compounds that mimic bacterial QS signals, allowing these hosts to manipulate QS-regulated gene expression in bacteria. Lumichrome, a derivative of the vitamin riboflavin, was purified and chemically identified from culture filtrates of the alga Chlamydomonas as a QS signal-mimic compound capable of stimulating the Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasR QS receptor. LasR normally recognizes the N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signal, N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl homoserine lactone. Authentic lumichrome and riboflavin stimulated the LasR receptor in bioassays and lumichrome activated LasR in gel shift experiments. Amino acid substitutions in LasR residues required for AHL binding altered responses to both AHLs and lumichrome or riboflavin. These results and docking studies indicate that the AHL binding pocket of LasR recognizes both AHLs and the structurally dissimilar lumichrome or riboflavin. Bacteria, plants, and algae commonly secrete riboflavin or lumichrome, raising the possibility that these compounds could serve as either QS signals or as interkingdom signal mimics capable of manipulating QS in bacteria with a LasR-like receptor.