Cardiopulmonary remodeling in fattened beef cattle: a naturally occurring large animal model of obesity-associated pulmonary hypertension with left heart disease.
ABSTRACT: The obesity epidemic in developed societies has led to increased cardiovascular diseases including pulmonary hypertension associated with left heart disease (PH-LHD), the largest and fastest-growing class of PH. Similar to obese humans, PH and heart failure (HF) are increasingly recognized in North American fattened beef cattle. We hypothesized that PH and HF in fattened beef cattle are novel, phenotypically distinct manifestations of bovine PH arising from left ventricular (LV) dysfunction similar to obesity-related PH-LHD in humans. We conducted a semi-quantitative histopathological assessment of cardiopulmonary tissues obtained from fattened beef cattle suffering end-stage HF compared to asymptomatic cattle of equivalent age undergoing the same fattening regimens. In HF animals we observed significant LV fibrosis, abundant cardiac adipose depots, coronary artery injury, and pulmonary venous remodeling recapitulating human obesity-related PH-LHD. Additionally, striking muscularization, medial hypertrophy, adventitial fibrosis, and vasa vasorum hyperplasia in the pulmonary arterial circulation were associated with sequela of pathologic right ventricular (RV) remodeling suggesting combined pulmonary venous and arterial hypertension. The association between obesity, pathologic cardiopulmonary remodeling, and HF in fattened beef cattle appears to recapitulate the complex pathophysiology of obesity-associated PH-LHD in humans. This novel, naturally occurring, and large animal model may provide mechanistic and translational insights into human disease.
Project description:In patients with left ventricular heart failure (HF), the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction are frequent and have important impact on disease progression, morbidity, and mortality, and therefore warrant clinical attention. Pulmonary hypertension related to left heart disease (LHD) by far represents the most common form of PH, accounting for 65-80% of cases. The proper distinction between pulmonary arterial hypertension and PH-LHD may be challenging, yet it has direct therapeutic consequences. Despite recent advances in the pathophysiological understanding and clinical assessment, and adjustments in the haemodynamic definitions and classification of PH-LHD, the haemodynamic interrelations in combined post- and pre-capillary PH are complex, definitions and prognostic significance of haemodynamic variables characterizing the degree of pre-capillary PH in LHD remain suboptimal, and there are currently no evidence-based recommendations for the management of PH-LHD. Here, we highlight the prevalence and significance of PH and RV dysfunction in patients with both HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and provide insights into the complex pathophysiology of cardiopulmonary interaction in LHD, which may lead to the evolution from a 'left ventricular phenotype' to a 'right ventricular phenotype' across the natural history of HF. Furthermore, we propose to better define the individual phenotype of PH by integrating the clinical context, non-invasive assessment, and invasive haemodynamic variables in a structured diagnostic work-up. Finally, we challenge current definitions and diagnostic short falls, and discuss gaps in evidence, therapeutic options and the necessity for future developments in this context.
Project description:Pulmonary hypertension in left heart disease (PH-LHD) commonly complicates prolonged heart failure (HF). When advanced, the PH becomes fixed or out of proportion and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing orthotopic heart transplant (OHT). To date, the only recommended treatment of out of proportion PH is the treatment of the underlying HF by reducing the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) with medications and often along with use of mechanical circulatory support. Medical therapies typically used in the treatment of World Health Organization (WHO) group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have been employed off-label in the setting of PH-LHD with varying efficacy and often negative outcomes. We will discuss the current standard of care including treating HF and use of mechanical circulatory support. In addition, we will review the studies published to date assessing the efficacy and safety of PAH medications in patients with PH-LHD being considered for OHT.
Project description:The most common cause of pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to left heart disease (LHD) was previously rheumatic mitral valve disease. However, with the disappearance of rheumatic fever and an aging population, nonvalvular LHD is now the most common cause of group 2 PH in the developed world. In this review, we examine the challenge of investigating patients who have PH and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HF-pEF), where differentiating between pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and PH-LHD can be difficult, and also discuss the entity of combined precapillary and postcapillary PH. Given the proven efficacy of targeted therapy for the treatment of PAH, there is increasing interest in whether these treatments may benefit selected patients with PH associated with HF-pEF, and we review current trial data.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The prevalence of heart failure (HF) is rising with ageing population and constitutes a major health problem globally. A common complication of HF is pulmonary hypertension (PH) which negatively impacts survival. A pathophysiological association between HF and PH with tumorigenic processes has been suggested. We aimed to identify the plasma levels of, and the association between tumour-related proteins and hemodynamic improvements in patients with HF and PH due to left heart disease (LHD) before and 1-year after heart transplantation (HT). METHODS:Forty-eight tumour-related proteins were measured with proximity extension assay in plasma from 20 controls and 26 HF patients before and 1-year after HT. Patients' hemodynamics were measured with right heart catheterization. RESULTS:Out of 48 proteins, specifically, plasma levels of endocan and brother of CDO (BOC) were elevated in end-stage HF patients compared to controls (p?<?0.001), but decreased after HT (p?<?0.01), towards controls' levels. The decrease of endocan levels after HT correlated with improved mean pulmonary arterial pressure (rs?=?0.80, p?<?0.0001), pulmonary arterial wedge pressure (rs?=?0.63, p?=?0.0012), and pulmonary vascular resistance (rs?=?0.70, p?<?0.001). The decrease and normalization of BOC after HT correlated with decreased mean right atrial pressure (rs?=?0.61 p?=?0.0015) and NT-proBNP (rs?=?0.57, p?=?0.0022), as well as increased cardiac index (rs?=?-?0.51, p?=?0.0086) and left-ventricular stroke work index (rs?=?-?0.57, p?=?0.0039). CONCLUSION:Our results suggest that (i) plasma endocan in HF may reflect the state of pulmonary vascular congestion and PH-LHD, whereas (ii) plasma BOC may reflect the cardiac function and the hemodynamic overload in HF. The exact role of these proteins and their clinical applicability as biomarkers in HF and PH-LHD ought to be investigated in larger cohorts.
Project description:Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease (PH-LHD) is a momentous pulmonary hypertension disease, and left heart disease is the most familiar cause. Mechanical stretching may be a crucial cause of vascular remodeling. While, the underlining mechanism of mechanical stretching-induced in remodeling of pulmonary vein in the early stage of PH-LHD has not been completely elucidated. In our study, the PH-LHD model rats were successfully constructed. After 25 days, doppler echocardiography and hemodynamic examination were performed. In addition, after treatment, the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) were determined by ELISA, immunohistochemistry and western blot assays in the pulmonary veins. Moreover, the pathological change of pulmonary tissues was evaluated by H&E staining. Our results uncovered that left ventricular insufficiency and interventricular septal shift could be observed in PH-LHD model rats, and the right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and mean left atrial pressure (mLAP) were also elevated in PH-LHD model rats. Meanwhile, we found that MMP-9 and TGF-?1 could be highly expressed in PH-LHD model rats. Besides, we revealed that stretch-activated channel (SAC)/mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathway could be involved in the upregulations of MMP-9 and TGF-?1 mediated by mechanical stretching in pulmonary vein. Therefore, current research revealed that mechanical stretching induced the increasing expressions of MMP-9 and TGF-?1 in pulmonary vein, which could be mediated by activation of SAC/MAPKs signaling pathway in the early stage of PH-LHD.
Project description:Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a potentially fatal condition with a prevalence of around 1% in the world population and most commonly caused by left heart disease (PH-LHD). Usually, in PH-LHD, the increase of pulmonary pressure is only conditioned by the retrograde transmission of the left atrial pressure. However, in some cases, the long-term retrograde pressure overload may trigger complex and irreversible biomechanical and biological changes in the pulmonary vasculature. This latter clinical entity, designated as combined pre- and post-capillary PH, is associated with very poor outcomes. The underlying mechanisms of this progression are poorly understood, and most of the current knowledge comes from the field of Group 1-PAH. Treatment is also an unsolved issue in patients with PH-LHD. Targeting the molecular pathways that regulate pulmonary hemodynamics and vascular remodeling has provided excellent results in other forms of PH but has a neutral or detrimental result in patients with PH-LHD. Therefore, a deep and comprehensive biological characterization of PH-LHD is essential to improve the diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of patients and, eventually, identify new therapeutic targets. Ongoing research is aimed at identify candidate genes, variants, non-coding RNAs, and other biomarkers with potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art cellular, molecular, genetic, and epigenetic mechanisms potentially involved in PH-LHD. Signaling and effective pathways are particularly emphasized, as well as the current knowledge on -omic biomarkers. Our final aim is to provide readers with the biological foundations on which to ground both clinical and pre-clinical research in the field of PH-LHD.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study sought to evaluate if diastolic pulmonary gradient (DPG) can predict survival in patients with pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease (PH-LHD). BACKGROUND:Patients with combined post- and pre-capillary PH-LHD have worse prognosis than those with passive pulmonary hypertension. The transpulmonary gradient (TPG) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) have commonly been used to identify high-risk patients. However, these parameters have significant shortcomings and do not always correlate with pulmonary vasculature remodeling. Recently, it has been suggested that DPG may be better a marker, yet its prognostic ability in patients with cardiomyopathy has not been fully assessed. METHODS:A retrospective cohort of 1,236 patients evaluated for unexplained cardiomyopathy at Johns Hopkins Hospital was studied. All patients underwent right heart catheterization and were followed until death, cardiac transplantation, or the end of the study period (mean time 4.4 years). The relationships between DPG, TPG, or PVR and survival in subjects with PH-LHD (n = 469) were evaluated with Cox proportional hazards regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses. RESULTS:DPG was not significantly associated with mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.02, p = 0.10) in PH-LHD whereas elevated TPG and PVR predicted death (HR: 1.02, p = 0.046; and HR: 1.11, p = 0.002, respectively). Similarly, DPG did not differentiate survivors from non-survivors at any selected cut points including a DPG of 7 mm Hg. CONCLUSIONS:In this retrospective study of patients with cardiomyopathy and PH-LHD, an elevated DPG was not associated with worse survival.
Project description:Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease (PH-LHD; Group 2), especially in the setting of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), is the most frequent cause of PH. Despite its prevalence, no effective therapies for PH-LHD are available at present. This is largely due to the lack of a concise definition for hemodynamic phenotyping, existence of significant gaps in the understanding of the underlying pathology and the impact of associated comorbidities, as well as the absence of specific biomarkers that can aid in the early diagnosis and management of this challenging syndrome. Currently, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) are guideline-recommended biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of heart failure (HF) and PH. Endothelin-1 (ET-1), vascular endothelial growth factor-D (VEGF-D), and microRNA-206 have also been recently identified as new potential circulating biomarkers for patients with PH-LHD. In this review, we aim to present the current state of knowledge of circulating biomarkers that can be used to guide future research toward diagnosis, refine specific patient phenotype, and develop therapeutic approaches for PH-LHD, with a particular focus on PH-HFpEF. Potential circulating biomarkers identified in pre-clinical models of PH-LHD are also summarized here.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We hypothesized that pulmonary venous hypertension in heart failure (HF) leads to predominate remodeling of pulmonary veins and that the severity of venous remodeling is associated with the severity of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in HF. METHODS:Patients with HF (n=108; 53 preserved and 55 reduced ejection fraction) with PH (HF-PH; pulmonary artery systolic pressure [PASP] ?40 mm?Hg) were compared to normal controls (n=12) and patients with primary pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD; n=17). In lung specimens from autopsy (control, HF-PH, and 7 PVOD) or surgery (10 PVOD), quantitative histomorphometry was performed in all analyzable arteries (n=4949), veins (n=7630), and small indeterminate vessels (IV; n=2168) to define percent medial thickness (arteries) and percent intimal thickness (%IT) (arteries, veins, and IV) relative to external diameter. RESULTS:The average arterial percent medial thickness (control, 6.9; HF-PH, 11.0; PVOD, 15.0), arterial %IT (control, 4.9; HF-PH, 14.9; PVOD, 31.1), venous %IT (control, 14.0; HF-PH, 24.9; PVOD, 43.9), and IV %IT (control, 10.6; HF-PH, 25.8; PVOD, 50.0) in HF-PH were higher than controls (P<0.0001 for all) but lower than PVOD (P?0.005 for all). PASP (mm?Hg) was lower in HF-PH (median, 59 [interquartile range, 50-70]) than in PVOD (median, 91 [interquartile range, 82-103]). PASP correlated with arterial percent medial thickness (r=0.41) and arterial %IT (r=0.35) but more strongly with venous %IT (r=0.49) and IV %IT (r=0.55) (P<0.0001 for all). Associations between PASP and venous or IV %IT remained significant after adjusting for arterial percent medial thickness and %IT and did not vary by HF type. In patients with right heart catheterization (30 HF-PH, 14 PVOD), similar associations between the transpulmonary gradient and pulmonary vascular remodeling existed, with numerically stronger associations for venous and IV %IT. Although the PASP was slightly higher in patients with HF-PH with right ventricular dysfunction, pulmonary vascular remodeling was not more severe. Pulmonary vascular remodeling severity was associated with reductions in the diffusing capacity of the lungs. CONCLUSIONS:In HF, PH is associated with global pulmonary vascular remodeling, but the severity of PH correlates most strongly with venous and small IV intimal thickening, similar to the pattern observed in PVOD. These findings expand our understanding of the pathobiology of PH in HF.
Project description:Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is frequent in left heart disease (LHD), as a consequence of the underlying condition. Significant advances have occurred over the past 5?years since the 5th World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension in 2013, leading to a better understanding of PH-LHD, challenges and gaps in evidence. PH in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction represents the most complex situation, as it may be misdiagnosed with group 1 PH. Based on the latest evidence, we propose a new haemodynamic definition for PH due to LHD and a three-step pragmatic approach to differential diagnosis. This includes the identification of a specific "left heart" phenotype and a non-invasive probability of PH-LHD. Invasive confirmation of PH-LHD is based on the accurate measurement of pulmonary arterial wedge pressure and, in patients with high probability, provocative testing to clarify the diagnosis. Finally, recent clinical trials did not demonstrate a benefit in treating PH due to LHD with pulmonary arterial hypertension-approved therapies.